فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue:6, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/10/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 4
|
  • Sajad Bayat*, Hassan Pirani, Sobhan Mohamadi Pages 166-178
    In many regions, due to freshwater scarcity, municipal wastewater (MWW) is used for crop irrigation. However, heavy metals can be transferred to human and pose diseases. Therefore, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design for cress, radish, spinach and turnip irrigated with MWW to determine heavy metals transfer factor (TF), pollution factor as single (PF) and comprehensive (Pn), daily intake of metals (DIM), health risk index (HRI) and the influence of peeling tuber vegetables on these indices. Five wastewater treatments were applied comprising (1) control, (2) 25% MWW + 75% control, (3) 50% MWW + 50% control, (4) 75% MWW + 25% control, and (5) 100% MWW. PFs were Pb (0.85 – 8.35), Cd (0.76 – 15.32), Zn (0.79 – 10.68) and Cu (0.83 – 9.76) for all vegetable’s soil. Obtained Pn values for Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in all soils were 1.03-15.46. Among vegetables, turnip showed the highest TF, DIM and HRI for Cd compared to other metals. Peeling significantly declined Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations by 20.71, 22.22, 21.16 and 19.30% in radish and 20.39, 22.00, 20.46 and 20.93% in turnip compared to unpeeled forms. It decreased HRI of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu in adults respectively from 0.25-3.11, 0.11-2.20, 0.01-0.14 and 0.09-1.09, to 0.20-2.48, 0.08-1.74, 0.01-0.11 and 0.07-0.87. Regarding children this index was declined from 0.29-3.57, 0.12-2.53, 0.01-0.16 and 0.10-1.25 respectively to 0.23-2.85, 0.09-2.00, 0.01-0.13 and 0.08-1.00. Therefore, peeling is an efficient way to decrease health risk and transfer of heavy metals to human body.
    Keywords: Daily intake, Health risk, Heavy metals, Pollution indices, Transfer factor
  • Keshav Prasad Shrestha*, Jiban Shrestha Pages 179-189
    A value chain is a set of linked activities that work to add value to a product. The study on value chain analysis of large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb) was conducted in Ilam District, Nepal during May-August, 2017. The farmers, input suppliers, traders and concerend officials were key actors of this research. The 30 farmers, 10 input suppliers and 15 traders were selected randomly. The findings showed that area of large cardamom and its production are in decreasing trend. Majority of farmers were using suckers detached from mother rhizomes as planting materials which was main cause of disease transmission. Farmers used traditional dryer (Bhatti) for the curing, that reduced the quality of large cardamom. Farmers were not undertaking value addition like tail removing, grading and packaging which was performed at trader level. The price trend showed that the average price was higher in 2013/14, it was found highly fluctuating. Financial analysis revealed that enterprise was highly profitable. Key problems facing by growers and traders were high price fluctuation, lack of disease free saplings, dependency on Indian market, very old orchard, declining productivity, drying out water resources, adulteration, lack of research and extension support services, lack of favorable government policy and least coordination among the chain actors. So, it is necessary to maintain strong vertical and horizontal integration among the value chain actors to increase value chain efficiency of large cardamom. The government should formulate farmers friendly Large Cardamom Development Policy and implement it for better quality production and marketing.
    Keywords: Fluctuation, Large cardamom, Price information, Value addition, Value Chain
  • Momraz Ali . Nasir Hossain Sani*, Most. Arifunnahar, F.M. Aminuzzaman, M.A.U. Mridha Pages 190-196
    A reduction of the agrochemicals input along with selecting suitable cultivars and species is imperative to increase the sustainability of crop production. The influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) on seedling emergence growth, nutrient uptake and disease incidence of some selected vegetables viz. Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), Brinjal (Solanum melongena), Chilli (Capsicum frutescens) and Data (Amaranthus oleraceus) has been evaluated. The results showed that AMF inoculation could increase almost all growth parameters. The seedling emergence, plant height, length and weight of root and shoot of mycorrhiza inoculated vegetables were comparatively higher than that of non-inoculated control plants. The mycorrhizal inoculation suppressed root rot, damping off and leaf spot disease of Okra, Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli and Data almost to half extent. Meanwhile, an increased nutrient (N, P, K, Fe, and Zn) uptake was recorded with the inoculated plants. Among the inoculated vegetables, comparatively higher N, P, and K uptake were observed in Okra and Brinjal whereas Zn and Fe uptake was found higher in Okra and Data respectively. Therefore, for sustainable vegetable production, introducing bio-fertilizer by using arbuscular mycorrhiza inoculation would be one of the most efficient techniques for replacing chemical fertilizer to meet the nutrient deficiency in nutrient deficient soils.
    Keywords: AMF inoculation, bio-fertilizer, growth, nutrient uptake, vegetables
  • Lamia Vojodi Mehrabani *, Rana Valizadeh Kamran Pages 197-202
    In order to study the effects of Dekap (0, 1, 2 and 3 L ha-1) foliar applications on some physiological and morphological treats of Cucurbita pepo an experiment was conducted based on Randomized Complete Block Design at Azerbaijan Shahid Madani University Research Farm. The result showed that the foliar application had significant effects on plant length, number of auxiliary branches, leaf number, number of female flower, total number of fruit, fruit diameter, fruit fresh weight, intact fruit number, fruit yield, number of intact and immature seeds in fruits and oil percent. The highest number of auxiliary branches, plant height, leaf number per plant and the highest data for oil percent, seed length, fruit fresh weight and fruit diameter were recorded at 1 and 2 L ha-1 foliar application. The highest data for intact seed number was recorded at 1 L ha-1 foliar application but, the highest number of immature seeds were recorded at 2 and 3 L ha-1 foliar application. The highest data for female flower number and total number of fruits per plant were recorded at 1 L ha-1 treatment. The treatment used in this experiment had not significant effects on protein content, seed dry weight, leaf dry weight, potassium and phosphor concentrations. Considering the fact that, in the present experiment there was no significant difference between 1 and 2 L ha-1 of Dekap foliar applications in some of the evaluated traits, so, we can claim that 1 L ha-1 Dekap foliar application can be recommended for the extension section.
    Keywords: Cucurbita pepo L., Growth, Oil content, Yield