فهرست مطالب

اقتصاد و جامعه - پیاپی 33 (تابستان 1396)
  • پیاپی 33 (تابستان 1396)
  • ویژه نامه بررسی اقتصاد آب در ایران
  • 224 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
|
  • Seyed Hasan Kazemi*, Ramezan Ali Zabihi Afroozi Pages 11-37

    The drying up of Lake Urmia caused many challenges in northwest of Iran. The impact of this disappearance will have negative influences on climate status, water resources, biodiversity and natural environment of the lake, economy, livelihoods and public health of the region. Natural and human factors and Decades of unbalanced and unstable development caused the current conditions in the lake. The study aims to present a documented picture of the human and natural factors changes associated with and effective in the Lake Urmia. Therefore, the study addresses the factors including, “precipitation”, "agricultural cropping area", and “demographic changes”, “Construction of dams and illegal use of underground water”. The results show that in recent decades the level of crop cultivation of agricultural crops (crops and gardens) in the plains located in the lake of Urmia has decreased by more than 10 thousand hectares. Therefore, the increase of level of cropping should not be considered as the main factor in the drying of Lake Urmia. Demographical changes increase demand for drinking water, welfare and health. The population in the basin of Lake Urmia increased 14 percent in recent decades. The rate of urban population to total population was 68 percent in 2006, but increased by 5% in 2016 to 73%. One of the barriers and controlling factor of the water flaw into the lake is dam construction. The number of dams in the Urmia basin has increased and, in total, 104 dams with the ability to adjust 3949 cubic meter of water is exploited or under study or construction. The rule of law should be considered as the other important factor in water flaw management of the lake. Investigating the exploitation license, as a law enforcement tool in the exploitation of groundwater resources, suggests that about 66 percent of the agricultural wells in the area lacking a license or exploitation license are unclear. In the last 15 years (2003-2018), precipitation as the primary natural factor to feed the lake and the humidity of the region, compared to a long-term, decline of 2.4%. During the same period, the precipitation dropped to 192 mm, which is significantly different from that of 2013 (543 mm). Temperature, the other natural factor affecting the lake Uremia region, has increased significantly in recent years at around 1.8 ° C over the long run, which rank the basin the second among the other 30 basins. As temperature increases the process of evaporation and transpiration goes up accordingly which causes draught in more than 97 percent of the basin.

    Keywords: agriculture development, draught, climate, dam, well, population
  • Hojat Mian Abadi Pages 39-55

    One of the primary challenges that will affect different sectors of policy making and development is water. Water resources and incoming waters originating outside the country are of major security concerns of the country. Furthermore, eastern and western regions are facing significant challenges due to water blocking and dam construction on jointed rivers by some neighboring countries including turkey and Afghanistan. In order to manage the challenge, it is essential to study the legal and hydropolitical status of the rivers and shared border water resources. Therefore, we will study two aspects of the status of water resources and shared international rivers: a) the hydropolitical and international law; b) opportunities and challenges facing the country.

    Keywords: hydropolitic, international water law, Transboundary Rivers, Shared Water Resources
  • Mohammad Reza Bakhshi*, Mojtaba Palouj** Pages 57-80

    Statistics and information, as a tool for decision-making and planning, are one of the main elements of quality decision making. Poor information leads to poor decisions, inefficient processes, waste of valuable resources and failures in the future. In the same vein, efficient management of water resources requires adequate and sufficient understanding of the resources which, by itself, requires accurate, precise and appropriate data-gathering practices. The present study aims to provide an analysis of the statistics and information concerning agricultural wells. This study is a descriptive-analytical one and was conducted in 2018. The information and statistics were produced by the Ministry of Energy and the Iran Water Resources Management Company. In this research, an attempt has been made to draw a picture of the conditions of wells, and offer statistics and information with a focus on the process and methods for their formulation, along with an analysis of several cases. Considering the role of highly-productive
    4 wells in operation of groundwater resources, these wells have become more prominent. The findings show that: operation of about 231,000 wells is unclear or undocumented; the licenses for operation of nearly 50 percent of agricultural wells are tarnished or unclear, causing ambiguity in the share and number of authorized and unauthorized wells in exploitation of groundwater; the discharge volume of 30 percent of the wells has been measured by guessing and speculation; in some cases, operation of the wells is not compatible with measuring instruments; in some cold and mild regions, there are wells that operated throughout the year and even during winter nonstop, in a completely inefficient manner, given the region’s climatic conditions; about 30 percent of the wells were surveyed over a decade ago, and since then, no more surveyed have been conducted for them; in other words, statistics and information about them are not up-to-date and fail to show the developments of agricultural wells in plains and forbidden areas. In general, this study suggests that there are procedural and structural shortcomings in the accumulation of statistics and data, which cannot be relied on to provide any assurance for management decisions and be used as a basis for planning. Regarding the developments in water resources in recent years, the systematic provision of new statistics and data, in a scientific and methodical framework, which is highly reliable, without the above-mentioned problems, is inevitable for planning and decision making.

    Keywords: Information Quality, Timely, Authorized Wells, Discharge Volume, Flow
  • Farshad Momeni*, Khadijeh ghasedi** Pages 81-122

    Iran is a country located in the dry belt of the planet. Our ancestors achieved a specific kind of water management that was in harmony with the climate circumstances and to preserve it for future generation. The knowledge transferred from generation to generation, but new technologies in water exploitation caused a change in the balance and coexistence between man and nature. The reason behind selecting political economy is the deep and Interdisciplinary approach of political economy that could review Iran water challenge beyond any conventional economical analysis. The study aims to examine how interactions between independent variables of power, wealth, and technology are used to shape the water crisis. A descriptive methodology with institutionalization approach and power structure and decision making analysis in water resources management is used to address the challenges. Steven Lukes “Power” does not disclose the document related to decision making that means we used unofficial documents, the statements and the hearings to address the problem of water. The resistance of vested interest of status quo in the form of a hidden antipathy showed itself in the lobbying of parliamentarians and consulting and contractor companies of the Ministry of Energy who take profit from dam construction and water transfer between different basins. Ignorance and unawareness of top water resource managers caused in hasty decisions with predictable and recurring results. In the view of the fact that country’s political economy is suffering from a rentier economy, we need to focus on a principled system in a way to see restructuring in favor of people and manufacturers in the distribution system of interests.

  • Mohammadreza Farzaneh Pages 123-145

    Unsustainable withdrawal of water resources especially in groundwater made social-ecological damage consequently. These cause process of water resources management more complicated whereas performing conservation of water resources and turning to the "rules in use" would be the main problem in governance structure. The present study with investigation of existed solutions for unsustainable withdrawal of groundwater resources in around of Rafsanjan region, showed the conceptual problem and then reviewing international studies researched the effective factors on integrated water resources management. The results indicated lack of the comprehensive opinion in the economic framework of the historical processes in the studied region. The trend of the international studies displayed the impact of internal and outer changes on integrated water resources management. Changes of economic paradigm, psychological paradigm, changes existed in relation to programming, and systemic-analytic thoughts have important role in integrated water resources management and water governance.

    Keywords: Integrated Water Resources Management, Water Governance, Ground Water Resources
  • Elham Barikani*, Atoosa Bakhtiari Pages 147-172

    Water management in arid and semi arid regions is of great importance. Population growth and increased demand for food in Iran, in one hand, climate change, reduction of rainfall, and recent decades of draught on the other hand, resulted in limited water resources and reduction in water supply. Optimization of water resources allocation is very crucial and some experts considered the water market as a tool for water resources management. The study seeks to a) examine the water Market in economics b) review the experiences of the countries of interest. The results show that, in addition to primary requirements, it is inevitable and essential to respect the fundamental requirements to establish an efficient water market. In total, the water market could signal manufacturers and consumers to efficiently use water resources when the market meets these requirements. Considering the set of institutional arrangements and climatic, geographic and technical issues, the market approach as the first and most effective function for pricing and optimal allocation of water resources, and due to the lack of basic requirements and the impossibility of providing this facility in our country in short term, it will be an strategic mistake that will have long term inappropriate consequences in protecting and preserving the water resources. The results of the study show that the current condition of water market approach in protecting water resources is inefficient; therefore, it may be easier and more effective to use other approaches, such as improving water productivity in different sectors like agriculture, to optimize exploitation of existing water resources.

    Keywords: Approach, Market, Management, Water Resources, Agriculture
  • Farshad momeni *, Mahdieh, sadat Mosavi * Pages 173-205

    Water is a natural, rare, and irreplaceable resource in the economic and social development of the nations. Economy and population growth and lifestyle changes caused continuous increase in water consumption. Iran water resources are facing a critical era. Water scarcity brings many different cultural, social and security challenges. Poor management of water resources, besides population and climate change, is the main factor in water scarcity in Iran. The study, using a descriptive methodology, aims to review the water crisis, water management and the formation of the water market in Iran. Effective allocation of water requires establishing water institutions to form and reform the institutions and laws of water market. Policy making and implementation of policies in water management require explicit, accurate and clear regulations. These regulations should be provided publicly to be used by experts, society and media. Collective wisdom and collective cooperation must be applied to solve this problem.