فهرست مطالب

فنون ادبی - سال یازدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 26، بهار 1398)
  • سال یازدهم شماره 1 (پیاپی 26، بهار 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/12/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • علی محمد موذنی*، زهیر طیب صفحات 1-16
    کتاب الإیضاح فی شرح تلخیص المفتاح اثر طبع «خطیب قزوینی» از معارف قرن 7 و 8 هجری قمری از معمول ترین متون تعلیمی و تحقیقی در علم بلاغت است که بیش از هفت قرن بر فراز قلل رفیع این دانش هل من مبارز می زند. در این نوشتار ضمن تعریفی کوتاه از خطیب قزوینی و اثر گرانقدر او، ایضاح، اشکالاتی را برمی شمریم که او در محدوده علم معانی تا ابتدای باب قصر و حصر بر متقدمان و معاصران خود مطرح می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: بلاغت، ایضاح، علم معانی، خطیب قزوینی، سکاکی، جرجانی، زمخشری
  • حامد نوروزی*، مفید شاطری صفحات 17-33
    تعزیه گونه ای نمایش آیینی است که با هدف روایت وقایع تاریخی - مذهبی، به ویژه فجایع عاشورا و شهادت امامان اجرا می شود. اهمیت حادثه عاشورا در تعزیه تا حدی است که در اغلب تعزیه های غیرعاشورایی، شاعر پرده هایی فرعی خلق می کند تا از طریق آن بخش هایی از حوادث کربلا را نیز روایت کند. به این پرده های فرعی، گریز (گریز به صحرای کربلا) گفته می شود. گریزها همواره با اخلال در روایت خطی داستان (روایت گردانی) همراه اند؛ بنابراین شاعر باید به نحوی آنها را در تعزیه اصلی جای دهد. در این مقاله، شیوه گنجاندن گریزها در تعزیه اصلی بررسی شده است. به عقیده نگارندگان، گریز از تعزیه اصلی بر پایه ترفند روایی- نمایشی تداعی انجام می شود که نتیجه یادآوری یک صورت یا مفهوم ذهنی است. برای بررسی این فرایند از مفاهیم روان شناسی مرتبط با تداعی استفاده شد و انواع، قواعد و عوامل تداعی در گریزها بررسی شد. از سوی دیگر، با توجه به اینکه گریز نوعی متادرام به شمار می رود، گریزها به دو نوع بیانی و نمایشی تقسیم شدند.
    کلیدواژگان: تعزیه، گریز، تداعی، روایت، متادرام
  • زهرا صالحی* صفحات 35-47
    در این مقاله سعی شده است با بررسی دواوین شعر، به ویژه منظومه ویس و رامین، سروده فخرالدین اسعد گرگانی، آداب و رسوم ایرانی به هنگام جشن عروسی به نمایش گذاشته شود؛ آدابی که بسیاری از آنها هنوز هم در جامعه ایرانی رایج است و تغییر مذهب ایرانیان نیز تاثیری در دگرگونی یا حذف آن نداشته است، بلکه در برخی موارد احکام اسلام مهر تاییدی بر ادامه آن آداب است. جشن در ایران به دو نوع تقسیم می شود که عبارت است از: 1- جشن های اختصاصی که در زمان خاصی برگزار می شد؛ از جمله نوروز و مهرگان و سده و... 2- جشن های عمومی که وابستگی به زمان خاصی نداشت؛ از جمله جشن به تخت نشستن پادشاه، تولد فرزند، ختنه سوران و نیز جشن فرخنده ازدواج. هر یک از این جشن ها با آداب و رسوم خاصی برپا می شد که برخی از این رسوم فراموش شده، برخی هنوز پابرجاست و برخی نیز تغییر شکل داده و به نوعی دیگر شاهد آن ایم. مهم ترین آداب و رسوم جشن عروسی که در اشعار شاعران فارسی گوی بدان اشاره شده عبارت است از: گرفتن مهریه و شیربها از داماد، برپایی جشن و سور دادن، آرایش عروس و... از میان شاعران فخرالدین اسعد گرگانی بیشتر از دیگران، به آداب و رسوم ایرانیان در جشن عروسی پرداخته است؛ زیرا موضوع کتاب او داستان عروسی ویس، شاهزاده ایرانی، با موبد و پس از آن با رامین است.
    کلیدواژگان: جشن عروسی، ویس و رامین، کابین، آرایش عروس، مشاطه، شیربها
  • احمد امیری خراسانی*، محمد صادق بصیری، زهرا انجم شعاع صفحات 49-62
    با گذشت چهار دهه از انقلاب اسلامی باشکوه ایران و رشد و بالندگی شعر انقلاب اسلامی، تاکنون این نوع شعر به شکل همه جانبه و علمی بررسی نشده است و پژوهش ها بیشتر جنبه معناگرایانه و محتوامحور داشته است؛ اما نگارندگان این مقاله می کوشند ساختار زبانی شعر انقلاب اسلامی و چگونگی پیوند قالب های شعری با موضوع انقلاب اسلامی را بررسی کنند. روش این پژوهش، کتابخانه ای و سندکاوی است و داده ها به صورت توصیفی تحلیلی ارائه شده اند. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد محورهایی چون تازگی زبان، نهضت ترکیب سازی، نوجویی در قافیه و ردیف، استفاده از تعابیر و تصاویر خاص انقلاب و دفاع مقدس و تپش واژگان، ازجمله برجستگی های زبانی شعر انقلاب اند. با بررسی قالب های مختلف شعر انقلاب، روشن شد که قالب قصیده به دلیل روحیه حماسی حاکم در کشور در سال های دهه شصت رشد و رونق می یابد. غزل انقلاب، با ویژگی هایی چون نظم عمودی و کاربرد وزن های بلند اهمیت ویژه ای پیدا می کند. قالب مثنوی با استفاده از  قافیه های نو و تازه دوباره احیا می شود. قالب غزل-مثنوی، به طور چشمگیری گسترش می یابد و ایجاز کلام با وزن مطنطن در رباعی، بستر خوبی برای بیان احساسات پرشور دوران انقلاب و دفاع مقدس می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: شعر انقلاب اسلامی، ساختار، زبان، قالب
  • احمد رضایی* صفحات 63-71
    تعریف استعاره ازجمله موضوعات نخستین آثار بلاغی عربی و فارسی است. کثرت تعاریف موجب شده است برخی تصور کنند وجه مشترکی میان آنها نیست یا اینکه تعاریف استعاره بسیار پریشان است؛ در حالی که بررسی تعاریف در بیشتر کتاب های بلاغی فارسی و عربی حاکی از وجود مولفه های مشترک بین آنهاست. از طرفی باید این موضوع را در بستر زمان و شرایط فکری و فرهنگی در نظر گرفت. گسترش حوزه مطالعات بلاغی، ساختار فکری و فرهنگی زمینه ساز دریافت هایی از استعاره شده است که با دریافت آن در زمینه فکری دیگر متفاوت خواهد بود. می توان با دسته بندی تعاریف بر مبنای مولفه های برجسته و مشترک، علاوه بر تبیین عناصر مشترک آنها، مراحل تطور استعاره را نیز نشان داد. در پژوهش حاضر با بررسی و تحلیل تعاریف استعاره در بیشتر متون بلاغی عربی و فارسی، مولفه های کانونی آنها استخراج و در هفت گروه دسته بندی شدند: 1) تکرار کامل تعاریف 2) تکرار بخشی از تعاریف 3) تلفیق چند تعریف. از میان هشت گروه تعریفی که در هفت طبقه دسته بندی شده، چهار تعریف یک مولفه ای است که از میان آنها سه تعریف تکراری است؛ دو تعریف نیز دومولفه ای است که بخشی از آنها تکرار تعاریف یک مولفه ای است؛ همچنین یک تعریف سه مولفه ای و یک تعریف چهارمولفه ای است که همه از ترکیب تعریف های یک یا دومولفه ای حاصل شده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: استعاره، تعریف، تحلیل، نقد، آثار بلاغی
  • حسین مسجدی اصفهانی* صفحات 73-86
    ماده تاریخ[1]، تبدیل اعداد و ارقام تاریخ به حروف و واژه ها و عبارت های معنادار است. این فن به تدریج و بر اثر تحولات و رشدی که داشت، به ویژه در دوره صفویه و قاجار تبدیل به شکل های پیچیده ای شد و کم کم توجه اهل سیاست را جلب کرد که از آن مستقیما در تحولات تاریخی و اثبات حقانیت خود و نیز انکار مخالفان سود جستند. استفاده از ماده تاریخ و کوشش برای متقارن کردن آن با ظهور صفویه، جلوس شاه اسماعیل، تشکیل سپاه شاه طهماسب، بعضی از فتوحات هند در دوره شاه عباس، جلوس نادر، ظهور باب و امضای مشروطیت، بخشی از این رویکردهای تاریخی است که در این پژوهش به آن پرداخته شده است. تعدادی از این مواد نیز به جز بیان تاریخ خاص، به طور غیرمستقیم، مبین برخی از مسائل پنهان اجتماعی و تاریخی است که با نگاهی به نظریه رمزگردانی[2] می توان از آن در تحلیل های تاریخی استفاده کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: ماده تاریخ، تاریخ، صفویه، رمزگردانی
  • راضیه به آبادی*، عباس نیک بخت، مریم شعبان زاده صفحات 87-104
    تذکره های فارسی از دیرباز یکی از مراجع زندگی نامه ای و از منابع مهم ادبی، تاریخی و اجتماعی بوده اند. در پی تحولات دوره قاجار در آستانه مشروطه، تطور و دگرگونی ویژه ای در گونه های ادبی مختلف ایجاد شد. در این پژوهش به فصل مهمی از تذکره های این دوره، یعنی ترجمه خودنوشت مولف، پرداخته شده است. تاکنون هیچ پژوهشی درباره ترجمه های خودنوشت تذکره ها، انجام نشده است. در این جستار تراجم خودنوشت تذکره های دوره قاجار با تعریف اتوبیوگرافی مدرن سنجیده شد و ضمن بیان اهمیت این نوع نوشته، محتوا و انگیزه و نیز نوع روایت و سبک نگارش آن، بررسی گردید. بر مبنای نتایج، جایگاه ترجمه مولف در تذکره های این دوره و وجود نمودهایی چون جزئی نگری، پرداختن به عواطف و منویات درونی و حتی اشتباهات نویسنده و نیز رغبت نویسندگان این دوره به روایت اول شخص و «من گفتن»، ویژگی هایی است که ترجمه های خودنوشت تذکره های دوره قاجار را از دوره های قبل متمایز و به تعریف اتوبیوگرافی جدید نزدیک کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: ترجمه خودنوشت، تذکره، دوره قاجار، اتوبیوگرافی
  • احمدرضا مجرد، حمیدرضا فرضی*، علی دهقان صفحات 105-114
    هدف مقاله حاضر بررسی شیوه‌های طرح و بیان معنا در انوار سهیلی است. با در نظر گرفتن این نکته که نویسندگان نثر فنی از شیوه‌ها و ابزار مختلفی برای طرح و بیان معنا استفاده کرده‌اند، با بهره‌گیری از شیوه توصیفی‌تحلیلی و استفاده از منابع کتابخانه‌ای شیوه‌های طرح و بیان معنا در انوار سهیلی در سه بخش ساختاری (حکایت، گفت‌و‌گو و تقسیم‌بندی)، توضیحی (استدلال، تعریف و تفسیر، ‌توصیف، بررسی علل و نتایج) و استنادی (استناد به آیات و احادیث، تضمین و ‌نقل سخن دیگران) بررسی شده است. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد به‌دلیل رویکرد ارشادی و تعلیمی در انوار سهیلی، شیوه بیان برای نویسنده اهمیت زیادی داشته است و او برای ایجاد تنوع در بیان، دوری از یکنواختی کلام، اقناع خواننده، آراستگی کلام و مهم‌تر از همه تاثیرگذاری بیشتر بر مخاطب از این شیوه‌ها بهره برده است.
    کلیدواژگان: نثر فنی، انوار سهیلی، طرز بیان، ساختار، توصیف
  • امیر سلطان محمدی* صفحات 115-130
    حافظ شیرازی یکی از محبوب ترین شاعران پارسی زبان است. این محبوبیت در گرو زبدگی اشعار او و به اوج رساندن معنا و صورت در خلق شعر است. وی معانی بلند را از مبانی دینی و عرفانی و مضامین متعالی را از شاعرانی چون سنایی، عطار، مولوی، عراقی، سعدی و دیگر شعرای بزرگ فارسی زبان گرفته و در صورت آرایی کسانی چون خاقانی را الگو قرار داده است و شعر را به پایگاهی رسانده که دستیابی بدان محال شده است. یکی از ویژگی های منحصربه فرد حافظ توجه ژرف و باریک‌بینانه او به آراستن صورت شعر است. از این رو وی از تمام قابلیت های زبانی به خصوص قابلیت نوشتاری و خطی بهره جسته است تا لایه های شعر را زیبا و عمیق سازد. ازآنجاکه نگارش متون در قدیم، به شکل ماشینی نبود و در گذاشتن نقطه و سرکش اهمال و امساک صورت می گرفت، حافظ با بهره گیری از همین اصل از رسم الخط قدیم، واژگانی را که با گذاشتن یا نگذاشتن نقطه و سرکش متفاوت قرائت می شدند، در موضعی قرار می داد که قابلیت خوانش به دو شکل را داشته باشند و به این شکل آرایه ای بسیار نادر با عنوان «ایهام تصحیف» خلق کرده است. بررسی نمونه هایی از این آرایه گویای نکته ای نسخه‌شناسی است و آن اینکه برخی از اختلاف ضبط های بحث انگیز حاصل همین ابتکار حافظ بوده که از قضا در برخی از نسخ هنوز ردپای این خلاقیت حافظ باقی مانده است. با شناسایی این خلاقیت حافظ (به کارگیری ایهام تصحیف) می توان به نقطه «تلاقی وجوه» یا «آشتی وجوه» در برخی از ضبط ها در دیوان حافظ دست یافت. این نکته نشان می دهد رسم الخط کنونی حداقل در برخی مجال ها تصحیح دیوان حافظ را غیرممکن می سازد.
    کلیدواژگان: حافظ، وجوه دوگانه، ایهام تصحیف، تلاقی وجوه
  • سیده الهام حسینی سده، حسین آقاحسینی دهاقانی صفحات 131-142
    در بررسی و تبیین ساختار قصیده، همواره به بخش‌های مختلف آن توجه شده است. قصیده به‌جز بخش اصلی، بخش‌هایی چون تشبیب، تخلص و شریطه نیز دارد که همواره توجه اهل ادب را به خود جلب کرده است. تشبیب را باید راه ورود به قصیده و یکی از مهم‌ترین بخش‌های آن دانست که به‌دلیل قرارداشتن در پیشانی قصیده برای ترغیب و تهییج مخاطب نقش مهمی را به عهده دارد و همواره یکی از موضوعات بحث‌انگیز و محل اختلاف اهل فن بوده است؛ اما با همه کوشش‌ها، اهل ادب هنوز تعریف جامع و مانعی از آن به دست نداده‌اند. در این پژوهش هدف این است که ضمن بیان دیدگاه‌ها و آرای متقدمان و متاخران، بررسی و دسته‌بندی و نقد این تعاریف، تعریف کامل‌تر و دقیق‌تری از تشبیب بیان کرد تا بتوان به درک روشن‌تری از آن دست یافت. بنابراین این پژوهش می‌کوشد برای دستیابی به این هدف پاسخی برای پرسش‌های زیر بیابد:
    کلیدواژگان: قصیده، تشبیب، علوم بلاغی، نسیب، تغزل
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  • Alimohammad Moazzeni *, Zohair Tayyeb Pages 1-16
    “Al-Idah Fih šarh Talxîs al-Miftâh” is one of the most authoritative educational and analytical books on rhetoric in which Jalal al-Din Muhammad ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Qazvini, the renowned Muslim scientist and scholar of poetics of the 7th and 8th centuries A.H., examines various principles of semantics and provides informative reviews on the perspectives of pioneer scholars of rhetoric “as an exposé to Talxîṣ al-Miftâh”.   Statement and Scope of the Problem The study addresses the level of disagreement between al-Qazvini and the preceding scholars, and the scope is the first quarter of Al-Idah. The research questions are as follows: 1- What are the difference of opinions between al-Qazvini and his predecessors? 2- To what extent does al-Qazvini disagree with his predecessors?   Data Analysis Al-Qazvini critiques the preceding perspectives in 22 instances in Al-Idah, where he challenges and reviews the viewpoints of as-Sakkaki and al-Jurjani when deemed unjustified. The following arguments are made in the first quarter of Al-Idah, covering the chapter on “Semantics” until the beginning of “Conjunction and Disjunction”: 1- Objection to al-Jurjani over two of his books: He has overindulged in synonymous expressions to the point that such a level of verbosity has disrupted his main goal, i.e. expression of oratory rules and skills and instance provision from prose and poetry. 2- Objection to al-Sakkaki over his definition of “semantics”: The words “scholarism” and “research” are not used in a scientific sense in his definition. 3- Objection to al-Sakkaki over his definition of “rational truth”: al-Sakkaki’s definition does not exclude the exclusions, as it holds true for copular sentences whose predicates are not verbs or linked to verbs, such as in the sentence “humans are animals”, which neither can be regarded as truth, nor as an instance of literary trope. 4- Objection to al-Sakkaki over his definition of “rational trope”: he has raised two logical objections to this definition. 5- Objection to al-Sakkaki over his views on the logic behind his definition of “subject”: There is no distinction between “reference to the source of statement” and “reference to the realization of statement”; therefore, the former cannot be deemed as a means of achieving the latter. 6- Objection to al-Sakkaki over his viewpoint on the similarity of “veneration” with “duplication”, and “devaluation” with “reduction”: He provides two in-depth reviews on this principle. 7- Objection to al-Sakkaki over his view on the reasons for subject preposition: According to al-Sakkaki, declarative sentences are merely formed for the sake of “declaration”. However, this is an inaccurate assumption, since a declaration is merely a “formal recognition’ rather than an “internalization”, whereas the latter is what is solely expected from a declaration. 8- Objection to al-Sakkaki and al-Jurjani over placing pronouns following negatory particles: The placement of pronouns after negatory particles , which is what they have proposed in the specified example, is not justified. 9- Objection to al-Sakkaki over the implication of preposition over specification: al-Sakkaki apparently argues that definite subjects are suitable for specification, with either visible pronouns or nouns, if they are not placed after negatory particles with a positive or negative declaration. In practice, however, he only gives examples containing pronouns. 10- Objection to al-Sakkaki over the felicity of declaration specification in a [Quranic] verse. 11- Objection to al-Zamakhshari over the implication of post-negation pronoun over the subject in the same verse. 12- Objection to al-Sakkaki over the implication of subject preposition over generalization. 13- Objection to al-Sakkaki and his preceding scholars over the application of “negation generalization” in a poem. 14- Objection to al-Zamakhshari over his retrospection on two poems. 15- Objection to al-Sakkaki over specifying the predicate as an expression of surprise: Expressions of surprise can be stated without specifying the predicate when there is a linguistic context in the sentence. 16- Objection to al-Sakkaki over expressing predicates in singular form: First, al-Sakkaki puts causal predicate instances in contrast to those of verb predicate, even though they have a common semantic foundation. Second, the predicate is a sentence in and of itself, leading to two attributions in the predicate that strengthen declaration based on the definition provided above. 17- Objection to al-Sakkaki over the inclusiveness of the word “kol” [total]. 18- Objection to al-Sakkaki over definite forms due to fame. 19- Objection to al-Zamakhshari over using coordination in a conditional clause in a Quranic expression. 20- Objection to preceding scholars over expressing the predicate as a sentence. 21- Objection to al-Sakkaki over his viewpoint on verb complements.   Conclusion In the first quarter of Al-Idah, al-Qazvini expresses his disagreement with al-Sakkaki on 14 occasions, whereas he only raises objection to three viewpoints of al-Zamakhshari and al-Jurjani, each, and two viewpoints of the preceding scholars in total. This demonstrates al-Qazvini’s concurrence with al-Zamakhshari and al-Jurjani and his disagreement with al-Sakkaki.
    Keywords: science of Rhetoric, khatib al-qazvini, sakkaki, jorjani, zamakhshari
  • Hamed Norouzi *, Mofid Shateri Pages 17-33
    Ta’zie, in the word, means mourning and to hold mourning ceremony for remembrance of deaths and in term refers to a kind of ritual show based on Karbala event and the martyrdom of Emams and other religious events and historical, mythologic and slangy tales and stories (Mazandaran; 1389: 101). Some researchers seek the routes of Ta’zie in pre-Islam Irainian religions, like Masaeb e Mitra, Soug e Siavash and Yadegare Zariran (refer to: Yar e Shater, 1384: 127-129) and some in mythological religion of Mesotopomia, Anatolia and Egypt (refer to:the same:130-135). The first signs of today's Ta’zie may be found in fourth and fifth century AH. From Safavieh, performance of Ta’zie becomes in a current way (Aslani, 1384:20). Ta’zie is a kind of dramatic literature in Iran which belongs to narrative form of folk literature (Gobino, 1369: 169) and so with regards to dramatic form of Ta’zie and its executive restrictions it seems that linear narration method is the most popular and sensible way to perform Ta’zie; but «in some versions of Ta’zie, there are some gooshe that are beyond original Ta’zie and to somehow show other events» (Mirshekar, 1388: 190) where happens in somewhere else. This «somewhere else» is often Karbala. So this out of main drama scenes that predicted for connecting the theme of Ta’zie to martyrdom of Imam Hossein is called «goriz to Karbala desert», Gooshe or Ta’zie (Fathalibeigi, 1370:231). This secondary Tazie can be known as an equivalent of metadrama in drama. «Metadrama is a drama in drama ... it can shift the audience from one drama to the other and to the deeper space» (Mirshekar, 1388: 89). Some researchers believe that this disrupting in narrative discourse in Tazie is exclusive, without introduction (short) and sudden; but according to article writers, shifting of scene method and creating goriz (breakout) metadrama lie in innovative using of association trick. Association in word means to call one another (Dad, 1383:123) and in psychology means mental solidarity between two or several imagination or feeling or memory that the presence of one causes stimulating the another (Pashaie, 1369:257). Association rules can be summarized in resemblance, contiguity, contrast (Pournamdarian et.al, 1388:2) and the causation ( Pour Afkari; 1373: 123) . These narrations usually happens in religous non-Ashoraie ShabihKhani, it is not clear that from when the goriz become popular in Shabihkhani (Ashourpour, 1389: 334); but the general style of goriz is almost similar in all Tazies. This means that in every proper situation that there are both neccessary tools for association and the narrative process prepares audience's mind for narration, the poet associates the whole or a part of the scene of Karbala for player and following it the audiences using an internal or external factor. Association factor will be the elements of drama, if it is external; but it should be noted that verbal narratives have an important role in scenery of Ta’zie; because the scene space is more presented by player's description; The external factors of association in extensive or compound form (singular or structural). Sometimes the association occurs for a Shabihe in mental form .This association occurs just in context and in dialog or soliloquy forms. In addition to all these facilities, in Ta’zie sometimes players perform the associated events for audience. Sometimes they narrate it through expression. But these methods are exemplary of metadrama in Ta’zie; but with expressive and dramatic methods, respectively.  In different Ta’zie the poet first tries to find a similarity point in terms of subject, character and scene and then uses the same similarity and to conduct the scene to Karbala and Imam Hossein’s martyrdom using association trick. Diffrent kinds of association are used in Ta’zie. Following species can be enumerated for association: 1- single associations (Ta’zie of Imam Reza’s martyrdom: water; Ta’zie of Imam Zein Ol Abedin martyrdom: butcher, Ta’zie of Holy Masoumeh’s death:water). 2- Compound association (Ta’zie of Imam Reza’s martyrdom: relation of sister-brother kinship; Ta’zie of Esmaiel’s sacrificing; Ta’zie of Hamze’s martyrdom: the lifeless body of no-shade martyr in sunshine; Ta’zie of Omarebn Abd Vad: sending of Imam Ali to the battlefield by prophet and …); 3- Association with abstract association factor (Ta’zie of Imam Reza’s martyrdom: death in roam; Ta’zie of Abdolah ebn AbdolMotaleb: death in roam); 4- Association with lexical factor (Ta’zie of Imam Reza’s martyrdom: Hossein’s name; Ta’zie of throwing of Yousof in pit: Hossein’s name; Ta’zie of curse of parents); 5- Association based on proximity rule (Ta’zie of Imam Reza’s martyrdom: water); 6- Association based on resemblance rule (Ta’zie of Esmaiel’s sacrificing, Ta’zie of throwing of Yousof in pit ; Ta’zie of Habil and Qabil ; Ta’zie of Mousa and Feron; Ta’zie of Emam Mousa Kazem’s martyrdom); 7- Association based on contrast rule (Ta’zie of Amrobn Qazve Ahad; Ta’zie of the birth of holy Mousa; Ta’zie of Safein and Lailatol Harir war); 8- Association with mental factor (Ta’zie of Emam Reza’s martyrdom: salutation to Emam Hossein’s holy shrine when martyrdom; Ta’zie of throwing of Yousof in pit; Ta’zie of Emam Ja’efar Sadeq’s martyrdom).
    Keywords: Ta?zie, goriz (breakout), Association, Narrative, Metadrama
  • Zahra Salehi Sadati * Pages 35-47
    The celebration in Iran is divided into two categories: 1- Special celebrations that took place at a particular time including Nowruz, Mehregan, Sadeh, etc.; 2- public celebrations that did not depend on a specific time, including the feasts on King's enthroning, childbirth, circumcision, and marriage. In this article, an attempt has been made to review Iranian customs during the wedding ceremony through poem books including the “Weis and Ramin” poems book composed by Fakhruddin Asad Gorgani; the customs many of which are still common in Iranian society; some were not affected or removed by the change of Iranian religion, but even were affirmed by Islam. Fortunetelling and observing the time for holding the celebration are traditions that still today are customary among people. Wedding parties at the court, like other celebrations, were accompanied by drinking and listening to music. Wedding rituals today are also celebrated with pleasant voice of the music. Scenting the party with burning of aloe wood and sugar is another custom of the wedding ceremony. Taking dowry and marriage fee from the groom, setting up the celebration and banqueting people, bride’s toilet, etc. are other marriage traditions customary among people that have been referred to in the poems of Persian language poets. A primary ritual as the introduction of the wedding in the old and even in the present time, in some places, is nominating at the birth time, which is called today "Naf Boran” (bellybutton cutting). In some cases, we see the pre-wedding customs, i.e., getting the marriage fee from the groom, and drafting a marriage deed for the bride, as well as getting dowry from the groom, which is common also today among the Iranians. As inferred by the Gorgani’s poem, the “Kabin-Khahi” ritual (requesting a marriage fee) from the bride's relatives was also widespread in the pre-Islamic Iran. As indicated by the poems, the dowry of princes was predomination over lands. Also, the one who proposed more marriage fee would win to catch the girl. A special wedding ritual that has been customary in ancient Iran is praise of God and praying for the bride and groom's happiness. It seems that the only source for this tradition is the Weis and Ramin poems book; according to Gorgani, this special praise was recited by the owner of the wedding party, such as the bride or groom's mother. Praise of God, along with other Ameshasepandan, such as the oracle, the sun, the moon, etc. at the beginning of the wedding ceremony was performed with the purpose of seeking bliss with them and cursing the devils to get rid of them. Another marriage custom was toileting of the bride at the wedding night and her ornamentation, and putting the crown on the bride’s head. The bride was toileted by beauticians; they used old makeup tools such as Sormeh, roseate cream, and indigo to ornament the bride; they trimmed her face and eyebrows, stamped her face using the empty Ghalieh (having a speckle on the corner of the lips was among the Iranian beauty standards) and arranged her hair, and scented her body with rosewater; and thus the bride was prepared to celebrate the beginning of their marital life. Another ritual customary in Iranian wedding ceremonies, just like other nations, was giving parties. At parties on the occasion of the auspicious celebration in the courts, ceremonies like banqueting, performing games such as polo, sprinkling gold and sugar over the bride and groom’s heads, scenting the party using burning aloes wood and sugar were other rituals of the parties. Sugar sprinkling was a ritual that has been mentioned in many other literary texts as a celebration ritual, which in addition to being sweet and a blessed start for marriage was taken into consideration for its expensiveness and the luxury aspect.  The remnants of this tradition can be seen in rubbing of sugar cubes over the bride and groom’s heads in the current Iranian society. By reviewing Persian poems and contrasting them, we found that among the reviewed poems books, the Weis and Ramin poems book had the most references to the wedding ceremonies, and this is due to the subject of the book, which relates to the life of two lovers called Weis And Ramin and their marriages (wedding of Weis with Mobed and Viro and Ramin) (Ramin's marriage to Gol and Weis) Ferdowsi also has mentioned to some ceremonies and traditions on the occasion of the marriage of heroes and kings. Other poets have more or less dealt with this subject; poets such as Anwari and Farokhi whose poetry was inspired by the courtiers had some references to some of the wedding customs in their poems on the occasion of the courtiers’ wedding. Poets such as Sanaei, Attar and Khaqani whose poetry has a mystical nature, though not addressed this ritual directly, but have pointed to some wedding rituals through similes and metaphors.
    Keywords: Wedding, Vis, Ramin, cabins, bridal makeup, beautician, shirban
  • Ahmad Amiri Khorasani *, Mohammadsadegh Basiri, Zahra Anjomshoae Pages 49-62
    Today, fourteen years after the glorious Islamic Revolution and the growth of the Islamic Revolution poem, until now, this kind of poetry has not been studied scientifically and the studies have been more semantic and content-oriented; However, this research has tried to dwell on the structure of the language of the Islamic Revolution poetry and how to link the poetry templates on the subject of the Islamic Revolution. The method of this research is library and documentary, and then the data are presented descriptively-analytically. The result of the research shows that the axes such as freshness of language, compositional movement, novelty in rhymes and rows, the use of specific interpretations and images of the revolution and sacred defense, and the vocabulary of speech, constitute the prominence of the language of revolutionary poetry. By examining the various forms of the poem of the revolution, it is clear that the mantra of the Qesida has grown and prospered because of the epic spirit that ruled the country during the sixties. The revolutionary ghazard, with its features such as vertical order and the application of long weight, is especially important. The Masnavi Template is reborn with fresh and fresh rhymes. The Ghazal-Mathnawi format is expanding dramatically, and the revelation of a verbal weight in quatrains is a good platform for expressing the passionate feelings of the revolution and sacred defense. The main challenges in this paper are the dangers in the linguistic structure of the Islamic Revolution poetry and how to link the poetry forms with the subject of the Islamic Revolution. The importance of this issue in the present article is that the literature of the Islamic Revolution is often considered as meaningful literature, and its literal and structural features have not been taken into consideration; of course, it is not doubtful that the Islamic Revolution literature has a more semantic aspect, but with In the works, there are a number of structural and structural features and features. The verbal and structural prominence of the Islamic Revolution poem In terms of verbal and structural prominence, all forms of aesthetics are a literary work such as poetry that combines language and lexical modernizations, combining and using particular interpretations and images of the examples that we have addressed in these axes, respectively. 1-   Axes such as freshness of language, compositional movement, novelty in rhymes and rows, the use of specific interpretations and images of the sacred revolution and sacred defense, and the pace of vocabulary constitute the prominence of the revolutionary poetry. 2-   One of the points of the Islamic Revolution's poem is the tongue of the tongue, which sometimes has a freshness at the same time as the mold, language, freshness, and this freshness of language, thanks to the coincidence with the new poem and to be in the forefront of this way. 3-   The composition of the poetry revolution in terms of construction, it can be divided into three groups of additional composition, composition and phrases. 4-   Trying to use new rhymes and rows in different formats and using vocabulary and terms that reflect the vision of the revolution, and using the current and native rows of other linguistic features of revolution poetry. 5-   Use of specific interpretations and images of the war and the range of the lexical circle associated with the content of the particular thought of the revolution and the sacred defense, as well as the use of particular names, military terms and expressions, religious terms and expressions are the other factors for the novelty of the poetry language of the revolution. 6-   By examining the various forms of the poem of the revolution, it is clear that the form of the verse, although not very sparkling in contemporary poetry, is due to the epic spirit that ruled the revolution in the first years of the holy defense in the country, growth and prosperity Finds 7-   Ghazal in the poetry of revolution is of particular importance and is well received by the poets of the Islamic Revolution. Revolutionary ghosts have features such as vertical order, the use of high weight and novelty, and innovation. 8-   After the revolution, Masnavi's template was restored using new rhymes. The prevalence of Ghazal-Mathnavi's format is one of the structural features of the revolutionary poetry, which expanded dramatically during this period. 9-   The weight of the voice in the quatrains was a good basis for expressing the passionate feelings of the revolutionary period and the sacred defense of the sixties. 10-    The poets of the revolution in the middle years turned to new forms and introduced new insights into new poetry. The new poetry of the revolution is a narrative and supportive poetry and is usually long, but the new poetry is not a boring age. During the Islamic Revolution, Cari-kalamator grew dramatically, and the reason for its increase in the increase of the press and their release is the politicization of the country and the people after the revolution, and the breathing of the themes of satire and protest in the field of literature of the Islamic Revolution. This template found a significant difference in the present period before the revolution, and it was Cari-kalamator’s semantics in the era of the revolution.
    Keywords: Islamic Revolution Poem, Structure, Language, Template
  • Ahmad Rezaei * Pages 63-71
    Among the primitive issues in the rhetorical works of Arabic and Persian is the defining metaphor. It seems a plurality of definitions have led some to think that it is not a common point among them or that the definition of metaphor is tangled; while reviewing definitions in the rhetorical works of Arabic and Persian suggests shared components between them. On the other hand, it should be considered in the overtime and intellectual and cultural conditions as steps of evolution in metaphor. In other words, expanding of rhetorical studies, intellectual and cultural structures have provided different backgrounds to understand metaphor that would be understood differently in other contexts and conditions. If we categorize the definitions of metaphor based on the outstanding and shared elements, in addition to explaining the common elements, also we will show the steps of the evolution of metaphor. In the present study, meanwhile, analyzing the definitions of metaphor in the rhetorical works of Arabic and Persian, based on the outstanding elements, they have been classified into seven groups: 1. Renaming something instead of using its common name, or replacement. 2. A meaning outside the original or lexical meaning. 3. Metonymy + Similarity. 4. Specific phrase and purpose. 5. Exaggeration in simile or linkage of similarity. 5.1. Definitions based on similarities. 5.2. Definitions based on both sides of simile. 6. Metaphor and analogy. 7. Linkage. The main components of these seven categories are: 1. Renaming something instead of using its common name or replacement. 2. Use of the word in the non-meaning of the word. 3. Metonymy + Similarity. 4. The use of a word in the non-meaning+ special purpose. 5.1. Use the word in the meaning + similarity + metonymy. 5.2. Vehicle or tenor. 6. Use of the word in the non-meaning of the word. 7. A word in the non-meaning + linkage of similarity (Which is the same as metonymy and simile) + a symbol that blocks the meaning of the subject. If we put together the main elements, we shall see the metaphor definitions are very close to each other: If we assume that number 2 is an expression of number 1, we shall see that numbers 1, 2, and 6 are quite like each other. It is also a part of the numbers 4, 5-1, and 7 repetitions of the same component of the former numbers. Number 5.1 is the result of a combination of numbers 3 and 2 and number 7 is a combination of number 2 (which are repeated in 1 and 6), 3, and 5 plus a new element called the linkage. In fact, number 7 is a compilation of all the previous numbers along with the new component, linkage. According the results, not only the definitions of metaphor in the Arabic and Persian rhetorical tradition are not distressed and disturbed, but also many seeming definitions have repeatedly benefited from each other’s elements. In other words, many of these definitions are repetition of the words of their predecessors and sometimes along with this repetition, a new element has been added to the earlier definitions.
    Keywords: metaphor, definition, analysis, criticism, rhetorical works
  • Hosein Masjedi Isfahani * Pages 73-86
    Nowadays, the direct and written titled sources are not the only resources of history. According to some historian-philosophers such as Collingwood, any object can be regarded as an inspirational source for a historian; he asserts that the historian’s job is to read, interpret, explain and translate the documentation from written works or anything left over from a historical period. In Collingwood’s opinion, a piece of clay can inform the historian as much as a reference book of history, or sometimes even more (Collingwood, 2012: 17). From this point of view, chronogram is of foremost benefit in historical calculations and arguments. Apparently, it has always been literally important, though it has been mentioned only in literary technique topics. Furthermore, other literary elements can also in some ways be the source of historical deduction. For instance, in the literary theories of the last decade, the term "narrative" refers not only to fiction and imaginative literature but also to non-fiction narrative texts. From this perspective, Freud's case studies (his detailed reports of his patients and their treatment process) fall into the “narrative” category. Hence, history is not a solid, rigid, and invariant category, so that every historian would record it exactly like others (Payandeh, 2013: 494 -495). Therefore, chronogram can also be used historically and historiographically. In other words, at least in some authentic chronograms, there is another thing that contributes to the puzzle of the historical research of that time. Of course this is not simply possible. Chronogram is inherently a kind of coded literature, and this tendency has been intensified in some historical periods. But, it must first be understood correctly and its variations should be recognized and sometimes it needs to be decoded. Accordingly, one of the options that can help this debate is the code switching theory. Code switching is a sociolinguistic phenomenon which has been defined as the use of more than one languages, dialects or linguistic varieties that a speaker speaks during a conversation or presentation of a work, and its form of application is dependent on such factors as the identity of the audience, the subject matter, and the situation in which the speech flows (crystal, 1992: 69). Nevertheless, this is itself related to the theory of communication which is proposed by some of the later scholars in formalism, such as Roman Jacobson in the Moscow linguistic society, known as Moscow Linguistic Circle, founded in 1915. Having mastery of numerous other schools of structuralism, and considering his various trips to Prague, Sweden and the United States, and the development of his point of view, Jacobson presented his most important views on identifying the communicative components and their real and virtual applications. Accordingly, in any verbal communication the addresser sends a message to the addressee. This message implies a context or a reference, and is understood by a code. In the final stage, this code requires the contact or the material space of communication and the context in which the message is transmitted. Each of these six parts can be the dominant part in communication (see Eagleton, 2011: 135; Tadih, 2011:47; Bateni, 1975: 21-120; and Makarik, 2009:176). In its nine-hundred background, the chronogram has come to be such that, in particular, since Safavid, there is a need for in-depth research for decoding and recognizing the context and reference, and this can be effective in this regard. This is at least true for many instances of authentic and professional chronograms of this period, and can be the subject matter of further research. The present article aims to first provide an accurate, comprehensive and complete definition of it. This is not possible without reviewing and criticizing the existing definitions. Hence, a short but transient review of the historical course of this technique will be carried out; afterwards, by switching the code of some examples of it during the past few decades, another dimension of these chronograms is depicted which is used in historical and social studies. It should be noted that, in this paper, all of the old evidence is roughly the same as the old one, so that the calculations do not go wrong. An overview of the nature of chronogram and its development until becoming a complex and mysterious form in the tenth century, the diverse historical Safavid uses of it and its code-switching are the main issues of this research. In scientific research on chronogram, Nakhjavani (1924), in his extensive essay on chronograms, and Sadri (1999), in his works, To Catch a Glimpse Into Persian Poetry and the Encyclopedia Of Mysterious Expressions, and Khalesi Shirazi (2006), as well as Dabir Siaghi (2011) have not addressed the historical role of chronogram, although being the only detailed works that have been presented. Also the works of Sahab (1947), Rezvani (1962) and Mohit Tabatabai (1962) have mainly dealt with the evolution of the chronogram forms. Anyhow, chronogram is one of the literary techniques created for various reasons, including the preservation of numbers, codification, etc., and has strangely developed in its historical course. The greatest evolution of this technique happened since the Safavid period; this dynasty and such sects as Noghtaviyeh and Horufiyeh, the subsequent dynasties, and later Babiyeh used chronogram to prove their legitimacy and justify their historical manipulations. Safavids, due to the obvious manipulations and changes in the documents of descent and religion, needed some proofs to prove their legitimacy and, therefore, using special tables, made great efforts to symmetrize the historical events with sacred words, and they succeeded. However, the opposition has also made such efforts hidden. In the period of Afshar and the accession of Nadir Shah and Qajar dynasty, this technique had also been utilized for “begging the question”. In some of these chronograms, there is an ambiguity that can be understood by code-switching. Some of the evidences and examples of this research have been extracted from the primary sources of Safavid era.
    Keywords: Choronogram, Safavid, Epoch, Codeswitching
  • Razieh Behabadi *, Abbas Nikbakht, Maryam Sha’Banzadeh Pages 87-104
    Persian biographies have long been one of the biographical references and important literary, historical and social resources. The Persian biographies flourished after the Safavi era, and the kings specially interested in this. The expansion of the publishing industry and interest of the Qajar princes to the writing of biography, led to a significant increase in the number of biographies in the thirteenth century, toward the previous.  Following the developments of the Qajar period on the eve of Constitutional Revolution, special evolution and transformation were created in different literary forms. In this research, an important chapter of the biographies, namely, the author's own biography has been discussed. In this research, the Self-written biographies in the Qajar era were compared by the definition of modern autobiography. Addition expressing the importance of this type of writing; were studied the Content and motivation, as well as the type of narration and style of writing it. The results indicate that the position of the author's biography in the biography, And manifestations such as, attention to detail, express of emotions and inner desires, and even the author's mistakes, as well as the interest of the authors of this period to the narrative of the first-person and to saying "I"; is Features that have been closer the Self-written biographies in the Qajar era, to the definition of a new autobiography. Place: The position of the self-writing section varies in different directions; the evidence suggests that during the Qajar period some authors who have inserted their biography in to their writing, preferred that this section, like any other biography, is in the text of the biographies (and generally the same alphabetical rows of the biographies). This suggests that there are still compliments and indirect writing in this period; However, the number of people who have devoted a separate part (at the end or at the beginning of the biographies) to own biography, is noteworthy. Attention to details: writing the details, mention the author's inner states, refer to the social and political conditions surrounding the author and the emotional and psychological prose, are from the signs modern autobiography in the self-writings of this period, and have not been common in the past. In the past, reference to the maternal lineage was not so common, and it was also very seldom about the biographies authors. Following the developments in the Qajar period, paying attention to details such as the ratio of the mother was common in the biographies. It is also noteworthy that the Indian authors have focused more on the details in their self-writings. Including that they often explicitly have referred to the name of their professors; whereas, most of the Iranian writer, in their self-writings, had a general refer to their education, and they have seldom mentioned their masters by writing the name. The style of writing: The style of self-writings in the biographies is generally simple. Even in technical writing, the style of author's written is usually simple and without the ornament in his own biography. In such works, the style of writing in the introduction, the text and the self-writing, vary from complexity to simplicity, respectively. Although, when is the writing's style of the self-writings in the biographies the more beautiful and rhetorical (literary), is the literary aspect more than its historical aspect, but the exaggeration of the author in literary art, the arrangement of sentences and exaggeration in Expressions and descriptions, distract him from reality.  The simple and intimate language in the self-writings of the biographies of this period is more sign of the language of today's self-writing (autobiography) not so the language of the biographies of the past. Recording of own poems and own stating: The most important motivations of the authors of the biographies, is their reputation and the recording of their own poems. If we put this together, with the fact that the biography's authors have all their poetry and poetical works in hand, we can accepted the assignment of many pages from each biographies to the insert of the author's poems.  This group usually uses the art of poetry, even in the context of biography; in criticizing, revising and completing the lyrics of others, or recording their own lyrics as a witness in the introduction or their treatises. Thus, they have included many poems in the context of the lyrics of others. Of course, one of the problems of self-writing of biographies (and even autobiography in its new types) is understate and humility, the traits that have always existed in all ages in Persians, and the appearance of this feature in self-writing of biographies of the Qajar era, in particular in the section describing the writer's poetry and his poems, are to some extent seen; But a large number of the author's biographies of this period (especially the princes), have written the own biography with pride.  As in the past, the mention of self-writing is very high from the angle of view of the third person's narrator; thus it is another reason what why their authors are humility and they have deprecated the saying "I". In contrast, the increase in the number of the first person narratives in the self-writing in biographies of the Qajar era is an explicit sign of the transgression from tradition and wish to the modernism. These are cases that differenced the self-writing of this period from the previous.
    Keywords: the Self-written, biography, the Qajar era, autobiography
  • Ahmadreza Mojarrad, Hamidreza Farzi*, Ali Dehghan Pages 105-114
    The aim of the present study was to survey the styles and meaning representation in Anwar Soheili with respect to the point that the technical prose writer has utilized different styles and literary devices for the representation of their intended meaning. These styles and meaning representation in Anwar Soheili were surveyed under three sections: structural (anecdote, dialogue, classification), descriptive (reasoning, definition and interpretation, and study of the reason and results), documentary (reference to verses and sayings, recitation of other words). The study was descriptive and analytical one and use library sources.
    Keywords: Technical prose, Anwar Soheili, Rhetoric, Structure, Description
  • Amir Soltanmohamadi* Pages 115-130
    Opacity one of the literary arenas is considered by poets who are interested in poetry. Its different forms, such as proportions, contrasts, and variations of the early poetry periods, have attracted literary critics and poets. Poets have had a great deal to take advantage of this beautiful array and evolve it. Particularly poets who have also been focused on poetic beauties alongside the meaning of poetry. Examples of using this array were evident in the Azerbaijani style, and later in more detail in the Iraqi style. Nezami and Khaghani are poets who have used this array and its many types. Later in the Iraqi style, which was presented with imagination alongside meaning, this array was also used by many poets. Hafez, through the use of the past poetry tradition, has fertilized his poem both in Arabic and in Persian. In the context of illustration, he has also benefited from the past poetry tradition. He has brought the best meaning alongside the best of the poetic images. And created the best examples of Persian poetry. It is one of the artifacts Hafiz has used in his image. In addition to Hafez's attention to the array of archetypes, Hafez's social and cultural atmosphere has not been affected by the use of ambiguity. In a society protected by hypocrisy if it has the equivalent of an array, it is undoubtedly absurd. In addition, the words have two meanings and in fact two faces. Among the cases Hafez has used, the opacity symmetry is most applicable. But there is a kind of opacity that hobbyists have not paid much attention to. This is an excuse to read. The reason for the lack of attention to this idea is due to the weariness of this collection and other printing facilities and contemporary writing conditions. In the past, they transcribed poetry books to replicate them. Although each episode had a variety of linear features, it was not significant at all in the written terms. This writing culture has made some poets, using this same feature, use words that have different meanings displaced in such a way that two different forms of reading can be read. Hafez also occasionally uses the same method to write words without a point and put that word in a condition that can be read in two forms. This kind of exploitation of the guard has made some of the scribers one of these variants real. But with care in the context of poetry, we find that Hafiz has placed signs for each face, and this shows that Hafez has used both words for the meaning of his poem. As a result, it is not necessary to discuss some of the arguments that are used to select some of the faces, since Hafez has taken into consideration both the array of both. But the new line-up does not have the capability to provide both forms of the word, and therefore, in some prints, only one word form is entered. Consequently, in the case of controversial examples, such as prepared (Mohaya) and well-off (Mohana), Nest (Ashyane) and Threshold (Astane), My awareness (Khebratam) and my astonishment (Heyratam) Luxury (Tajamol) and tolerance (Tahamol) Black (Siahi) and brave(Sepahi), crooked (kaj) and deaf (kar) Mole (khal) and status (Hal) And so on Hafez has been considered in both forms.
    Keywords: Hafez, dual recordings, Tashif opacity, reconciliation of the editions
  • Sayede Elham Hoseini Sedeh, Hosein Aghahosaini Dehaghanii Pages 131-142
    In the study and explanation of the structure of the odes, different parts of it have always been noticed. In addition to the main part, the ode has some parts such as Tashbib, Takhallos and Sharithe, which have always attracted the attention of the literary people. Tashbib should be a way of entering into an ode and is one of the most important parts of it, which has an important role in perspiring and stimulating the audience due to being in the forefoot of the poet. It has always been one of the controversial debates among the professionals, but in spite of all their efforts, the comprehensive and perfect definition of it has not been provided by the literary community. In this research, the aim is to express and criticize these definitions more completely and precisely in order to provide a clearer understanding of it. Therefore, the researchers in this essay try to find an answer to the following questions in order to achieve the goal: 1- To what extant do the definitions presented in rhetorical books fit with the Persian Thashbib? 2- Could be said that, according to the most of rhetorical books, Tashbib, Nasib and Taghazzol are synonyms? 3 - Is it possible to find a feature complementary to the ones presented in the rhetorical books? 4. Could any prelude to the ode be called Thashbib?
    Keywords: Ottoman, Talebib, Rhetoric Sciences, Nassib, Lituhl