- سال هفتم شماره 1 (بهار 1398)
- تاریخ انتشار: 1398/01/01
- تعداد عناوین: 16
صفحات 1-22هدف این مقاله تبیین مفهوم "مدیریت حکمت بنیان مدرسه " بود. چارچوب روش شناختی مورد استفاده، رویکرد کیفی از نوع نظریه مبنایی با نگاه سیستمی بود. برای جمع آوری داده از اطلاع رسان ها، مصاحبه های عمیق غیررسمی و تحلیل اسناد استفاده شد. همچنین برمبنای اشباع نظری، 15 تن از حکمای معاصر و فیلسوفان تعلیم و تربیت و علوم اجتماعی در سطح جهانی برای مشارکت در این پژوهش دعوت شدند. 5 سند نیز به عنوان اطلاع رسان مورد استناد قرار گرفت. تحلیل داده ها در 3 مرحله کدگذاری باز، محوری و گزینشی انجام شد. نظریه نهایی نیز حول مقوله محوری "مدیریت حکمت بنیان مدرسه " صورت بندی شد. باور پذیری نظریه تولید شده از طریق راهبردهای بازبینی اعضاء، تحلیل موارد منفی و چند سویه سازی منابع مورد تعدیل قرار گرفت. فرایند تحلیل داده ها تا حد شکل گیری نظریه نیز جهت تامین معیار اعتمادپذیری پژوهش، تا حد ممکن توصیف شد. نتایج نشان داد، "مدیریت حکمت بنیان مدرسه " با اتکا به عوامل نگرشی، نظری و سازمانی قابل بازشناسی است. همچنین این سازه تحت تاثیر شرایط مداخله گر محیطی و سیاست های کلان و شرایط زمینه ای (قابلیت های عملی، قابلیت های فرهنگی، قابلیت های معنوی، قابلیت های نظری) قابل توسعه است. در واقع به کارگیری راهبرد رهبری حکیمانه، موجب توسعه حکمت در مدارس، بالندگی فرهنگی و تحقق اهداف نافع مدرسه خواهد شد.کلیدواژگان: حکمت، مدیریت حکمت بنیان، مدرسه، نظریه مبنایی
صفحات 23-39هدف پژوهش حاضر، بررسی وضعیت و رابطه یادگیری مادام العمر با اثربخشی مدرسه است. جامعه پژوهش کلیه معلمان مدارس هوشمند منطقه 5 شهر تهران که شامل1109 نفر هستند، از این جامعه با روش نمونه گیری تصادفی ساده، نمونه ای به حجم 240 نفر انتخاب گردید. روش پژوهش کمی، توصیفی و از نوع مطالعات پیمایشی- همبستگی است. ابزار پژوهش پرسشنامه است . جهت گردآوری داده ها از پرسشنامه محقق ساخته 21 سوالی یادگیری مادام العمر بر مبنای مدل گای و همکارانش (2014) و از پرسشنامه محقق ساخته 18 سوالی اثربخشی مدرسه بر مبنای مدل چن و لین (2011) استفاده شد. جهت تعیین پایایی و روایی ابزار از تکنیک های آلفای کرانباخ و تحلیل عاملی تائیدی استفاده شد، نتایج بیانگر پایایی و روایی مطلوب ابزاربود. جهت تحلیل داده ها از تکنیک های توصیفی(شاخص های مرکز و پراکندگی) و استنباطی(آزمون های تی تک نمونه ای، ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و رگرسیون چند متغیره خطی) با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS استفاده شد. نتایج بیانگر آن است که : وضعیت یادگیری مادام العمر و اثربخشی مدرسه در معلمان مدارس هوشمند منطقه 5شهر تهران دارای تفاوت معنادار با وضعیت مطلوب در سطح آلفای 05/0 و بیانگر وضعیت نامطلوب است ؛ همچنین یادگیری مادام العمر و ابعاد آن دارای رابطه و اثر مثبت، مستقیم و معنادار با / بر اثربخشی مدرسه در معلمان مدارس هوشمند منطقه 5 شهر تهران در سطح آلفای 05/0 هستند .کلیدواژگان: یادگیری مادام العمر، اثربخشی مدرسه، معلمان، مدارس هوشمند
صفحات 40-63هدف از اجرای پژوهش حاضر، بررسی رابطه میان سبک رهبری خدمتگزار و رفتار شهروند سازمانی با در نظر گرفتن متغیر میانجی جوسازمانی در دبیرستان های شهر سنندج در سال تحصیلی1396- 1395 بود. روش انجام پژوهش توصیفی از نوع همبستگی هست. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل 651 نفر از دبیران مدارس متوسطه دوره دوم شهر سنندج بود که به شیوه نمونه گیری تصادفی خوشه ایو طبقه ای (انتخاب تصادفی مدرسه و انتخاب تصادفی معلم در مدرسه) تعداد 238 نفر به عنوان نمونه پژوهش انتخاب شدند. جهت گردآوری اطلاعات از سه پرسشنامه سبک رهبری خدمتگزار، پرسشنامه جوسازمانی مدارس متوسطه دوم و پرسشنامه رفتار شهروند سازمانی استفاده شد. برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از آزمون رگرسیون و تحلیل معادلات ساختاری استفاده شد. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان داد که رابطه معناداری بین متغیر مستقل رهبری خدمتگزار و متغیر وابسته رفتار شهروند سازمانی دبیران و جوسازمانی وجود دارد. رهبری خدمتگزار پیش بین کننده معناداری برای رفتار شهروندی سازمانی است و عامل فروتنی از مجموع عوامل رهبری خدمتگزار بیشترین تاثیر را بر جوسازمانی دارند. همچنین رهبری خدمتگزار به صورت غیرمستقیم با میانجیگری جوسازمانی بر رفتار شهروند سازمانی اثرگذاری مثبت دارد.کلیدواژگان: سبک رهبری خدمتگزار، جوسازمانی، رفتار شهروند سازمانی، مدل معادلات ساختاری
تبیین معیارهای روان شناختی شایستگی مدیران مدارس اصفهان و تعیین روابط علی با روش ترکیبی دلفی-دیمتل فازیصفحات 64-86
هدف از پژوهش حاضر تبیین شایستگی های روان شناختی مدیریتی برای مدیر مدرسه و تعیین روابط علی بین آنها با ترکیب روش دلفی و دیمتل فازی می باشد. این پژوهش از نوع پژوهشهای آمیخته و طرح پژوهش از نوع اکتشافی است. ابتدا با مطالعه عمیق ادبیات موضوع، معیار های اولیه شایستگی روان شناختی استخراج و پیش مدل تدوین گردید. 25 نفر از اساتید و خبرگان در دانشگاه های سراسر کشور با روش نمونه گیری شبکه متخصصان انتخاب و با آنها مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته انجام گرفت و بر اساس نتایج تحلیل مصاحبه پیش مدل اصلاح شده شامل معیار های فرعی نگرش، شخصیت و ادراک به همراه 26 زیر معیار تدوین شد. بر پایه پیش مدل اصلاح شده و با هدف غربالگری ثانویه، پرسشنامه ای با طیف لیکرت تهیه و پایائی پرسشنامه با استفاده از آلفای کرونباخ(96/0) تایید گردید. نمونه ای با حجم 150 نفر از بین مدیران مدارس در آموزش وپرورش استان اصفهان بر اساس روش هدفمند انتخاب شده و پرسشنامه در اختیار آنها قرار گرفت. نتایج پرسشنامه با تکنیک دلفی و رویکرد فازی تحلیل و مدل نهائی شامل 10 زیر معیار تدوین گردید. در پایان با نظرخواهی از 8 نفر از خبرگان دانشگاه از طریق پرسشنامه دیمتل فازی روابط علی بین زیر معیار های شایستگی روان شناختی تعیین گردید. نتایج نشان داد متغیر های مسئولیت پذیری، انتقاد پذیری، خودکنترلی، مهارت تصمیم گیری، اعتماد به نفس و انعطاف پذیری، علی و زیر معیار های، رضایت شغلی، تفکر خلاق، مثبت اندیشی و تفکر سیستمی متغیر معلول محسوب می گردند.کلیدواژگان: شایستگی روان شناختی، شخصیت، نگرش، ادراک، مسئولیت پذیری
هدف این پژوهش طراحی الگوی صلاحیت های معلمی متناسب با ویژگی های جهانی و اعتبار سنجی آن از نظر متخصصان علوم تربیتی و معلمان نمونه است. روش انجام پژوهش آمیخته اکتشافی(کمی-کیفی) و جامعه آماری آن 167نفر از متخصصان علوم تربیتی و معلمان نمونه شهرتهران در سال تحصیلی 96-1395 و نمونه آماری 114 نفراست که 80 نفر آن معلمان نمونه و 34 نفر متخصصان علوم تربیتی میباشند که به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای انتخاب شدند. در این تحقیق ابتدا به صورت کیفی به تدوین ابزار (پرسشنامه محقق ساخته) و تحلیل محتوا اقدام و روایی صوری و محتوایی پرسشنامه توسط صاحب نظران تایید و پایایی آن پس از اجرای مقدماتی از طریق محاسبه ضریب آلفای کرانباخ 98/0 محاسبه گردید و در مرحله دوم (کمی) ابزار طراحی شده اجرا گردید. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که صلاحیت های حرفه ای در پنج بعد شامل دانش حرفه ای (دانش پداگوژی،برقراری ارتباط، تخصصی/ سازمانی و خودشناسی)، مهارت های حرفه ای(مهارت تدریس ، برقراری ارتباط موثر، کار تیمی ، فناورانه و ارزشیابی)، توانایی های حرفه ای (تفکر خلاق تفکر انتقادی،حل مسئله، توانایی ذهنی / تحلیلی، رهبری)، نگرش های حرفه ای (یادگیری مادام العمر، نگرش معلمی،خود/دگرباوری مثبت، نگرش پیش کنشی،نگاه دمکراسی، دیدگاه دانش آموز محوری) و ویژگی های حرفه ای (اخلاقی، رفتاری، عاطفی، و ارتباطی) می باشد. بررسی آزمون خی دو نشان داد در تمامی این مولفه ها، مقادیر مشاهده شده و مورد انتظار با یکدیگر تفاوت معناداری دارد. نهایتا، دانش برقراری ارتباط، دانش تخصصی و دانش خودشناسی بیشترین اهمیت را از نظر متخصصان علوم تربیتی و معلمان نمونه دارد.کلیدواژگان: صلاحیت های معلمی، متخصصان علوم تربیتی، معلمان نمونه، ویژگی ها جهانی
صفحات 105-125این پژوهش آمیخته با استفاده از داده های به دست آمده از مطالعه اکتشافی مولفه های شایستگی مشخص شده و از طریق تحقیق توصیفی- پیمایشی مورد ارزیابی قرار داده شد. جامعه پژوهش در بخش کیفی، کلیه صاحب نظران، اساتید و مدیران ارشد حوزه منابع انسانی در آموزش وپرورش کشور بود که با استفاده از نمونه گیری هدفمند مبتنی بر گلوله برفی با 12 نفر از صاحب نظران مصاحبه شد. جامعه ی آماری در مرحله کمی کلیه مدیران آموزش وپرورش شهر تهران بودند که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای250 نفر به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. ابزار پژوهش در مرحله کیفی مصاحبه بدون ساختار و در مرحله کمی پرسشنامه محقق ساخته بود. به منظور تحلیل یافته های به دست آمده از مصاحبه کیفی، از روش تحلیل محتوای استقرایی مبتنی بر کدگذاری باز و محوری استفاده شد. برای تحلیل داده های کمی نیز از تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی و آزمون t تک نمونه ای استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد شایستگی های موردنیاز مدیران مدارس برای استفاده در کانون ارزیابی عبارت اند از: دانش و آگاهی (تخصص، تجربه، دانش بروز، دانش فناوری اطلاعات، آگاهی از قوانین اجرایی، دانش محیطی و شناخت اسناد بالادستی)، هوش و استعداد (هوش منطقی، هوش میان فردی، هوش فرهنگی، هوش هیجانی، خلاقیت، توانایی رهبری، توانایی مدیریتی، قدرت تصمیم گیری)، مسائل اعتقادی و اخلاقی (اخلاق حسنه، التزام به ارزش های جامعه، سعه صدر، مهربانی، مسئولیت پذیری).کلیدواژگان: منابع انسانی، شایستگی، شایستگی مدیران، کانون ارزیابی
صفحات 126-146هدف از پژوهش حاضر طراحی مدل ساختاری- تفسیری مولفه های مدارس اثربخش در دوره اول متوسطه بود. روش تحقیق توصیفی-پیمایشی می باشد. جامعه آماری این تحقیق شامل اساتید گروه علوم تربیتی، روسا و معاونین آموزش و پرورش، مدیران و معاونان آموزشی مدارس، دبیران و اولیاء دانش آموزان دوره اول متوسطه با مدرک علوم تربیتی در شمالغرب کشور می باشند، که نمونه ای به حجم 217 نفر به صورت هدفمند انتخاب شدند. برای گرد آوری داده های تحقیق ابتدا با استفاده از مبانی نظری و تحقیقات انجام شده در داخل و خارج کشور در زمینه مدارس اثربخش، پرسشنامه محقق ساخته ای تهیه گردید، که بعد از تایید روایی صوری و محتوایی آن به روش های کمی و کیفی، پایایی پرسشنامه(970/0=α) بدست آمد. داده های جمع آوری شده از طریق نرم افزارهای SPSS و AMOS تجزیه و تحلیل شدند. نتایج نشان داد که الگوی تحلیل عاملی 16 مولفه ای مدارس اثربخش بر اساس مولفه ها(فرهنگ، جو مدرسه، انتظارات سطح بالا از دانش آموزان، رهبری اثربخش، معلم اثربخش، انسجام، نهفتگی، تامین منابع، دستیابی به اهداف، فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، راهبردهای یادگیری، عوامل موثر بر پیشرفت تحصیلی، مشارکت والدین، سازگاری یا قابلیت انطباق با محیط، نظارت و ارزیابی و ارائه بازخورد، تصمیم گیری) و زیر مولفه ها با تحلیل عاملی مرتبه اول و دوم دارای برازندگی مناسب بوده، و مدل ساختاری-تفسیری مولفه های مدارس اثربخش با استفاده از رویکرد ISM در نه سطح طراحی گردیدکه اولین سطح آن به عوامل موثر بر پیشرفت تحصیلی و آخرین سطح به تامین منابع اختصاص دارد.کلیدواژگان: مدارس اثربخش، مدل ساختاری-تفسیری، معلم اثربخش، پیشرفت تحصیلی، مشارکت والدین
صفحات 147-162هدف آموزش کمک به پیروزی افراد است و نظام آموزشی که در تحقق این امر کارایی لازم را نداشته باشد، نیازمند بازبینی و اصلاح است. هدف این پژوهش، بهره گیری از اصول تفکر ناب برای شناسایی و حذف موانعی است که تبدیل نظام آموزشی ایران به اجتماع یادگیرنده حرفه ای را به چالش می کشاند. در این پژوهش کیفی، با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری هدفمند در قالب کاربردی سیستماتیک از روش پژوهشی داده بنیاد، داده های حاصل از 13 مصاحبه نیمه ساختار یافته با خبرگان ، مشاهده 10 منطقه آموزشی استان تهران و تحلیل محتوای 45 سند مرتبط، با کدگزاری در نرم افزار MAXQDA 12 مورد بررسی و تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفته اند. 1370 کد استخراج شده، در قالب 239 مفهوم، 19 مقوله و 6 مولفه دسته بندی شده اند. بر اساس نتایج حاصل از تحلیل داده ها، آموزش بر اساس نیازهای فراگیران، معلمان و سایر ذی نفعان عامل اصلی لزوم شکل گیری اجتماع یادگیرنده حرفه ای است که فرایندها و تعاملات شکل دهنده آن مثل همکاری، به اشتراک گذاشتن، ارزیابی و شناسایی، تحت تاثیر عوامل زمینه ای تسهیل گر (فرهنگ و رهبری) و عوامل بازدارنده (ضعف ها و اتلاف ها) قرار می گیرند. شدت و ضعف این دو دسته از عوامل، می تواند موجب بروز تغییراتی مثبت یا منفی در پیامدهای مورد انتظار این جوامع گردد.کلیدواژگان: "، اجتماع یادگیرنده حرفه ای"، "، تفکر ناب"، "، همکاری"، "، به اشتراک گذاری"، "، شناسایی"
صفحات 163-181پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی ملاک های موفقیت معلمان برجسته در حوزه ی آموزش چندفرهنگی صورت گرفته است تا چگونگی موفقیت آن ها در آموزش چندفرهنگی را نشان دهد. به همین منظور، پژوهش کیفی و روش تجربه ی ایده آل روش مبنایی پژوهش بوده و از مصاحبه ی نیمه سازمان یافته جهت جمع آوری داده ها و از تحلیل محتوای کیفی جهت تحلیل داده ها، استفاده شده است. جهت استفاده از روش تجربه ی ایده آل 4 مرحله ی طرح، جستجو، مشاهده و جمع آوری اطلاعات و تجزیه و تحلیل، اجرا شد. تعداد معلمان موفق در آموزش چندفرهنگی در سال های 2014 - 2015 شامل 5 نفر بوده که از تمامی معلمان با روش مصاحبه ی نیمه سازمان یافته به جمع آوری اطلاعات پرداخته شد. مصاحبه ها با اجازه ی معلمان ضبط و بر روی کاغذ پیاده شده و با استفاده از روش تحلیل محتوای مضمونی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. یافته ها نشان می دهد 14 نکته ی کلیدی در موفقیت معلمان در آموزش چندفرهنگی نقش موثری ایفا کرده است. نکاتی مانند نگرش مثبت معلمان نسبت به تنوع و نقاط اختلاف و شباهت ها، استفاده از شیوه ی بیان و سبک گفتار دانش آموزان در خانه و فرهنگشان در محاوره های کلاسی، ارتباط تنگاتگ و مستمر با والدین دانش آموزان و استفاده از آن ها در فرایند یادگیری، به رسمیت شناختن هویت چندگانه ی دانش آموزان و توسعه ی زبان، دانش تاریخی و فرهنگی آن ها در کلاس، حضور در اجتماعات دانش آموزان، محیط های زندگی دانش آموزان در خارج از مدرسه.کلیدواژگان: کلیدواژه ها: تجربه ی ایده آل، آموزش چندفرهنگی، معلمان، مدارس
تحقیق حاضر با هدف « بررسی وضعیت فرهنگ سازمانی و رابطه آن با یادگیری سازمانی معلمان مقطع دوم متوسطه کرمانشاه» اانجام شد. روش تحقیق در رسته تحقیقات پیمایشی وتوصیفی قرارداد. جامعه آماری شامل کلیه معلمان مقطع دوم متوسطه استان کرمانشاه به تعداد 800 نفر بودند. نمونه آماری دراین تحقیق با استفاده از جدول جرسی و مورگان با احتساب واریانس پیشینه معادل 260 نفر بود که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری تصادفی انتخاب شدند. ابزار جمعآوری داده ها، استفاده از پرسشنامه های استاندارد رابینز جهت سنجش فرهنگ سازمانی و پرسشنامه مارکورات جهت سنجش سازمان یادگیرنده (یادگیری سازمانی) بود. با توجه به استاندارد بودن، روایی و پایایی پرسشنامه ها مورد تائید است. اطلاعات بدست آمده با انجام محاسبات آمار توصیفی و استنباطی (آزمون ضریب همبستگی اسپیرمن، رگرسیون چند متغیره) مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج حاصل نشان داد که تک تک مولفههای هوش سازمانی (خطر پذیری ، توجه به ره آورد ، خلاقیت و نوآوری، توجه به اعضای سازمان ، تاثیر نتایج تصمیمات بر کارکنان، توجه به تیم و سنجش پایداری با یادگیری رابطه معنی داری وجود دارد.کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ سازمانی، یادگیری سازمانی، کار تیمی، جو سازمانی، راهبرد یادگیری
پژوهش حاضر به روش پیمایشی انجام شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش را کلیه مدیران مدارس متوسطه(اول و دوم) شهرستان مریوان در سال تحصیلی 96- 95 تشکیل می دهد که تعداد آنها برابر با 82 نفر(66 نفر مرد،16 نفر زن) می باشد و بر اساس جدول نمونه گیری مورگان و به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی، 66 نفر به عنوان نمونه پژوه ش انتخاب شدند. ابزار جمع آوری اطلاعات شامل یک نمونه پرسشنامه محقق ساخته مدیریت دانش است که روایی آن توسط جمعی از متخصصان مورد تایید قرار گرفت و پایایی آن نیز از طریق فرمول آلفای کرانباخ برابر با 83/0بود. تجزیه و تحلیل داده های جمع آوری شده با استفاده از شاخص های آمار توصیفی شامل میانگین و انحراف استاندارد و نیز آزمون های آماری کولموگروف- اسمیرنوف، آزمون t تک گروهی، آزمون تحلیل واریانس یک راهه و آزمون t مستقل و با به کارگیری نرم افزار آماری 19 SPSS انجام شده است. به طور کلی یافته ها نشان داد که توجه به مدیریت دانش در بین مدیران مدارس بالاتر از حد متوسط بوده است و در حد نسبتا خوبی قرار دارد. همچنین نتایج بیانگر آن بود که بین دیدگاه مدیران از لحاظ میزان توجه به مدیریت دانش بر اساس جنسیت، سابقه خدمت و نیز میزان تحصیلات تفاوت وجود ندارد. در نهایت بر اساس یافته ها، چهار عامل کلی شامل: عوامل شخصی و فردی، عوامل سازمانی، فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات و عوامل مربوط به نظام آموزشی در به کارگیری موثر مدیریت دانش در مدرسه نقش دارد.کلیدواژگان: مدیریت دانش، مدیران مدارس، شهرستان مریوان
پژوهش حاضر با هدف طراحی مدل مدیریت استعداد در مدارس انجام پذیرفته است. این پژوهش بر پایه پژوهش آمیخته و به صورت کیفی و کمی در پارادایم قیاسی استقرایی انجام پذیرفته که از نظر هدف، کاربردی و از حیث ماهیت و روش، توصیفی پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش کارشناسان آموزش و پرورش و مدیران مدارس مقطع متوسطه شهرستان خرمآباد هستند که با استفاده از روش نمونهگیری هدفمند اعضای نمونه آن انتخاب شدهاند. در این پژوهش دادههای کیفی و کمی به ترتیب با استفاده از نرمافزار Atlas.ti و Matlab برای آمادهسازی دادهها جهت انجام مدلسازی با استفاده از رویکرد ISMبکار گرفته شده است. نتایج پژوهش نشان دهنده آن است که وجود نظام کارآمد مدیریت استعداد در مدارس مستلزم تدوین چشمانداز و نگرش مبتنی بر استعداد پروری است. از این رو سازمان آموزش و پرورش باید حین استخدام، خزانههای استعدادی تشکیل دهد که از طریق آن بتواند افراد با استعداد را بر اساس نوع تخصص موردنیاز به راحتی شناسایی و به استخدام مدارس درآورد. باید توجه داشت که افراد باید با توجه به نوع استعدادشان در تخصصهای مرتبط قرار گیرند. بر اساس مدل پژوهش مدارس باید این افراد را با فعالیتهای اساسی خود درگیر کنند و آنها را در فرآیند برنامه ریزی و تصمیم گیری خود دخالت داده و از طرف دیگر برای آنها برنامه ریزی مسیر شغلی مناسب را انجام دهد تا فرصت رشد و تعالی سازمانی و فردی به صورت توامان برای مدارس و افراد با استعداد بوجود آید.کلیدواژگان: مدیریت استعداد، استعدادپروری، مدارس، مدلسازی ساختاری تفسیری
در این پژوهش سعی بر آن است الگویی بر اساس تحلیل مضمون برای صلاحیتهای مدیران مدارس آموزشوپرورش استخراج گردد. جامعه آماری این پژوهش در زمینه اسناد شامل: کلیه مقالات، رساله ها، طرح ها و گزارش های پژوهشی مرتبط با موضوع موردپژوهش در گستره زمانی 2000-2018 در حوزه صلاحیتهای مدیران آموزشی با نمونهگیری هدفمند بود. در فرایند تحلیل مضمون با همسوسازی دادهها به تدوین و اعتبار یابی چارچوب صلاحیت های مدیران آموزشی پرداخته شد .پایایی نتایج با استفاده از روش هولستی 95/0 برآورد گردید. بر اساس یافتههای این پژوهش صلاحیتهای مدیران آموزشی در 4 تم فراگیر دانایی، تعالی معنوی، پویندگی و پایستگی خلاصه گردید. مضمون دانایی شامل دو مضمون پیش سازمان دهنده (یاددهی- یادگیری و سازمانی) و 8 مضمون پایه میباشد. مضمون تعالی معنوی شامل 3 مضمون پیش سازمان دهنده (عشق به هستی، جهانبینی معنوی و ایمان و امید) و 9 مضمون پایه است. مضمون پویندگی شامل 4 مضمون پیش سازمان دهنده (پیشرویی، تشریکمساعی، مدیریت ارتباطات، دیدگاه جهانی) و 8 مضمون پایه است. درنهایت مضمون پایستگی شامل 5 مضمون پیش سازمان دهنده (مدیریت تکنولوژی، مدیریت مالی پایدار، مدیریت نوآفرینی، مدیریت محیط زیست و مدیریت سلامت پایدار) و 13 مضمون پایه میباشد. مدل حاضر میتواند مبنای مناسبی برای مدیران در مدارس و همچنین سنجش و ارائه راهکارهایی برای انتخاب مدیران بر اساس مولفههای تعریفشده در این مدل باشد.کلیدواژگان: صلاحیت مدیران آموزشی، دانایی، تعالی معنوی، پویندگی، پایستگی
مدیریت استعداد عبارت است از انجام یک سری فعالیت های یکپارچه به منظور تضمین جذب ، نگهداری ، انگیزش و توسعه کارکنان مستعد مورد نیاز ، در حال حاضر و در آینده توسط سازمان. این پژوهش فرایند مدیریت استعداد معلمان در دوره متوسطه آموزش و پرورش شهر اردبیل را با استفاده از طرح نظام دار نظریه داده بنیاد کاوش نموده است. به این منظور با مصاحبه فردی نیمه ساختار یافته با 18 نفر از معلمان نمونه و مجرب دوره متوسطه مصاحبه به عمل آمد. داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار Atlas-Ti تحلیل شدند. نتایج تحلیل داده ها طی سه مرحله کدگذاری باز، محوری و انتخابی حاکی از 12 مقوله کلی بود که در قالب مدل پارادایمی شامل: شرایط علی(تغییرات سیستمی و تغییرات مدیریتی)؛ مقوله محوری (مدیریت حرفه ای فرد در سازمان و مدیریت روانی- ذهنی فرد در سازمان)؛ راهبردهای (اقدامات اجرائی طرح)؛ عوامل زمینه ای (فضاسازی زمینه ای محیطی، ساختاری و فضاسازی زمینه ای نیروی انسانی)؛ عوامل مداخله ای (تغییرات عملکردی لازم در مدارس و تغییرات ساختاری لازم در مدارس) و پیامد (دستاوردهای شناختی روانی و دستاوردهای علمی آموزشی) فرایند مدیریت استعداد معلمان در دوره متوسطه شهر اردبیل و روابط بین ابعاد مختلف آن را منعکس می نماید.کلیدواژگان: آموزش و پرورش، مدیریت استعداد، توسعه استعداد، معلمان، شهر اردبیل
هدف این پژوهش بررسی وضعیت خودرهبری معلمان مدارس منطقه پنج تهران است. خودرهبری در پژوهش حاضر شامل نه مولفه است که عبارتند از: تجسم عملکرد موفق، هدفگذاری شخصی، صحبت کردن با خود، پاداش دادن به خود، ارزیابی باورها و مفروضات، تنبیه خود، مشاهده شخصی، تمرکز بر پاداشهای طبیعی و راهنمایی خود. پژوهشگر در این پژوهش به دنبال بررسی وضعیت هر یک از مولفهها در میان جامعه موردپژوهش بود..در این پژوهش از روش توصیفی- پیمایشی استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش شامل تمامی معلمان مدارس دوره اول و دوم منطقه پنج تهران(تعداد1709) در سال تحصیلی 96-95 است. از طریق جدول نمونهگیری کرجسی و مورگان حجم نمونه 340 نفر به روش تصادفی انتخاب شدند و پرسشنامه بین آنها توزیع شد. ابزار این پژوهش پرسشنامه تجدیدنظر شده نک و هوتن(2002) بود. برای محاسبه روایی سازهای پرسشنامه از روایی همگرایی و واگرایی استفاده شده است. برای تجزیهوتحلیل دادهها و بررسی فرضیهها از روش مدلسازی معادلات ساختاری به روش حداقل مربعات جزئی استفاده شد که به این منظور نرمافزار آماری SPSS23 و Smart PLS.2 به کار گرفته شد. درنهایت، نتایج نشان داد که کلیه مولفههای نهگانه خودرهبری در جامعه مورد پژوهش مورد تائید قرار گرفت. به عبارت دیگر کلیه افراد جامعه مورد پژوهش در ارتباط با مولفه های خودرهبری از وضعیت مناسبی برخوردارند.کلیدواژگان: خودرهبری، هدف گذاری شخصی، تمرکز بر پاداش های طبیعی، عملکرد موفق
پژوهش حاضر لحاظ هدف، کاربردی و از نوع پژوهش توصیفی- همبستگی است. به همین منظور از جامعه مدیران مدارس شهرستان سنقر 92 نفر (31 مدیر زن و 61 مدیر مرد) با روش تصادفی طبقه ای و با استفاده از جدول تعیین حجم نمونه مورگان به عنوان نمونه تحقیق انتخاب گردیدند. ابزار جمع آوری داده ها در این پژوهش، پرسشنامه حمایت سازمانی ادراک شده آیزنبرگر و همکاران(1986) و مقیاس رضایت شغلی اسمیت، کندال و هیولین(1969) بود. روایی محتوایی و صوری آن با نظر اساتید و پایایی آنها با روش آلفای کرونباخ و همبستگی بین سوالی تایید گردید. یافته های این تحقیق بیانگر آنست که: ادراک مدیران مدارس از حمایت سازمانی در حد متوسط و وضعیت رضایت شغلی آنان بالاتر از میانگین مقیاس است. بین ادراک از حمایت سازمانی مدیران و میزان رضایت شغلی آنان رابطه معناداری وجود دارد. همچنین ادراک از حمایت سازمانی در رابطه با رضایت شغلی نقش پیش بینی کننده ای دارد. همچنین یافته ها بیانگر آنست که، رابطه معناداری بین ادراک از حمایت سازمانی مدیران و میزان رضایت شغلی آنان بر حسب متغیرهای دموگرافیک جنس، سن، سطح تحصیلات و سابقه شغلی وجود ندارد.کلیدواژگان: حمایت سازمانی، حمایت سازمانی ادراک شده، رضایت شغلی، مدیران آموزشی
Pages 1-22The purpose of this article was to explaining Wisdom based Principals. The framework of methodology used, was qualitative a type of grounded theory with a systematic look. The informal conversational interview and document analysis was used to collect data from the media. Selection of research informants was done purposive sampling using sampling guide with a maximum variation sampling and theoretical sampling. The informants were compiled by contemporary philosophers and the philosophers of education and social sciences in and out of the country, and the 5 related documents on the subject. Data analysis was performed in three stages of open coding, axial coding, and selective coding, and the final theory was formulated around the core category of “Wisdom based Principals”. The theory was modified in several steps through member check, negative case analysis and triangulation of sources in term of credibility. Also in order to provide a measure of dependability the process of data analysis until the formation of the theory was described. Results show, wisdom based school management is redefined by relying on attitudes theoretical and organizational factors. The construct is also expandable influenced by environmental interventions, macro policies, and context, (cultural, spiritual and theoretical capabilities). Indeed, applying wisdom leadership strategies, promotes wisdom and cultural enlightenment in school, and fulfills the school’s goals.Keywords: Wisdom, Wisdom based Principals, school, Grounded Theory
The study of the relationship between lifelong learning and school effectiveness in the teachers of smart schools In the district 5 of TehranPages 23-39The purpose of this study was to investigate the status and relationship of lifelong learning with the effectiveness of the school. The research population was all the teachers of smart schools in the district 5 of Tehran. A sample of 240 individuals was selected through simple random sampling from this society. The research method was quantitative, descriptive and from the type of survey-correlation study. The research tool was a questionnaire. A researcher-made questionnaire of 21 lifelong learning questions based on Guy and et al.'s model (2014) and a researcher-made questionnaire of 18 school effectiveness questions based on the Chen and Lane’s model (2011) was used to collect data. Cronbach's alpha and confirmatory-operational analysis techniques were used to determine the reliability and validity of the tool. Results indicated the desirable reliability and validity of the tool. Descriptive (center and dispersion indicators) and inferential (single sample T tests, Pearson correlation coefficient and linear multivariate regression) techniques were used for data analysis, by SPSS software. The results indicate that The status of lifelong learning and school effectiveness in Teachers of Intelligent Schools in District 5 of Tehran has a significant difference with a favorable situation in the alpha level of 0.05 and indicates a poor condition; also, life-long learning and its dimensions have a positive, direct and significant positive effect on / On the effectiveness of school in Teachers of Intelligent Schools in District 5 of Tehran in the alpha level of 0.05.Keywords: Lifelong learning, school effectiveness, teachers, smart schools
The Organizational Climate as a Mediator between Servant Leadership and Organizational Citizenship BehaviorPages 40-63Principals and teachers are among the main determining factors of the quality of education (Hallinger and Heck, 1996; Sisman, 2004). As teachers spend most of their time engaged in educational activities in class and working closely with students, they are key to developing students' organizational climate behavior (OCB) quality. Also, principals, who are involved in management-related activities such as dealing with teachers, staff, students ,and parents, can establish and underpin teachers and staff' OCB quality. Therefor, this study aims to explore the mediating role of organizational climate on servant leadership style and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).
ResearchMethodThe present study was conducted among Sanandaj senior high schools' teachers in two urban districts in Kurdistan, Iran, which included all public schools under the supervision of the Kurdistan Ministry of education. According to district 1 and 2 education of Sanandaj statistics in the academic year 2016-2017, the total number of teachers in the two districts was 651, of which 345 (53%) were in district 1 and 306 (47%) in district 2 high schools. Bentlerand Chou (1987) suggested that the ratio of 5 people per each observed variable is sufficient. A more accepted rule is the ratio of 10 people per each observed variable. The model tested in this study has 14 observed variables (4 factors for servant leadership, 5 factors for OCB, and 5 factors for organizational climate). Therefore, taking into account 10 people per variable, the minimum sample size would be 140 people. To obtain a statistically significant number, we initially applied cluster sampling, a sampling technique used when “natural” groupings are evident (in this case two urban districts). Then, within each district, we used stratified sampling (since each district includes two strata: female and male teachers). Combining both cluster sampling and stratified sampling methods often improve the representativeness of the sample by reducing sampling error (Saifuddin, 2009). These sampling methods yielded 238 teachers including 119 male teachers and 119 female teachers. We used three different questionnaires to collect data in this study. First, the servant leadership Questionnaire prepared by Gholipour and Hazrati in Iran in 2009 based on the Patterson Model. This questionnaire consisted of 24 items measuring four components of service, humility, trusty, and altruism. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which they agreed with the statement using a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). The second questionnaire is Organizational climate scale (OCDQ) which new editions have been formulated for elementary, secondary, and high school grades. In this study, the high school version (OCDQ-rs, Hoy et al., 1990) was used. It has 32 items which assess principal - teacher behavior in two dimensions of supportive principal behavior and directive principal behavior and teacher – teacher behavior in three dimensions of engaged teacher behavior, frustrated teacher behavior and intimate teacher behavior. The responses vary along a four-point scale defined by the categories "rarely occurs", "sometimes occurs", "often occurs", and "very frequently occurs." (1 through 4, respectively). Finally, to determine whether teachers believe that they exhibit citizenship behaviors, we used Podsakoff et al.’s (1990) OCB 23-item scale consisted of components of conscientiousness, altruism, courtesy, sportsmanship.
FindingsData analysis based on regression analysis showed that there is a significant relationship between the servant leadership and the OCB of teachers and organizational climate. Regression analysis showed that servant leadership significantly predicts OCB (R = 0.410; R2 = 168; F (1,236) = 47.597; P <0.001). It can be said that 16.8% of the variance related to teachers’ OCB is explained by servant leadership. Multivariate correlations between servant leadership and organizational climate are significant (R = 0.499; R2 = 249 F (4,233) = 19.334; P <0.001). Servant leadership factors together explained 24.9% of the variance in the total organizational climate of teachers. Standardized regression coefficients show that humility has the highest and service has the least impact on organizational climate Leadership predicts OCB significantly and indirectly and with the mediating role of organizational climate has a positive impact on OCB.
Research Implication: Correlations indicate that the use of servant leadership style, which has special attention to the relationship between leader and followers, can contribute to an internal ethical norm in the teachers by the creation of a positive environment and a healthy workplace and finally lead to the formation of OCB in them. Improving organizational behavior in educational centers through leadership and open and engaged climate can create conditions that teachers will act more than the role of teaching duties and their assigned duties to act in the pursuit of other goals of the school. In this study, the importance of servant leadership in promoting the climate of schools and OCB of teachers was considered effective. In this regard, it is recommended that some programs should be developed and implemented to develop leadership skills among school principals. Organizations may look for opportunities to recruit individuals who possess servant leadership characteristics. Leadership development opportunities exist to enhance managers' servant leadership skills. Future studies should further examine this subject including all variables in the same educational level in other educational districts or repeat this at other educational levels. In addition, future studies should focus more on intimacy dimension of teacher climate in schools.Keywords: Servant Leadership Style, Organizational Climate, Organizational Behavior, high school
Explaining the Psychological Competency Criterions of School Principals and Determine Causal Relationships Between, them based on the Combination of Fuzzy Delphi (FD) and Fuzzy Dematel (FD) Methods in Isfahan Education OrganizationPages 64-86
Schools are faced with a variety of new challenges in the modern era. Cultural and socioeconomic developments, the increasing costs of financing schools, poorly-motivated teachers, the increasing harms caused by students’ free access to information and communication technologies and students’ inadequate academic motivation are issues that stress the important mission of the principal as the main element involved in realizing educational objectives. Given emerging paradigms such as increased school autonomy and the need for accountability, the school leadership is globally considered one of the main aspects contributing to the progress of schools. Attention to school principals’ managerial competencies and their development is an inescapable necessity, and failure to address these competencies in selecting principals leads to the loss of enormous financial and human resources as well as the dissatisfaction of the teachers and parents. The definitions of competency can be summarized in three groups. The first group refers to visible functions that focus on the results or completion of tasks, and specific functions have therefore been defined as competencies that form the basis for the individual’s performance evaluation, supervision and judgement. The second group regards competencies as quality standards for the individual's performance output and associates competencies with workplace efficiency or productivity. Competency is thus defined as visible standards or performances within the organizational context. The third group defines competencies as inherent personal attributes such as knowledge, skills and tendencies to perform competently. However, in recent decades, there has been a growing consensus in the field of human resources that introduces managerial competency as the set of related knowledge, ability, skills, and other characteristics. Other research results show that the concept of managerial competency that includes knowledge and skills, along with other characteristics, such as attitude, behaviors, work habits, abilities, and personality traits, is more widely supported ResearchMethod
The present study was conducted to explain the psychological competencies of the school principal and determine the causal relationships between them by combining the Delphi and Dematel fuzzy methods. The present research is an applied study in terms of objective and nature, since its results can be directly used by the education system to identify, evaluate and select competent individuals for the role of school principal, and since there is little knowledge about the phenomenon under study, i.e. management competencies in the education system. The goal is to collect data as they are, and the quantitative part of the study makes it a descriptive research in terms of data collection. The qualitative part of the study is based on the grounded theory method and provides the foundation of knowledge required for modeling. Since the initial data are collected and thematized through interviews, and the FD questionnaire is developed and implemented according to these themes, the present research is considered a mixed study (quantitative and qualitative). Since the interviews were initially held to develop a competency measurement tool (questionnaire), and supplementary data are only then collected using the questionnaire, the study is considered exploratory in design. A competency model should be consistent with the philosophical principles governing the society, the national and organizational culture and the strategic objectives of the school, and provide the bases for its key functions, processes and activities. The review of literature and the assessment of various theories showed Boyatzis’ theory (2008) as the most suitable for classifying school principals’ competencies. First, according to the research literature, the main criteria were extracted and the pre-model was developed. To determine the sub-criteria and modify the pre-model, a sample of 25 experts from universities across the country were selected by the Network Sampling method, semi-structured interviews were conducted, and 26 sub-criteria were determined. For secondary screening and the implementation of the sub-criteria, a questionnaire with Likert scale was prepared. A sample of 150 school principals was selected based on the targeted sampling method and the questionnaire was provided to them. The results of the questionnaire, using the Delphi technique and fuzzy approach, were analyzed and a hierarchical structure related to the psychological competency criteria including 10 sub-criteria was developed. Finally, eight experts from the university were be asked to use the Fuzzy Dematel Questionnaire and the causal relationships between the sub criteria of psychological competence were determined.Findings
The research data were analyzed in MAXQDA, SPSS, EXCEL and AMOS. By studying the literature a number of subsidiary criteria for each major criterion were extracted, with regards to transparency in the subsidiary criteria of competency, the ability to measure and assess, the ability to transform into behavioral indices, the non-overlapping between the sub-criteria and the attention to the cultural. The results showed that variables of accountability, critique, self-control, decision-making skills, self-esteem and flexibility, are causality and job satisfaction, creative thinking, positive thinking, and systemic thinking are effect Variables. Managers often overlook these competencies, perhaps due to the false belief that personal skills are inherent and cannot be changed. Some of these skills are inherent, but most can be changed and learnt. Psychological competency accompany people in both their work life and private life and act as a steppingstone for the emergence and development and considerable improvement of other competencies. This study presented a smart yet simple model based on human thoughts. Within the framework of a reliable theory of managerial competency and using an acceptable and scientific approach with the fuzzy logic, the present study provided a new method of presenting criteria for the selection of a competent manager. This model was also designed according to the theoretical principles of management science and the views of academic experts as well as the experiences of education experts to fill the gap between the experience and the science of education management. Each academic research faces barriers and limitations, and the current research is no exception. Fuzzy logic is a method that is not created for more than a few decades. The birth and formation of this method was in the industry and its penetration in human science studies has occurred with a delay. The lack of consensus and the agreement of professionals and experts in fuzzy logic in some fields and the lack of impressive number of researches carried out in this way in educational sciences has been one of the most important limitations of this research. It is possible to add the unfamiliarity of the subjects to the questionnaires used in this method.Keywords: psychological competences, personality, attitude, Perception, accountability
Designing a model of teacher competencies in accordance with global characteristics and validating it from the viewpoint of educational experts and exemplary teachers of schools in TehranPages 87-104
The purpose of this study is to design a model of teacher competency in accordance with global characteristics and validate it from the viewpoint of educational experts and exemplary teachers. The research method is exploratory mixed method and the statistical population of this study is 167 experts of educational sciences and experts teachers of the city of Tehran in the academic year of 1395-96 and the sample is 114 people. 80 of them were exemplary teachers and 34 were experts in educational sciences. They were selected by stratified random sampling method. In this research, a researcher-made questionnaire was used that was designed using qualitative content analysis method which confirmed the factual and content validity of the questionnaire was used. The reliability of the questionnaire after the preliminary implementation was calculated by calculating the Cronbach's Alpha coefficient of 0.98. The findings of the research show that professional competencies in five dimensions include professional knowledge (including pedagogy, communication, organizational expertise and wisdom), professional skills (including teaching skills, communication, teamwork, technology and evaluation), professional skills (Includes creative thinking capabilities, critical thinking, problem solving, mental / analytic, leadership), professional attitudes (including lifelong learning, teacher's attitude, self / positive change, progression, democracy, student-centered) and career characteristics It includes ethical, behavioral, emotional, and communication features. Chi square test showed that in all of these components, observed and expected values were significantly different. Finally, the knowledge of communicating, specialized knowledge and knowledge of self-knowledge was most important from the point of view of educators and sample teachers.Keywords: Teacher competencies, educational experts, exemplary teachers, global characteristics
Pages 105-125identify the competency of school managers for use in the assessment center Abstract For preparing the present generation for the future, education must (by knowing the spirit of the present and the needs arising from it) respond to demands based on new conditions and adapt to it. So, it is imperative to undertake the fundamental transformations in education as a foundation for development and based on today's needs and global experiences. This requires competent managers with the necessary competencies. In order to designate appropriate individuals for managerial and expert tasks, several methods have been designed and to adapted the characteristics and competencies of the employees with the occupations. By doing adaptive study between the important organizations in the world, the most important of these approaches, which are used by all of the organizations is the center of assessment and development. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the competency of school managers for use in the assessment center. In this mixed research by using the obtained data from the exploratory information, the competency components were identified and evaluated through descriptive-survey research. The research Populationin the qualitative section were included all experts, professors and senior managers of human resources sphere in the Educational system of Iran. A total of 12 experts were selected through Targeted snowball sampling method. The statistical population in the quantitative stage were all of the school managers that 250 Of them were selected as sample by cluster sampling method. Qualitative data were gathered through unstructured interview and tool to collect quantitative data was research designed questionnaire. We used of inductive content analysis method based on an Open and axial coding for analyzing The data from the qualitative interview. For analysis of quantitative data were used of exploratory factorial analysis and one-sample t-test. attention to that the quantitative data and quantitative data were used in this study, it can be claimed that the Triangulation method was used to validate the data. In addition, the participant feedback method was used in the qualitative section. In the quantitative part, formal validity was used to assess the validity of the questionnaire, which had a proper validity. Then, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to measure the reliability of the questionnaire, which was 87%, which is an acceptable coefficient for reliability. In order to analyze the findings from qualitative interviews, an open source coding inductive content analysis method was used. For analysis of quantitative data, exploratory factor analysis and one sample t-test were used. The results of the study showed that the required competencies of school managers for using in the assessment center Were: knowledge and awareness (specialist, experience, up-to-date knowledge, knowledge of information technology, awareness of executive laws, environmental knowledge and Identification of important documents), intelligence and talent (logical intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, cultural intelligence, emotional intelligence, creativity, leadership ability, Managerial ability, decision-making power), moral and ethical issues (good ethics, commitment to community values, charity, kindness, responsibility), and personality characteristics (adornment, flexibility, commitment, discipline, criticism and Partnership, physical and mental health). the education manegers by useing the competencies of the assessment center: knowledge and awareness (specialist, experience, up-to-date knowledge, knowledge of information technology, awareness of executive laws, environmental knowledge and identification of important documents), intelligence and talent (logical intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, cultural intelligence, emotional intelligence, creativity, leadership ability, Managerial ability, decision-making power), moral and ethical issues (good ethics, commitment to community values, charity, kindness, responsibility), and personality characteristics (adornment, flexibility, commitment, discipline, criticism and Partnership, physical and mental health) were selected, promoted or appointed, and have sufficient knowledge and skills, and they will be aware of all the necessary and effective factors in creating an appropriate educational environment with their subordinates, by raising the staff morale and motivating them to work and work in They will be able to realize the goals of the organization with less resources and better quality and increase the istructional productivity. Therefore, we conclude that the presence of assessment centers in the education organization, which selects, selects, promotes and improves the principals' merits of managers, is one of the requirements of the educational system of the country. Management, change and modification in educational systems should be made according to the changes, and this change is based on the assessment center that helps the education system to meet the needs of society. The competency competencies gained in this research can be as the criterion and indicator of the evaluation of managers in the center of evaluation along with other competencies; and justifies and educates the organization's management towards the center of evaluation and application of the benefits of the evaluation center as the basis for the successor and appointment of future managers in instruction and education. - Assessing student needs and planning the correct approach to meet those needs are key competencies for education managers. They provide oversight for the analyses, development and delivery of educational programs. Managers also integrate information technology into learning programs to enhance the student learning experience. They need strong project management skills to keep programs and projects on track. Educational managers also need vision and strategic planning skills to keep material fresh, innovative and in tune with current skill and knowledge demands of hiring industries. In addition, education managers should be competent in financial and budget management. - Education managers must have leadership abilities to guide, influence, motivate and develop team members. Communication and listening skills are also vital to provide clear instructions to students, parents, corporate partners and other stakeholders. You will need the ability to juggle multiple priorities and responsibilities, which takes organizational and time management skills. When issues flare up, managers must have strong analytical and problem solving skills to address them. - The minimum education requirements for education managers include a bachelor’s degree and teaching certificate. Some employers require a master’s or doctorate degree for management positions. Studies in education, curriculum development, instructional design and business administration all provide a solid background for a career as an educational manager.Show moreShow less. - Competency-based management in recent decades has become the focus of organizations' ability to attract, maintain, grow and upgrade their resources. Competency-based approaches are one of the important tools for strengthening and improving managerial processes. Keywords: Human Resources, Competency, Competency of Managers, Evaluation Center.Keywords: “Human Resources”, “Competency”, “Competency of Managers”, “Evaluation Center”
Interpretive Structural Model (ISM) Design for Effective School Components in the junior high schoolPages 126-146The study aimed to design a structural-interpretative model for the effective school components in the junior high school. The research has a descriptive-survey method. The statistical population included faculty members of the Education Department, heads and deputies of education, principals and educational assistants of schools, teachers and parents of high school students with a degree in education science in the northwest of Iran ,that A sample of 217 people were selected purposefully. A researcher-made questionnaire was developed to collect the data using theoretical foundations and researches carried out in and around the country in the field of effective schools. After confirmation of its face and content validity in quantitative and qualitative methods, the questionnaire reliability was obtained (α = 0.970). Data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS. The results showed that the factor analysis model of 16 effective school components based on components (culture, School climate, high level student expectations, effective leadership, effective teacher, coherence, latency, resource provision, achievement of objectives, information and communication technology, learning strategies, factors affecting academic achievement, parental involvement, adaptability to environment, monitoring, evaluating and providing feedback, decision making) and sub-components had goodness of fit first and second order factor analysis. The effective school components were designed in nine levels in the structural-interpretative model using the ISM approach. Its first level is devoted to factors affecting academic achievement and the last level to funding.Keywords: Effective schools, structural-interpretative model, effective teacher, academic achievement, parental involvement
Pages 147-162IntroductionEducation should help people to be successful, but when the educational system cannot do this effectively, such a system needs revision and reform. The traditional operation model, which used in many schools, cannot respond to needs such as creativity and flexibility, which are necessary for knowledge-oriented societies. In order to this problem, the use of decentralized and collaborative models needed and Professional learning communities approach is one of these models. In this new approach, Teachers, regional leaders, national institutions, scholars, and schools were focusing on reform efforts, and a network of schools is working together. However, as any reform, these changes deal with different barriers and challenges, and need some backgrounds and presuppositions. The aim of this study is the use of lean thinking principles to identify and eliminate the barriers and necessities, which are important in transformation of Iranian educational system to a professional learning community. Therefore, this research tries to answer the following questions:
Who is the customer in professional learning communities? In addition, how do they define customer value?
What strategies in professional learning communities are valuable?
What challenges in educational system interfere with the formation of professional learning communities?
What factors contribute the formation and function of professional learning communities?
What are the consequences of using lean thinking principals in establishment of professional learning communities?
How do these factors and their relations lead to formation of the lean professional learning communities’ model?
ResearchMethodsThis is an applied research in terms of purpose and a qualitative research in terms of data collection. So, the qualitative method and purposeful sampling in a systematic way of Grounded theory have been used to identify the main factors are necessary for change. The steps to do this study can categorize in three stages of preparatory studies, main studies, and supplementary actions. In according to these stages, after conducting preliminary studies and identifying the problem, considering the qualitative nature of the research and the principals of theoretical sampling, the purposeful sampling method used to collect required data. Data collection from three resources: semi-structured interview with 13 experts of educational administration and teachers; 10 observations of educational districts in Tehran province (According to their geographic distributions); and content analysis of 45 documents from 1997 to 2017, were continued through theoretical saturation, then the collected data were coded by MAXQDA 12. The data needed to identify the barriers for the formation of professional learning communities and some factors, which are necessary to form this educational reform, and the constituent elements of each of them, has gathered. Then the relationships between them identified and the result of different levels of data coding by researchers and MAXQDA 12 data analysis, has checked out. After data saturation, 1370 codes found in first step, classified in 239 concepts, 19 categories and 5 elements.
FindingsAccording to data analysis, education based on learners, teachers’ and stockholders’ needs is the main factor in shaping the lean professional learning community. Facilitators (culture, leadership, structure and climate) influence lPLCs processes such as collaboration, sharing, and continuous quality, and interfering factors (systematic weaknesses and professional differentiations). The intensity and weakness of these factors can cause changes in the expected outcomes of these communities. Professional conditions of teachers include concepts such as professional attitude, burnout, professional isolation, professional competition, and professional behavior. System weaknesses divided neglecting the needs of employees, the weakness of the motivation system, the weakness of professional development plans, stress, pressure and job difficulties, and centralized decision-making system.
The change of traditional and bureaucratic educational system into the collaborative one that requires the activity and dynamism of all involved educational parties can face serious barriers and challenges that have a detrimental effect on the effectiveness of educational processes. According to the research findings, the challenges of formation professional learning communities divided into systematic weaknesses and teachers’ professional conditions. Among the factors that cause systematic weaknesses, the inefficiencies of the internal and external motivational factors, and stress, tension and job difficulties because of inadequate working environment, are most important. Unfortunately, a centralized structure that leads to top-down decision making without regarding to participating others, has resulted in the ineffective use of existing intellectual capacities, which results in a lack of attention of professional concerns. The factors caused by the professional conditions of employees, which are often created and reinforced by system’s inadequate functions over the time, are strongly influenced all the processes that affect the success of professional learning communities. Regardless of professional concerns of teachers, such as the mismatch of the time and educational content, the lack of proper planning, students’ unwillingness and some other similar issues, can cause teacher’s burnout, job dissatisfaction, professional confusion and negative attitude about the job. The weakness of professional development programs in providing the professional learning needs of teachers is due to the lack of awareness of the planners of these courses in relation to the differences in the learning needs and learning styles of individuals. Different personal and professional characteristics and abilities, the position of teachers in their professional path, the behaviors that appear in the workplace and in the interaction with others, and their professional ethics, if it is not explored and encouraged by an accurate evaluation system - due to the weakness of the motivational system - leads to dissatisfaction and job burnout and weakens the spirit of participation and effort to progress in their existence. In addition to professional factors, which imply a significant part of the research findings of this group, system weakness can disrupt and reduce the performance of other parts of the system. If education is a system in which students are one of its components, educational inadequacy, inefficiency of educational content, inadequate educational environment and ineffective educational processes, make negative attitudes of students and their parents of education as a whole. If the components of the system do not feel responsible for its efficiency in achieving the goals and do not take steps to improve processes and achieve goals, then that system is doomed to fail.Keywords: ", Professional learning communities", ", Lean thinking", ", Collaboration", ", Sharing", ", Identifying"
Pages 163-181The current study aims to identify the performance and criteria of the success of outstanding teachers in the field of multicultural education. To this reason, qualitative research and the method of the best practice have been used as the basis of the research and semi-structured interview were used to collect data and to analyze qualitative content for analyzing data. In order to use the best practice method, four stages including plan, search, observation and collect and analysis were implemented. The number of successful teachers in multicultural education in 2014-2015 included 5 people who were interviewed by all teachers in a semi-structured interview. The interviews were conducted by the teachers on the paper and analyzed using the content analysis method. Findings show that 14 key points in the success of teachers in multicultural education played an important role. Tips like teachers 'positive attitudes toward diversity and differences and similarities, the use of speech and speech styles of students at home and their culture in classroom conversations, continuous communication with students' parents, recognition of the multiple identities of students and the development of language, their historical and cultural knowledge in class, the living environments of students outside of school.the living environments of students outside of school.Keywords: Best Practice, Multicultural Education, teachers, schools
Examining status of organizational culture and its relation with teachers` organizational learning in high schoolsPages 182-194
The present study was carried out with the aim of examining status of organizational culture and it`s relation to teachers` organizational learning of high school second grade of Kermanshah. Research procedure is in the line with survey and descriptive researches. Statistical population were 800 people include all teachers of high school second grade of Kermanshah province. In this research the statistical sample was equivalent to 260 people, using Jersey and Morgan’s table, taking background variance into account, that were selected using random sampling method. Instruments of collecting data were using Robbins’s standard questionnaire to measure organizational culture and Marquette`s questionnaire to assess learner`s organization (organizational learning). Considering standard being, validity and reliability of the questionnaires were verified. The collected data was analyzed carrying out the descriptive and inferential statistic calculations (Spearman correlation coefficient test, multivariate regression). The obtained results indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between all components of organizational intelligence (risk taking, attending to favor, creativity and innovation, attending to organization members, effect of decision results on stuff, attending to team and measuring stability) and the learning.. The obtained results indicated that there is a meaningful relationship between all components of organizational intelligence (risk taking, attending to favor, creativity and innovation, attending to organization members, effect of decision results on stuff, attending to team and measuring stability) and the learning.Keywords: organizational culture, Organizational Learning, team work, organizational atmosphere, learning strategy
Investigating the Factors Affecting the Attention of School Managers to Knowledge Management; Case Study: Marivan CityPages 195-211
Nowadays, knowledge management in the schools like other organizations is a crucial need to have effective and efficient management and performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the attention of school administrators to knowledge management. The study population included all high school administrators (first and secondary) in Marivan at 95-96 that were 82(66 males, 16 females) and Based on Morgan's sampling table and random sampling method, 66 were selected as the research sample.. The data collected through a questionnaire of knowledge management that its validity was confirmed by 5 of experts and its reliability through Cronbach's alpha equal to 0/83. data analyzed by using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation As well as Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, one way t-test, analysis of variance and independent t-test by using statistical software SPSS 19. In general, the results showed that attention to knowledge management among schools administrators is above average. The results also showed that there is no difference between administrators based on gender, work experience and education level. Finally, based on the findings, four general factors, including personal and individual factors, organizational factors, information technology and communication, and factors related to the educational system, have a role in the effective application of knowledge management in the school.Keywords: knowledge management, School administrators, Marivan City
Human resource talent management model designing in schools with using interpretive structural modeling approachPages 212-229
Today, talented employees are improving the performance of organizations. Talented human resources are the most valuable asset for the organization. So that they are the main factor for survival and success in organizations. In fact, talent management is a hidden tool for talent acquisition. In today's leading global organizations, the management of the discovery and development of employee who have core competencies and leads to superior organizational performance is done through a process called talent management. Talent management involves the processes of recruiting, identifying, and retaining employees who have the the best abilities and core competencies and contribute to the organization's quality improvement. in fact, schools are no exception; if the education system is based on talent management, and the teachers and staff of the school are recruited and selected using the talent management process, schools will be more efficient and effective in achieving their goals and education system will go a step further. According to what was said, The purpose of this study was to design a model for establishing talent management system in schools using interpretive structural modeling approach. This research is based on a mixed and qualitative and quantitative research. The present study in terms of purpose is applied and in terms of nature and method is descriptive research. The statistical population of the study is the education experts and high school employees in Khorramabad city. The samples selected by purposeful sampling method. In this study for data gathering, semi-structured interviews and questionnaires were used. The validity and reliability of the interviews were confirmed by CVR coefficient and Kappa-Cohen test, respectively, and the validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed by content validity and Cronbach's alpha. In this study, qualitative and quantitative data were used. Qualitative data by Atlas.ti Were analyzed and quantitative data with Matlab software prepare for modeling using ISM approach. In this study, to identify the dimensions of talent management, semi-structured interview method was used. For help to review, the literature of research in related fields were used. In addition, in quantitative part and in presenting the final ISM model with the help of education experts and high school principals, the relationship between dimensions was analyzed using interpretive structural modeling method and finally the model of talent management was developed. The results show that there is an efficient talent identification system, talent pool formation, recruitment of specialized employees, staff acceptance of specialized skills and knowledge, engaging talented people in basic activities, school talent development policy, identification Talent and development of their talents, school succession planning, career path planning for talents, compensation of talented staff, participation of talented people in planning and decision making, explaining organization vision and attitude on talent development, matching the talent of employees with their expertise, accountability of the organization for talented people, put talented people in key posts and opportunities for growth and development for employees are the most important components of talent management in schools. Therefore, in describing the model developed in the present study, it should be noted that the existence of an effective talent management system in schools requires the development of a talent-based perspective and attitude. Therefore, the Department of Education should set up talent pools during recruitment so that it can easily identify and recruit schools according to the type of expertise needed. It should be noted that individuals should be in the related specialties depending on the type of their talent. According to the research model, schools should engage these people with their core activities and involve them in their planning and decision-making process, and, on the other hand, provide appropriate career path planning to provide opportunities for them. In this way, the organization can provide the opportunity for both individual and organizational growth and excellence for schools and talented individuals. As can be seen, human resource talent management has no consequence other than the excellence of the organization and individuals. The present study proposes to the Education Organization to implement the HRM system in schools by using appropriate talent development policy and successor planning in the organization. In order to implement the above proposal, it is recommended that the Department of Education review the vision and attitude of the schools and place the vision and attitude of the schools on the basis of talent development and identify and hire talented individuals. The present study proposes to the Education Organization to formulate a detailed succession planning and to form a talent pool when hiring people. The Education Organization can prepare these people to take up positions appropriate to their talents by identifying their talents and identifying their abilities and talents. Based on the results of the research and based on the principle of accountability to talented people and compensation for their services, it is recommended to take appropriate action to prevent talented individuals from engaging talented individuals with the core activities of the organization. Because people are gifted to the treasury of the ability and skill of the organization, it is suggested that they be employed in key posts and jobs. The present study proposes HRM managers to identify talented individuals and attract them to the organization. Establishing a talent system will ensure that the organization has the right people and can work with appropriate mechanisms to develop and maintain them. Therefore, the ability of an organization to harness, develop and retain talent is the most important and top priority of the managers program. Talent management involves the processes of recruiting, identifying, and retaining employees who form the core competencies of the organization, reach the top ranks, surpass their peers, and simultaneously act as incentives for their colleagues. Those who have the capacity to grow can potentially take on higher responsibilities. For these people, job opportunities more important and sensitive responsibilities in the higher ranks of the organization must be created.Keywords: talent management, talent, schools, interpretive structural modeling approach
Return on management: Designing and explaining the new model of educational managers' competencies with the thematic analysis approachPages 229-251
In all organizations including educational organizations, the most important source that influence on organizational effectiveness is management. Leadership competency is one of the major qualities of Principal to ensure the performance of schools. The principal is the curriculum leader of the school. He or she is responsible for designing, implementing, and evaluating changes in the instructional program of the school. In each educational system, the nation designs the broad curriculum policy in strict consonance with its socio-economic and cultural needs. The principal implements and evaluates the changes in the instructional program. There are new streams of research in the field of education and management to know the necessary competencies of school principals. The importance of education and training perused researchers and scholars to investigate the relationship between the characteristics and competencies of school’s principals and the outcomes and results of such leadership in terms of the education performance of students. The importance of the school principals has growing so fast and researchers had put emphasize on the importance of principles skills, competencies and capabilities. This study is about " Return on management: Designing and explaining the new model of educational managers' competencies with the thematic analysis approach. The aim of this research is to extract the model for the competencies of the school principals. So the purpose of this study is answering the following questions:• What are the important characteristics and competencies of school principals?
• What is the conceptual framework for the competencies of the school principals?
To answer the questions, we followed qualitative approach of thematic analyses. This thematic analysis was the first qualitative analysis which the process includes 6 steps: knowing the data, searching for the themes, evaluating the themes, identification and coding the themes and providing the reports. After studying the resources extracted from the databases. This content analysis was based on two approaches. First, we assigned codes to text fragments using a bottom-up approach, i.e. without strong a priori assumptions. This approach allowed us to move back and forth between the transcribed interviews and to identify themes and codes in order to arrive at a more accurate inductive and explorative analysis. Subsequently, we adopted a more top-down approach, known as directed content analysis, in which we related our codes to the academic literature. To derive systematic explanations for the processes we observed, we identified observations that matched theoretical concepts. By thematic analysis, the paper presents a framework for competencies of educational managers and the reliability of results was checked by Holsti test (0.95).
The statistical populations of this research are the relevant sources available for online databases and valid scientific banks during the period 2000-2018. In order to have a systematic research the main key words and themes have been searched through web of science and different research engines. Some of these words and themes are, "School Principal”, “School Leadership" "Management" “Educational Administration "School Leaders", "Educational Management" leadership “Competencies” which had been research through both national and international scholar’s research platforms. In total 200 papers have been selected, and after the second observation 70 of them were selected for study. Theses selected papers been analyzed word by word and they had been coded.
Based on the findings of this study, the competencies of the educational managers can be summarized in the four themes of know-ability, spiritual excellence, mobilize-ability and sustain-ability. Know-ability consists of two pre-organizing themes (learning-teaching and organizational) and 8 basic themes. The learning-teaching consists of 4 themes of creative learning, life and job skills, social media, and technology and 21 century skills. The learning organization has also 4 themes. These are human resource management, vision, learning environment, standardizing and performance evaluation.
Spiritual excellence consists of 3 pre-organizing themes (love of being, spiritual world and faith and hope) and 9 basic themes. Mobilize-ability consists of 4 pre-organizing themes (collaborative, communication management, global perspective and leading), and 8 basic themes. Collaborative skills include team working and grouping and the communication management has two themes of inter-relationship and intra-relationship skills. Global perspective and leading includes knowledge exchange and policy. Finally sustain-ability consists of 5 pre-organizing themes (technology management, sustainable financial management, innovation management, environmental management and sustainable health management) and 13 basic themes. This theme has an ultimate goal of the sustainability and success of school in the long term.
Technology management is including the two abilities of networking and information technology. Sustainable financial management includes financial and budget management, social capital and wealth creation. The innovation management has four themes in terms of risk taking, creative thinking, innovation and entrepreneurship. Environmental management is in terms of environment knowledge and environment management. Finally sustainable health management, consist of physical health and spiritual health.
The model can be used for school principals as well as managers as a tool for evaluating and selecting principals based on the proposed criteria. Based on the fact that the extracting the competencies and right characteristics are important issue in human resource, the research may have several implications for both principals and education system. The education and training system can use the result for replacing the right persons and recruit the right persons, and principals that have the importance requirements and competencies.
The education and training organization can use this framework to elaborate on their school principals to train and educate them in the way that they can increase the level of the different competencies and capabilities in their managers. Also the educators and trainers who set up workshops for training the future managers can use such framework to invest efficiently in their human resource capabilities. This will ultimately lead to better education system and schools.
Future research can use other approaches than thematic analysis for extracting the principal’s competencies. Also researchers can conduct several surveys to test the effect of these competencies and fond the level of importance for each competency. Moreover it might be a case that depend on the context and country some of these competencies be more important than others.Keywords: Competency of educational managers, Know-ability, Spiritual excellence, Mobilize-ability, Sustain-ability
The exploring talent management process of high schools teachers at Ardabil: grounded theory researchPages 252-274
Organizations who desire to be the best in people management processes can strive towards the excellent and best practice level. talent management is the implementation of integrated strategies or systems designed to increase workplace productivity by developing improved processes of attracting, developing, retaining and utilizing people with required skills and aptitudes to meet current and future business needs. Talent management is seen as a critical factor in successful organizations. In fact, talent management is to carry out a series of integrated activities in order to ensure the attraction, maintenance, motivation and development of the skilled employees needed, now and in the future by the organization. today the development and maintenance of talent is one of the biggest challenges faced by organizations, and organizations, both private and public, find it more difficult to develop and maintain their talents. Within the dynamics of working life, organizations must adapt, develop, and achieve a high level of growth at the speed of changes. In order to maintain a profitable and sustainable competitive advantage, organizations need creative and innovative human resources. Scientific resources for defining the concept of talent management have led to various definitions that have been considered as a comprehensive and integrated process. Talent management is the development of strategies for hiring, keeping, and creating a talent pool. Before discussing talent management, the concept of “talent” should be explained.The word “talent”, which is used repeatedly in daily life, has become one of the really important sources of business. Talent is a concept that simultaneously considers skills, leadership, dominance, practicality, and better use of time. Another kind of definition is the ability of a person to do things in a given time frame easily and by using his creativity and to enable others to achieve success.Talent Management is to carry out a series of integrated activities in order to guarantee the absorption, maintenance, motivation and development of qualified, current and future employees.
This research has explored the talent management process for teachers in secondary education in the city of Ardabil using the systematic theory of data theory database. For this purpose, a semi-structured individual interview was conducted with 18 sample and qualified high school teachers. Data were analyzed using Atlas-Ti software. The results of data analysis during the three stages of open, axial and selective coding showed 12 general categories that included the following: the causal conditions including system changes (pedagogical initiation, educational package design, structural change, giving power to managers, Having feedback system, ethical policy, scientific policy, educational policy, need for decentralized structure) and managerial changes (manager selection, managers ability, talent consideration, management development, management stability, avoidance of organizational dissatisfaction, management knowledge, organizational mission, style Managerial); core categories include individual professional management in the organization (Value for the education of the forces, the use of the reward system of the organization, the continuity in quality improvement, the name and officiality of the organization, the deliberate choice of the job, the proper choices and principles, the transfer and use of information, the flexibility of the rules of the organization, Creating scientific research space, organizing training courses, employing talents, organizational dynamics, career development, financing of forces, job specialization, competency modeling, suitability of a job with a person, attention to management style, professional development of forces, development Teamwork, Job attractiveness, Attractive people, Job self-development, Talent assessment, Identity Suitable persons, strategic design of the job, job enrichment, providing the necessary platform, discovering talent, quality of work life, appropriate work environment, maintaining and developing forces, transparent management, the availability of educational facilities), and mental management of the individual in the organization ( Providing a growth strategy, job independence, trust in forces, value-giving, respect and organizational impact on talent, job security, the importance of dealing with forces, employing psychological tools, providing the morale of capable forces, organizational affiliation, personality traits of peer teams, Attention to the natural course of development, attention to the factors maintaining forces in the organization, attention to the issues motivational, development of job creativity, development of job learning, prevention of disappointment of prudent forces, prevention of aggressive responses, challenge of job duties, avoidance of conflict of roles, having authority, having an organizational mission, having responsibility, satisfaction from the superiors, Job satisfaction, risk taking in organization, recognition and consideration of human psychological dimensions, organizational justice, organizational culture organization, organizational support environment, participatory management, providing people with the ability to stay in the organization); strategies including executive actions (Using specialist forces, selecting project executives, in-service training, training program executives, program Detailed design, budget explanation, structural changes, managers' attention to talent identification, appropriate space, appropriate designing of the project); the underlying factors including the structural context (using the potential of university of culture, the use of information technology, Planning, strengthening information processing, solving the weak points the University of Cultural Exchanges, providing operational infrastructure, aligning with the development of learning styles); environmental contextualization (creating educational facilities, creating a talent management atmosphere, avoiding selection Political situations), space-based human resources (using the experiences of the executives, choosing the right ones Managerial visibility, Efficient manpower, holding talent management training courses, giving positions to talented teachers, ethical competence, academic competence, participation of teachers in executive affairs, participation of teachers in decision making, managerial alignment with management Talent); interventional factors including necessary structural changes in schools (the establishment of native regulations in schools, the financial independence of schools, the creation of legal infrastructure, the autonomy of schools, the removal of policies in schools); the necessary functional changes (allowing for the emergence of talents, The hopes of the forces for the system justice, the choices of the executives are worthy of choice, Paying attention to meritocracy, giving the manager the necessary powers, removing additional costs, not continuously shifting managers), and the consequence include cognitive psychological achievements (job motivation, school dynamics, mental health, organizational commitment, morale reinforcement And the academic achievements of education (creation of competitive work space, improvement of educational level, improvement of performance, education of students, realization of organizational goals, facilitation of executive process, professional development of teachers, attraction and maintenance of talents, prevention The waste of resources, the design of organizational goals). The teacher talent management process at the secondary school in Ardabil reflects the relationship between its various dimensions.Keywords: education, talent management, Talent development, teachers, Ardabil city
Self-leadership refers to a pattern of self-influence intended to increase individual Effectiveness. Based on the self-management concept self-leadership combines considerations of behavioral reinforcement Goal-setting, intrinsic motivation and constructive thought pattern strategies to improve individuals’ self-regulation and self-direction. Self-leadership theory is designed to improve personal effectiveness by influencing and enhancing individuals' affect, cognitions, and behaviors and has been predominantly validated in organizational domains. Pertaining organizational behavior research has shown that self-leading people demonstrate high levels of job performance make more creative suggestions and express high levels of self-efficacy, positive affect and job satisfaction. Teacher self-leadership includes a set of individual cognitive and behavioral strategies that, when practiced together, help to establish the self-direction and self-motivation needed to perform. Self-leadership can promote more effective practice because it provides teachers with a set of tools (such as goal-setting, positive self-talk and visualization), which they can use to improve their personal effectiveness and performance. The concept of teacher self-leadership also differs from teacher leadership, which is focused on empowering others to take on leadership roles and encouraging them to work together to improve educational practices. Self-leadership strategies are usually grouped into three broad categories, which have been termed behavior-focused, natural rewards and constructive thought patterns. Behavior-focused strategies include self-goal setting, self-observation, cueing self-reward and self-punishment. Self-goal-setting is an essential first step in self-leadership, in which the initiative for setting a goal, as well as its difficulty, is determined by the teacher, rather than a supervisor. Natural reward strategies emphasize the importance of performing an activity for the intrinsic enjoyment and pleasure from successful task performance. Constructive thought patterns involve an ability to engage in functional patterns of thinking including positive self-talk, establishing more rational beliefs and mental imagery of successful performance. Positive self-talk can assist teachers to acquire new skills, regulate their emotional state and apply themselves, particularly in the face of failure. This, in turn, leads to increased self-confidence.Research Method
In this research, descriptive-survey method has been used. The statistical population of this study includes all teachers of the first and second grade schools in the 5th district of Tehran (1709) in the academic year of 2016-17. The sample size of 340 people was selected by random sampling method from Krejcie and Morgan. The questionnaire was distributed among them. The convergence and divergence validity has been used to calculate the instrument's validity. Structural equation modeling using partial least squares method was used to analyze the data and examine the hypotheses. To do so, SPSS23 and Smart PLS.2 software were used. As a general rule, in most cases, the sample size in a structural equation must exceed 200. In order to estimate the sample size in structural equations, researchers have different views. Other researchers believe that for obvious variables the sample size can be estimated. For each obvious variable, select at least 5 samples and a maximum of 15 samples (Hooman, 2016). In this research, 340 questionnaires were collected and after deletion of confused and incomplete questionnaires, 320 valid questionnaires were analyzed. The data gathering was done so that the researchers fielded the collection of samples in secondary schools and high school in five district of Tehran. To collect data, a revised self-leadership questionnaire (Neck & Houghton, 2002) has been used. The questionnaire consisted of 9 components: visualizing of successful performance, self-goal setting, self-talk, self-reward, evaluating beliefs and assumptions, self-punishment, self- observation, Focusing thoughts on natural rewards and self-cueing. The formal and content validity of the questionnaire was reviewed by some of the faculty members of the educational sciences and used after the reform. To assess the external model, the combination of reliability, Cronbach's alpha and convergence validity (mean extracted variance) were investigated. Combined reliability is the internal correlation of the observed variables of each hidden variable. Cronbach's alpha indicates the ability of the questions to properly explain their dimensions.Findings
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the status of self-leadership among Teachers in five District of Tehran. The findings in the descriptive and inferential part are as follows: In the first stage, the evaluation of the external model of research has been presented. The results of the validity of the convergence of divergence indicate that the external model of the research is appropriate. In the second stage, the internal model has been presented, the results presented in Figures 1 and 2, as well as the amount of commonality of each question with the desired index indicate appropriate The tool was considered in the community. Regarding the results of R2 obtained for exogenous variables on endogenous variables (0.334), the model has a desirable structure and its output shows the model's appropriateness. To assess the overall quality of the model, the GOF Index has been used, with the calculated value for this index indicating the desired fit of the model. Descriptive findings indicated that 53% of the respondents were men and 47% women. Also, according to the academic status of the respondents, 0.68 of the respondents were undergraduate and 0.38 masters. Also, the age range of respondents indicated that this means that 0.39% of respondents aged less than 30 years old had 0.29 in the age range of 31-40 and 39.3 in the age range of over 40 years. To assess the external model, the combination of reliability, Cronbach's alpha and convergence validity (mean extracted variance) were investigated. Combined reliability is the internal correlation of the observed variables of each hidden variable. Cronbach's alpha indicates the ability of the questions to properly explain their dimensions. Data analysis based on descriptive-survey method demonstrated that all of the nine factors of self-leadership in the studied population were confirmed. In other words, all individuals in the research community are in a good position in relation to self-leadership components. To examine the fit of the structural model of the research, several criteria were used, the first and most fundamental criterion, the Z-values of the coefficients, or the values of t-values (meaningful state). According to Figure 2, all of the paths were statistically significant with confidence of 0.95. The complete results of the paths are presented in Table 5. The second criterion for examining structural fit in a research is the R2 coefficients associated with the hidden (dependent) variables of the model. Examining this criterion showed that the model has a good fit. Another criterion that was investigated is the Q2 prediction power rating. The survey also showed that the model has good predictive power. Finally, the last criterion was examined the index of overall quality of the model was. To investigate the overall quality of the model in the least squares, the GOF index was used. In general, according to the final output of the software and its fitting indexes, it was found that the proposed model is consistent with the data obtained from the research. Therefore, we can say that the conceptual model of the research was confirmed on the basis of what was obtained. Meanwhile, the assessment of beliefs with a coefficient of 0.82 and the highest level of guidance with 0.55 had the lowest effect on the self-leadership of high school teachers in the 5th district of Tehran.Keywords: self-leadership, personal goal-setting, focus thoughts on natural rewards, successful performance
The Role of predictive perception of organizational support and job satisfaction of school principals.،Pages 298-318
This study aimed to investigate the role of predictive perception of organizational support and job satisfaction of school principals in the falcon took place. The purpose of applied research is descriptive. For this purpose, the city school principals falcon 92 patients (31 female and 61 male Director) has stratified random sampling using sampling table Morgan (1976) were chosen as examples. The data collected in this study, perceived organizational support questionnaire Eisenberger et al (1986) and job satisfaction scale Smith, Kendall and Hyvlyn (1969), respectively. Content validity of the professors and their reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha and correlation between questions. The findings indicate that school principals' perceptions of organizational support of average and above average job satisfaction scale. Between perceptions of organizational support and job satisfaction in the significant relationship (p <0.005) there. The findings also indicate that a significant relationship between perceived organizational support and job satisfaction based on demographic variables gender, age, education level and work experience there.Conclusion
Due to the positive and significant relationship between organizational support and job satisfaction managers, decision-makers in education is necessary to pay attention to organizational support toward school administrators with strategies to promote and improve, otherwise reduce organizational support cause that the managers reduced job satisfaction.Keywords: organizational support, Perceived organizational support, job satisfaction, training managers