فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue:10, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/08/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 4
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  • Farideh Pourgiv Page 0
  • John Stephens Pages 1-14

    In this paper Abbas Kiarostami's films for children are discussed from the perspective of a cognitive studies approach. The crux of the argument is that the visual elements of film are essentially metonymic. Where is My Friend’s Home? has a quest-script instantiated by means of four components drawn on Brown and Babbington. Transcultural viewing is enabled by techno-cultural elements of cinema. Four filmic strategies which when brought together in film enable transcultural accessibility are used to discuss where is My Friend’s Home? One is the use of common techniques such as zoom, close-up, long takes, and dissolves. The second is the employment of conceptual metaphors (or image schemas). The third is emotional mirroring and the last is metonymy and metonymic juxtaposition. Ahmad’s quest is a quest for well-being, to help his friend maintain a place in sociality in which he might flourish, and this is an action recognizable transculturally.

    Keywords: Abbas Kiarostami, transcultural viewing, global cognitive process, Where is My Friend’s Home?
  • Amir Ali Nojoumian *, Amir Hadi Nojoumian Pages 15-32
    Abbas Kiarostami set out his cinematic experience with works for children and about them. Despite the significant place this early phase of his oeuvre possesses in Iranian cinema, little has been done to analyze the ethical relations in these works. The major claim of this research project is that there are two major ethical conditions at the heart of the poetics of ethics in Kiarostami’s films about children. In these films, children are either engaged in an act of care in order to fulfill their responsibility toward the other, or attempt to go beyond this “responsibility” by resisting and refusing the codes and laws of the “other” in order to reach a sense of individuality or singularity towards freedom. Both these seemingly opposed acts have a relation with what Emanuel Levinas calls “the encounter with alterity”. This article will first attempt to offer a modern definition of ethics and will then investigate the claim that Kiarostami’s cinema did not aim to suggest definite and absolute ethical statements but engaged the audience in the ethical questions it proposed. In other words, the article unfolds how the paradigms of this modern ethics is represented in the filmmaker’s works, and subsequently illustrates children’s role in relation to adults, families, and the educational system, and finally claims that children, encountered by the suppressive and indifferent world of grown-ups, keep finding a way to evade this dominant discourse – a way that may lead to victory or defeat.
    Keywords: Abbas Kiarostami, Ethics, Care, Responsibility to the Other, Refusal, Resistance, Childhood Studies, Film Studies
  • Sanaz Hamoonpou * Pages 33-59
    Mythological and folkloric heritages of nations have often been credited with exclusively distinct identities within the realms of literary criticism. Arguing that in a nation like Iran, the firmly visible borders that have conventionally defined mythology in disparity from folklore have been disturbed, this paper considers these two entities as intertwined and their accentuated differentiating thresholds as elapsed. This synergy can be proven as most visibly traceable in the country's literary creations produced for children in the mid and late twentieth century. The presence of this blend, at the core of this study, will be examined in one fading mythological meta-narrative which is demonstrated to be preserved in the cocoon of a common Iranian folktale. The archetypal cycle of death and rebirth, enacted through the characters of Rapithwin (the Zoroastrian god of the ideal season) and its opponent, the Demon of Winter, provides an accessible example in tracing these mythic figures within the Iranian New Year’s ritualistic folktale. The following thematic and semiotic analysis, thus, exemplifies how these characters survive within a folkloric context and the process through which they transform into newer and more creative versions in the twentieth century’s productions for children. This is clarified on a continuum with the folktale of Uncle Norouz (New Year) in Farideh Farjam, M. Azad and Farshid Mesghali’s (1972) picture book, used as the pre-text, at one end and Jabbar Baghcheban and Allan Bayash’s (1973) picture book Baba Barfi (Snow Papa) as the most creative version on the other. In order to reveal a transformative trend, two other retellings in the same context are also analysed in the middle of the continuum. The paper finally concludes that the articulated transformation in one narrative continuum can potentially represent one of the first evolutionary trends in Iranian Children’s Literature of the twentieth century.
    Keywords: Iranian Children’s Literature, Mythological Meta-narratives, Folktales, Archetypal Cycle of Death, Rebirth