فهرست مطالب

جامعه شناسی کاربردی - سال سی‌ام شماره 2 (تابستان 1398)
  • سال سی‌ام شماره 2 (تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • محمد حیدری، وحید قاسمی*، محسن رنانی، محمد تقی ایمان صفحات 1-28
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف تبیین جامعه شناختی فرهنگ مالیاتی مودیان ازطریق واکاوی نظام معنایی آنها درباره پدیده مالیات انجام شده است. روش پژوهش از نوع ترکیبی و راهبرد اکتشافی - متوالی است. در مرحله کیفی پژوهش از روش نظریه زمینه ای (رویکرد سیستماتیک) و در مرحله کمی از روش پیمایش استفاده شد. جامعه مطالعه شده، مودیان مالیاتی شهر اصفهان است. تعداد نمونه در مرحله کیفی پژوهش 30 نفر و در مرحله کمی 440 نفر است. شیوه نمونه گیری در مرحله کیفی، هدفمند - نظری و در مرحله کمی، طبقه ای - نسبی است. برای تحلیل داده ها در مرحله کیفی از شیوه کدگذاری و در مرحله کمی از رویکرد مدل سازی معادله ساختاری واریانس محور استفاده شده است. یافته های مرحله کیفی پژوهش نشان دهنده شکل گیری نظام معنایی مودیان مالیاتی درباره پدیده مالیات پیرامون تعدادی مقوله عمده و یک مقوله هسته به نام «مطالبه گری نامتوازن» است. یافته های مرحله کمی پژوهش بیان کننده این است که میانگین متغیر فرهنگ مالیاتی در جامعه آماری پژوهش پایین تر از حد متوسط است. متغیرهای مستقل پژوهش در حد نسبتا بالایی توان تبیین واریانس متغیر فرهنگ مالیاتی را دارند و در الگوی تجربی پژوهش متغیرهای نظام مندی مالیات، اعتماد متقابل کنشگران، عدالت مالیاتی و کارآمدی مصارف مالیاتی به طور مستقیم، متغیرهای شفاف بودن قوانین مالیاتی و اقتدارگرایی مالیاتی به طور غیرمستقیم و متغیرهای انصاف مالیاتی و سلامت اقتصادی مسئولان به طور مستقیم و غیرمستقیم بر فرهنگ مالیاتی مودیان اثر می گذارند.
    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ مالیاتی، نظام معنایی، تبیین جامعه شناختی، مودیان مالیاتی، روش ترکیبی
  • سید مهدی متولیان*، سید مهدی حسینی شیروانی، زهرا نوری صفحات 29-45
    دین، نهاد مهم اجتماعی است که با تاروپود جامعه ایران گره خورده و منشا تحولات مهمی همچون انقلاب اسلامی شده است. در این زمینه برای گسترش دین داری در کشور به ویژه بین جوانان تلاش های زیادی انجام شده است؛ بنابراین، با توجه به اهمیت دین داری، در پژوهش حاضر تلاش شده است میزان دین داری و عوامل مرتبط با آن بین دانشجویان بررسی شود. نمونه آماری 407 نفر از دانشجویان پسر و دختر مقطع کارشناسی دانشگاه مازندران است که ازطریق نمونه گیری خوشه ای 15 کلاس درس به صورت تصادفی انتخاب شد و به مقیاس شیوه اعمال قدرت در خانواده (خوش فر و محمدی نیا، 1393) و مقیاس دین داری (Glock & Stark, 1965) پاسخ دادند. نتایج نشان می دهند بیشتر دانشجویان (3/54 %) دین داری بالایی دارند و تفاوتی در دین داری پسران و دختران وجود ندارد؛ اما متاهلان از مجردها دین دارترند. براساس ضرایب رگرسیون گام به گام، سه متغیر شیوه اعمال قدرت دموکراتیک، استبدادی و وضعیت تاهل 13 درصد واریانس دین داری را پیش بینی می کنند.
    کلیدواژگان: دین داری، دانشجویان، وضعیت تاهل، دموکراتیک، استبدادی، جنسیت
  • وکیل حیدری ساربان* صفحات 47-64
    هدف این مقاله مطالعه و تحلیل عوامل اجتماعی موثر در بهبود رفتارهای معطوف به حفظ محیط زیست مناطق روستایی شهرستان اردبیل است. این پژوهش ازلحاظ هدف، توسعه ای و ازلحاظ ماهیت توصیفی و پیمایشی و از نوع تحلیلی است. روش گرد آوری داده ها برای پاسخ گویی به سوالات پژوهش، به دو صورت اسنادی (داده های ثانویه) و پیمایشی (داده های اولیه) و ابزار استفاده شده در روش پیمایشی پرسش نامه و مصاحبه بوده است. پانل متخصصان (مطالعات طولی)، روایی صوری پرسش نامه را تایید کرد. مطالعه راهنما در منطقه مشابه جامعه آماری با تعداد30 پرسش نامه صورت گرفت و با داده های کسب شده و استفاده از فرمول ویژه آلفای کرونباخ در نرم افزار SPSS، پایایی بخش های مختلف پرسش نامه پژوهش 82/0 تا 89/0 به دست آمد. برای تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از الگوی تحلیل عاملی استفاده شد. نتایج فن تحلیل عاملی نشان دادند مهم ترین عوامل اجتماعی موثر در بهبود رفتارهای معطوف به حفظ محیط زیست در منطقه مطالعه شده شامل چهار مولفه (تقویت سرمایه اجتماعی و تعلق سرزمینی، ارتقای ظرفیت های شناختی و ترویج مسئولیت پذیری اجتماعی، تقویت اخلاق مداری اجتماعی و ترویج سبک زندگی حافظ محیط زیست و تقویت شاخص های رفاه اجتماعی و بهبود رضایت مندی) است که مقدار واریانس و واریانس تجمعی تبیین شده این چهار عامل 14/65 است. درنهایت با توجه به تحلیل نتایج پیشنهادهای کاربردی ارائه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: محیط زیست، رفتار اجتماعی، شبکه های اجتماعی، توسعه پایدار روستایی، شهرستان اردبیل
  • جاسب نیک فر*، ثمانه جابری پور صفحات 65-84
    رفتار انتخاباتی زمان مند، زمینه مند و مکان مند است. به بیان دیگر، رفتار رای دهندگان از یک حوزه انتخابی به حوزه انتخابی دیگر و از یک انتخابات به انتخابات دیگر متفاوت است. در سال های گذشته مشارکت رای دهندگان در استان های دارای بافت و ساخت اجتماعی عشیره ای در انتخابات مجلس شورای اسلامی بسیار زیاد بوده است. حوزه انتخابی بویراحمد ازجمله حوزه های انتخابی کشور بوده است که در تمام دوره های انتخابات مجلس شورای اسلامی بیشترین میزان مشارکت را داشته است. بسیاری از پژوهش ها، این میزان زیاد مشارکت را با بافت اجتماعی و هژمونی خرده گفتمان عشیره ای این حوزه تحلیل کرده اند. در این مقاله این سوال مطرح شده است که آیا گفتمان عشیره ای بر رفتار انتخاباتی رای دهندگان در یاسوج مسلط است یا این گفتمان هژمونی خود را از دست داده است. به عبارت دیگر، آیا هنوز گفتمان قوم گرایی بر رفتار انتخاباتی مردم یاسوج حاکم است یا اینکه رفتار انتخاباتی سوژه ها تغییر یافته و گفتمان دیگری جایگزین این گفتمان شده است. در این پژوهش از رویکرد منظومه نظری استفاده می شود و با درهم تنیدن نظریه های رفتار انتخاباتی و تحلیل گفتمان لاکلاو و موفه و استفاده از روش مصاحبه گروهی متمرکز، گروه های اجتماعی زنان خانه دار، دانشجویان، کارمندان، بیکاران، ریش سفیدان و بزرگان روستاها، کارگران و کشاورزان یاسوج و روستاهای اطراف این شهر مطالعه می شوند و از این طریق مفصل بندی گفتمانی حاکم بر ذهنیت مشارکت کنندگان در بحث های گروهی درباره انتخابات مجلس شوری اسلامی بررسی می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: رفتار انتخاباتی، خرده گفتمان عشیره ای، مفصل بندی، منافع فردی - ملی
  • خلیل الله سردارنیا*، سینا امینی زاده، مظفر حسنوند صفحات 85-100
    مشارکت سیاسی از نشانه های مهم توسعه سیاسی است که کم و کیف و قالب های آن از جامعه ای تا جامعه دیگر متفاوت است. تحقق مشارکت سیاسی و نهادینه شدن آن مستلزم وجود آمادگی ها و شرایط روحی - روانی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی، اقتصادی و سیاسی خاص هر جامعه است. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، بررسی تاثیر عوامل اجتماعی و فرهنگی موثر بر مشارکت سیاسی دانشجویان در تشکل های حزبی و سیاسی است. عواملی همچون رسانه ‎ها، انجمن ها، شبکه های اجتماعی و گروه دوستان. روش پژوهش پیمایشی و کمی با استفاده از فن پرسش نامه است. جامعه آماری هم همه دانشجویان شاغل به تحصیل در سه مقطع کارشناسی، کارشناسی ارشد و دکتری در سال 1395 هستند. پژوهش حاضر درصدد پاسخ دادن به این پرسش است که رسانه های جمعی اعم از کلاسیک و جدید، داخلی و بین المللی، شبکه های اجتماعی و عوامل یا متغیرهای اجتماعی مانند گروه دوستان و عضوشدن و همکاری با انجمن ها تا چه اندازه بر گرایش و مشارکت سیاسی جوانان در احزاب و تشکل های سیاسی تاثیر می گذارند. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهند به ترتیب، دسترسی و ارتباط فعالانه با شبکه های اجتماعی در فضای سایبری، گروه دوستان، عضوشدن در انجمن های مدنی و داوطلبانه، رسانه های داخلی و درنهایت رسانه های خارجی (رادیو و تلویزیون های ماهواره ‎ای) بر تمایلات و مشارکت سیاسی دانشجویان دانشگاه شیراز در احزاب و تشکل های سیاسی تاثیر مثبت و معنی داری داشته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: رسانه ها، سرمایه اجتماعی، مشارکت سیاسی، انجمن ها، دانشگاه شیراز
  • علی یعقوبی*، سیده زهرا میرحجازی، زینب صوفی زاده صفحات 101-115
    مرگ امری پیچیده است و افراد از فهم محتوای آن عاجزند. یکی از دلایل مرگ هراسی، ناشناخته بودن و ابهام آن است. هدف این مقاله سنخ شناسی و فهم پدیده مرگ بین مردم استان گیلان است و در آن، با تکیه بر روش کیفی و نمونه گیری هدفمند از مصاحبه های نیمه سازمان یافته و فردی با 50 نفر از شهروندان استان گیلان استفاده شده است؛ سپس تحلیل مصاحبه ها به شیوه نظریه زمینه ای انجام شد. برمبنای یافته های پژوهش بیشتر مصاحبه شوندگان به جهان پس از مرگ باور داشتند؛ اما برخی روایت دینی و گروهی روایت اخلاقی از مرگ داشتند. از لحاظ ایماژ یا تصویر از مرگ نیز آنها به چهار گونه تقسیم شدند: آخرت اندیش، فنااندیش، ابهام اندیش و انطباق اندیش. درباره دلایل مرگ هراسی نیز برخی مصاحبه شوندگان در گونه سازگارند و از مرگ هراسی ندارند؛ اما بعضی به دلایل پیامدی، برخی به دلایل جدایی و گسست از این دنیا و گروهی دیگر به دلیل نداشتن شناخت و ابهامات ناشی از مرگ دستخوش مرگ هراسی اند. مفهوم مرکزی دلایل مرگ هراسی در این پژوهش، «نیستی و ناشناختنی بودن مرگ» است.
    کلیدواژگان: سنخ شناسی، مرگ، مرگ اندیشی، مرگ هراسی، استان گیلان
  • حمید دهقانی* صفحات 117-135
    کلان شهرهای ایران در آستانه بلعیده شدن ازسوی حاشیه های شهری اند و اگر اقدامات پیشگیرانه ای صورت نگیرد، به زودی متن شهرها ممکن است در معده حاشیه های شهری هضم شوند. اصفهان در یک صد سال اخیر بالاترین میزان صنعتی شدن و سریع ترین رشد جمعیت را داشته است. به گونه ای که جمعیت اصفهان در صد سال اخیر از هشتاد هزار نفر به دو میلیون نفر رسیده است. این میزان از صنعتی شدن افسارگسیخته و شهرنشینی بدون شهرگرایی و توسعه پایدار سبب ایجاد محله هایی شده است که می توان آنها را محله های فوق بدخیم دانست؛ محله هایی که در آنها بسته ای از آسیب های اجتماعی به همراه جرائم خشن و احساس امنیت پایین وجود دارد. در کنار این مسائل، فقر، بیکاری، وجود بافت های فرسوده و امکانات ناچیز رفاهی و خدماتی، هرگونه امید به بهبود وضعیت آنها را از بین برده است. داده های پژوهش ازطریق روش اسنادی و کتابخانه ای جمع‎آوری شده اند و از فن جبر بولی در تحلیل تطبیقی استفاده شده است. نتایج تحلیل بولی نشان می دهند با وجود آنکه تقریبا در همه مناطق شهری اصفهان آسیب های اجتماعی بالاست، در محله های فوق بدخیم منطقه 14 این مسائل با وضعیت نامناسب اقتصادی، مهاجرت افراد کم درآمد و وقوع جرائم خشن در هم تنیده شده است. همچنین، براساس همگنی فرهنگی - اجتماعی، شش تیپ مختلف مناطق شهری شناسایی شدند که عبارت اند از: مناطق تاریخی (مناطق 1 و3)، مناطق حاشیه نشین روستایی - شهری (مناطق 2، 9 و 11)، مناطق مدرن (مناطق 5 و 6)، مناطق حاشیه نشین مهاجر و محله های فوق بدخیم (منطقه 14) که بیشتر در بخش های شرق و شمال شرق اصفهان متمرکز و در حال گسترش اند.
    کلیدواژگان: آسیب های اجتماعی، مناطق 15 گانه شهر اصفهان، محله های فوق بدخیم، حاشیه نشینی، تحلیل بولی
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  • Mohammad Heydari, Vahid Ghasemi *, Mohsen Renani, Mohammadtaghi Iman Pages 1-28
    Introduction
     The relationship between culture and economy or in the other words, economic culture is one of the most important issues of contemporary economic sociology. In recent decades, due to the tax system deficiencies that are largely rooted in cultural affairs, tax culture and its related factors attract the attention of economists and economic and financial sociologists. In this regard, the present study considering the tax culture as a construction that has a meaning for taxpayers and this meaning has the ability of forming, continuity and change. This research sought to rummage the meaning system of taxpayers about the tax and then present the grounded theory of tax culture to determine the coordinates of tax culture, assign weight and size of its related factors and present a sociological explanation of tax culture and its related factors.  
    Material & Methods
    The research methodology was a mix method, exploratory-sequential strategy and a taxonomy development model. In the qualitative phase, the method of grounded theory (systematic approach) was used and in the quantitative phase, a survey approach was used. The study population consisted of tax payers in Isfahan. The sample size was 30 taxpayers at the qualitative phase and 440 taxpayers at the quantitative phase. Purposive -theoretical sampling method was used at the qualitative phase and stratified sampling was used at the quantitative phase. The data collection technique was in-depth interview in the qualitative phase and questionnaire in the quantitative phase. To analyze the data, coding method (open coding, axial coding and selective coding) and also the analytic tool of the paradigm was used in the qualitative phase and variance-based structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used in the quantitative phase.  
    Discussion of Results & Conclusions
    The results of the qualitative phase indicate the formed of a meaning system for taxpayers in regard to the phenomenon of tax regarding some major issues in the form of a paradigmatic model including three dimensions of conditions, actions/interactions and consequences. According to the study results, in the dimension of conditions, it includes causal conditions (tax systemization, transparency of tax laws  and tax authoritarianism), contextual conditions (procedural fairness of tax,  mutual trust of actors) and interventional conditions (tax justice, economic health of authorities and tax expenditure efficiency), in the dimension of action-interaction (tax as a common interest, tax as duty and force-based compliance) and in the dimension of consequences (taxpayers’ dissatisfaction, Non-transparency of economic activity, strengthening the shadow economy) that have been formed around a core category called "unbalanced claiming". The findings of the quantitative phase show that tax culture in the population of the research is lower than the average. Independent variables have relatively high power for explaining the variance of tax culture.  Tax systemization, mutual trust of actors and tax justice, directly, and transparency of tax laws and tax authoritarianism, indirectly affect the tax culture. Also the variables of procedural fairness of tax and economic health directly and indirectly effect on the tax culture. Finally, integrating the results in two qualitative and quantitative phases in the form of Meta-Inference suggests that the inferences of the two phases are compatible with each other. In other words, according to the research strategy (exploratory-sequential), the inferences of the quantitative phase confirm the inferences of the qualitative phase. The results of two phases (qual- quan) of research imply that tax is formed and sustained around the mutual claiming between government and economic actors. For this claiming it is essential to pay attention to “interest” as a basis of most theoretical and empirical explanations in the fields of economic and financial sociology.
    Keywords: Tax Culture, Meaning System, Sociological Explanation, Taxpayers, Mix Method
  • Seyed Mehdi Motevaliyan *, Seyed Mehdi Hosseini Shirvani, Zahra Nouri Pages 29-45
    Introduction
     Religion as an important social institution plays significant roles in the society. According to Auguste Comte, religion is human need, because it is a factor of unity, altruism and legitimacy. Max Weber mentions institution of religion as a community leader, and Émile Durkheim believes religion has function for societies (Nayebi and Azadarmaki, 2007). This institution has knitted to all parts of people's life in society of Iran and has led to significant evolution such as Islamic revolution in 1979 (Taleban and Rafieibehabadi, 2010). Also, a hard attempt has been done in order to develop religiosity in Iran especially among youth (Tajbakhsh and Mousavi, 2014). So, this study is trying to investigate the rate of religiosity and related factors among university students of Mazandaran with six questions: How is the rate of religiosity among university students of Mazandaran? How is the way of applying power in family among students? Authoritarianism or democratic? Is there any relationship between the way of applying power in family and religiosity of students? Is there any significant differences between religiosity of male and female students? Is there any significant differences between religiosity among married and single students? What are the predictor variables of religiosity among students?  
    Material & Methods
    407 male and female university of Mazandaran students in 15 classes has been sampled by cluster random sampling and answered to the measure of methods of applying power in the family (Khoshfar and Mohammadi Nia, 2014) with two dimensions and the measure of religiosity (Gelark and Stark, 1965) with four dimensions.  
    Discussion of Results & Conclusions
    The result shows most of participants were female (female = 73%, male =22, no answer = 5%). This result is in line with reports that clear more university students are female in Iran (Mirdar, 2014). Also, results show students religious score were 38 to 119 (Mean = 58.11, SD= 12.41), and more participants were with high rate of religiosity (%54.3), this result is in line with Nayebi and Azadarmaki (2007) that clear Iran as a religious society. Moreover, score of democratic method was 8 to 30 (Mean=22.2, SD = 4.19) and score of the authoritarianism method was 7 to 35 (Mean=18.10, SD =5.18). Results show in more family (59.46%), score of the authoritarianism method was high, this result is consistent with Iran's patriarchal system. Moreover, results show score of authoritarianism method and democratic method are reported more by female than male. Mean of authoritarianism method (female = 19.79, male = 17.60) and democratic method (female = 22.39, male = 20.77). To justify can be say, male and female are different in psychological, biological and their experience of social environment. Also, according the results, no significant differences between both genders in university has been shown, male (Mean = 83.20) and female (Mean = 85.68), but married students were more religious than single ones. Mean of score of religious among married students were 89.14, but among single were less (84.10). For justification can be say married students normally have more social activity than single ones (Mohsenitabrizi, Abbasighadi and Kamari, 2007), and some social activity is linked to religiosity, so this activity show married person more religious than single person. Furthermore, results show a significant relationship between democratic method in family and religiosity among participants (r = 0.24, p = 0.00), and a significant relationship between authoritarianism method in family and religiosity among participants (r= 0.17, p=0.00). Based on this result, the correlation coefficient of democratic method is more than authoritarianism method. To justification can be say, family has important effect  on religious Identity of children, so humiliation of children by authoritarianism method in family pushes children to revolt against family value such as religiosity (Nourbahksh and Oveysifardouyi, 2016). Also, based on learning theories, children learn all social value. So, in family with more democratic method, parents have more emotional relationship with children, then children more follow their parent and their social value such as religiosity (Dudley and Wisbey, 2000). Finally, according the stepwise regression coefficients, democratic method, authoritarianism method and marital status variables predict 13 percent of variance of religiosity.
    Keywords: Religiosity, Students, Marital Status, Democracy, Gender
  • Vakil Heidaei Sarban * Pages 47-64
    Introduction
     Environmental concern is increasing around the world. Environmental concerns, appears as auras to change the behavior, so that the study of environmental concern for the environmental behavior of people is very important. Some researchers have environmental concerns as an assessment or attitude of the facts, behavior or conduct oneself treat others with implications for the environment. Currently, environmental concerns are as one of the aspects of environmental attitudes. This specifically refers to those who are concerned about environmental issues.  Success in the subject requires environmental protection programs, recognition of the different aspects of human behavior and the factors affecting it. The scientific findings show that environmental difficulties such as pollution of water resources, pollution of air, eradication of biodiversity and etc has encountered the life of world people with serious challenges. This challenge is resulted from human activities in different points of earth. Our country is not safe from these challenges, difficulties and being worried. The world peace association inference that in contemporary era the difficulties of environmental in Iran are more dangerous than from external enemies and internal political conflicts. At this reason that, the index of environmental performance 2014 that conducted by Columbia University and 22 environmental factor such as water resources, pollution of air, biodiversity and climate changes has surveyed. The results of this research show that the Iran country from among 178 country studied is in 83 places. In the meantime, the Ardebil County is an ancient city in Iranian Azerbaijan. This county has beautiful natural landscapes, species of incomparable plants, good nature with high mountains  and mineral waters and …  that all indicator the importance of this region is point of view environmental. Ardebil County is not respite from hazardous and threats of global environmental. On the other hand, overgrazing, soil erosion, deforestation, destroy of plants and animal species, changes of land use of farm land,  fall of aquifer, landslide and has harmed to nature of rural areas, intensely.   In addition, consumerism, tourism development, destroy and pollution of soil in reason of using of poison and fertilizer pesticide, pollution of water resources and etc is make evident the importance ad necessary survey of action and environmental behaviors in Ardabil county, necessary of actions to attainment to decreasing of difficulties and informational necessary for policy-making, designs and planning for decreasing rural environmental problems of Ardabil County.    
    Material & Methods
    The purpose of the present study was to Study and analysis of social factors on empowerment of behaviors related to environment conservation in villagers in the Ardabil County.  The research method was analytical -explanative survey type. It can be said that studied population in this study consists of all youth living in rural areas of Ardabil County in 2017 (N=85053), among which 383 persons were selected as statistical sample using Cochran formula. Sample size was determined based on the Cochran’s formula and the required data were collected through questionnaires.  Content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by professors and experts and its reliability was determined based on Cronbach's alpha (0.82-0.89).  
    Discussion of Results & Conclusions
    Accordance of findings of this research the enforcement of social capital is necessary for attaining to improvement of behaviors related to environment conservation. At these relations, it is obvious that social capital resulted to actions and positive behaviors. Regarding on promotion of cognitive capacities and social responsiplity must tell the most important of eradication of environmtanl is education in the society, promoting of public vulture, sense of responsiblity against environment and legislation. In order to analyze the data, factor analysis model was used and the results of this model showed the most important factors improvement of rural women social exclusion in studied region includes four components (reinforcement of   social capital and territorial belonging, promotion of cognitive capacities and social responsiplity, reinfircment of social morality  and extension of life style related to environment conservation and promotion of social walfare indics and empowerment of satisfication) that explained variance and the cumulative variance by the five factors 65.14.
    Keywords: Environment, Social Behavior, Social Networks, Sustainable Rural Development, Ardabil County
  • Jaseb Nikfar *, Samane Jaberipoor Pages 65-84
    Introdution
     Electoral behavior is time-based, place-based, and context-based. In the way that voters' behavior varies from one constituency to another and from one election to another. In recent years, the participation of voters in provinces with social tribalism context were high in the Islamic Consultative Assembly election, with the Boyer Ahmad constituency being among the constituencies where voters have a high degree of participation. Many scholars associated this area with the social context and the hegemony of the tribal sub-discourse. In the present research, the question is whether this sub-discourse has lost its hegemony and has fallen into disrepair or still remains strong?  
    Material & Methods
    To answer this question, the theoretical system approach has been utilized, the theory of electoral behavior and Laclau and Mouffe's discourse analysis have been mixed and the focus group method has been used. Different social groups were used in Yasuj and the villages around the city, and thus the discursive articulation of the subjectivity of social subjects was identified and their electoral behaviors were estimated. The study groups included housewives, students, employees, non-employed people, deans and village elders, taxi drivers, workers and farmers. This interview was held in early March, 2016. Housewives make up 62 percent of Yasuj women and its surrounding villages, so their views are important. Workers are also an important part of the community who have simple but noteworthy ideas. Employees as examples of educated people play an important role in shaping the mentality of people and their family members; in addition, the dominant atmosphere of government departments is very effective in shaping the mentality of employees.Non-employed people in the current population form a large population whose participation or lack of participation in the election is influenced by various factors. In the other side, students play an important role in the manner of selecting candidates due to the access to resources such as the Internet, the books, the journals, the discursive space in the university;and they have an undeniable role in the awareness and attitudes of their family members.Deans and elders are also among those people who affect their neighborhood people and are trusted among people. Taxi drivers are also accompanied and in touch with different people. Therefore, some of the social groups selected in the present study form important groups of society, which was a good choice for the present study.Therefore, during this research, a focused and detailed group interview was conducted on these important social groups. Based on the results of previous studies, the tribal sub-discourse wasthe dominant discourse shaping the behavior of voters in the electoral constituency with a tribal structure, including Boyer Ahmad.
    Discussion of Results & Conclusions
    The social stakeholders in these provinces resort to a variety of ways to reproduce their power and seize hegemony; so, election is an opportunity for them to reproduce their power. The influential social groups are trying to consolidate their discourse by encouraging the elements of tribalism and fostering tribal prejudices and stimulating people's sentiments.But fixing signs in a discourse is never permanent and is still changing.Using the analysis of the centralized group interviews conducted in this paper, we have come to the conclusion that the tribal and dominant sub-discourse in Yasuj has been deconstructed, and the discourse of personal and national interests is becoming the dominant discourse. In other words, the discourse of the tribes lost its credibility, and the discourse of individual and national interests dominated the subjectivity of social subjects. With regards to the interviews, changes in the electoral behavior of subjects became tangible. If relativism played a major role in Beyer Ahmadi's electoral behavior in the past; now, personal interests, especially economic and national interests, have become the central platform for the discourse of the social groups in this constituency.Even those who consider tribalism in the election said that they did do so to reach their personal interests and needs of themselves and their family. In fact, the economic factor and individual interests have become very important in people's voting. In the group discussions that took place, it was found that subjects in the election choose the right candidateby calculating rationally and evaluating the profits and losses, and this is where the importance of individual and economic interests becomes apparent to other components. Therefore, the research shows that in the Boyer Ahmad constituency there has been a discrepancy in the tribal sub-discourse.  Moreover, although the social structures have not undergone a fundamental change, the central elements have been flawed.Participants in the group discussions focused on their electoral behavior tended to adopt a kind of individualist discourse that is in the interests of individual and national, and the discourse of tribal and tribal affiliations has been rejected and marginalized in their mentality.
    Keywords: Elective Behavior, Tribe Sub Conversation, Articulation, Individual-National Interests
  • Khalil Sardarnia *, Sina Aminizadeh, Mozaffar Hasanvand Pages 85-100
    Introduction
    Political participation is one of the most important signs of political development, which its quality and format differs from society to society. The realization of institutionalization and political participation requires the preparation of the psycho-social, cultural, economic and political conditions of each society. The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of effective social and cultural factors, such as media, associations, social networks and friendship groups, on the political participation of students in political and party organizations. Quantitative and qualitative studies have shown that modern and classical media have been influential in political parties and political and civil formations. Today, modern communication and information technologies are considered as the driving engine of political, economic and cultural globalization and the spread of democracy    
    Material & Methods
    The research method is quantitative by using a questionnaire technique. Political participation is one of the fundamental requirements of citizenship and is one of the indispensable necessities of the political system in the twenty-first century and one of the main indicators of political development. This research is also based on a survey method and a questionnaire technique for collecting data and information. Dependent variable and some independent variables are measured based on the Likert spectrum. SPSS software was used to analyze the data; In order to extract the effect of each independent and intermediate variables on the dependent variable, Amos 22 software was used to analyze the paths. The statistical population in this study was Shiraz University students whose number in the academic year (1396) was about 16 thousand.  
    Discussion of Results & Conclusions
    The present research try to answer this question that which one of the below factors (mass media, both classical and new, domestic and international, social networks and factors or social variables such as friends' groups and membership and cooperation with associations) has the most effect on the young people's political orientation and participation in parties and political organizations? The findings of present research indicate that the effects of media and virtual network with the intermediation of the association and friends on political participation are generally significant, up to the virtual network 0.110 and its lower limit is 0.040 that are both directional and its coefficient is 0.01. Also, the internal media has upper limit 0.0257 and bottom limit 0.0127 and significant is 0.01. The external media also has a high level of 0.042 and a low of 0.005 and its significant coefficient is equal to 0.02, which confirms the assumption that associations and friends have a mediating role in relation to the predictor variables of political participation. All relationships are meaningful. Internal media has the most impact on the community. The impact of it is 0.603, as well as the virtual network, has the highest impact after the medium, with a coefficient of 0.476. Interestingly, the virtual network has the greatest impact on political participation among variables. The group also has a significant impact (0.288) on the political participation. The results of the research indicate that, respectively, access and active communication with social networks in cyberspace, group friends, membership in civic and voluntary associations, domestic media and, ultimately, foreign media (radio and satellite television) on the tendencies and political participation of students at Shiraz University in political parties and political organizations have a positive and meaningful effect. The important role here is that the influence of the media on associations and friends that interfere with political participation. Of course, media are also directly affected. The importance of the media in the world today, especially in the broader field of policy, can be very effective in the process of community participation, especially political participation.
    Keywords: Media, Social Capital, Political Participation, Societies, Shiraz University
  • Ali Yaghobi *, Sayyed Zahra Mirhegazi, Zienab Soufi Zadeh Pages 101-115
    Introduction
      Death is a complex fact which is interdisciplinary studied by sciences and knowledges such as sociology, biology, psychology, history, philosophy, psychoanalysis, mythology, theology, and medicine.  One of the thanatophobia reasons is, its unknown and ambiguity.   Major purpose this article is, The typology of the Image of death and understanding  phenomenon of deathamong Guilan Province citizens.  
    Material & Methods
     Research method in this study is qualitative. Also, semi-structured interviews have been used among citizens aged 18 years and above the province of Guilan. The sample size was about 50 people and the subjects were studied by purposive and theoretical sampling. To determine the number of interviewees, theoretical saturation logic was used.  
    Discussion of Results & Conclusions
     The results show that Most interviewees believed that the world after death, but some religious narrative and some moral narrative had about it. In terms of image the death that divided into four types: Hereafter-thinker, Secular-thinker, Ambiguity-thinker and Adaptation-thinker. Most of the interviewees have the narrative of the eternity. They have religious readings of death, and they see it as life again, attaining God, calming down, moving to another world, ending the concerns. This type of people have a sacred narrative of the death, that is, death is not the end of life, and everything is recreated. They have a narrative of displacement and a passage of death, meaning the phenomenon and abstract concept of death with the path of objectification and visualization.  They have a narrative of displacement and a passage of death; In other words, the phenomenon and the abstract concept of death are objectified and embodied with the passageway. The understanding and image of them from time is, circular and recursive. They believe that death is a divine providence that is tied to divine justice. They have a desirable image of death, and it see as the end of suffering and concern and to achieve calm. Some of them, who have an hereafter-thinker reading, look from the moral point of view to death adapted to the phenomenon of death and are not worried about it. A small group is in the Secular-thinker category. These people have nihilism look and secularism to death. Their perception and image of life is a linear time that ends with death. For some, the phenomenon of death is unclear and vague. This type of interviewee has neither a sacred nor a secular view. They have agnostic narrators of death This is related to Heidegger's view. In the book "Being and Time," he emphasizes the unknown death.  Some interviewees are Adaptation-thinker. They regard death as a natural and definite reality and narrates it with metaphors and natural and religious propositions. Metaphors such as: A camel that sleeps next to everyone's home or death is right. Individuals adapt to this complex phenomenon. This type of interviewee are in the group of believers and moralistic. About thanatophobia reasons the interviewees are categorized into several types: Some interviewees are compliance type, they are not afraid of death, and categorized into two groups: religious and ethical. But some people are afraid of death due to reasons of consequence, they are afraid of death due to post-death events. Some people are afraid of death because of the separation and breaking of this world. And finally, others are afraid of death due to the lack of knowledge and ambiguity of death, because death is a mystery and problem to them. Based on the findings of this research, a common element in all types of death-thinking suggests that death is necessary and man as an observer is approaching it. That is, human is considered as moving monitor, and the passage of time is conceptualized in the form of motion. The central concept of the thanatophobia is “inexistence and unknoweble” about death.
    Keywords: Typology, Death, Dead Thinking, Thanatophobia, Guilan Province
  • Hamid Dehghan * Pages 117-135
    Introduction
     The metropolitan areas of Iran are on the verge of being overwhelmed by the marginalized neighborhood. Unless the preventive measures are taken, the marginalized areas will soon take over urban ones. During the last century, Isfahan has had the highest level of industrialization and the most rapid rate of population growth. This exorbitant amount of industrialization and urbanization without considering urbanism and sustainable development contributed to the creation of super wicked neighborhoods. In simple words, the notion of super wicked neighborhoods refers to the parts of the city with plenty of social pathologies including violent crimes and a low level of security. Along with these issues, other negative factors such as poverty, unemployment, worn-out textures and limited service and welfare facilities have contributed to the lack of hope for improving their conditions. Levin Kelly (2012) specified four major features of issues related to the super wicked concept as follows: At first, slight opportunities are remained to solve the mentioned problems. On the other hand, the individuals seeking to solve problems are per se part of these problems. Another feature of these issues is the lack or little extent of the required central authority to solve the problem (Kelly, 2012). The last feature but not the least to mention is the traditional problem-solving methods that are no longer feasible in solving these types of problem.  
    Material & Methods
    In the present study, the library or documentary research method (DSM) was used for data collection. The qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) was implemented by Boolean algebra technique. The results of the study indicated that although the social pathologies were high in most urban areas of Isfahan, in the super wicked neighborhoods of 14th area, these issues were interrelated with adverse economic conditions, the migration of low-income people and high rate of violent crimes. In Boolean algebra, each variable is considered as a dichotomy binary variable “presence /absence or existence / absence". Therefore, through the Boolean analysis of the social data, all variables including both independent and dependent ones should be converted into dummy variables (zero and one) and analyzed in two nominal categories. In this study, the variables of the research were categorized in dummy variables based on the central tendency of six types of Isfahan districts. In a way that the code 1 represents the higher values from the mean and the code zero represents the mean and lower values. The combination of causal conditions in Boolean algebra is indicated by the symbol (x). In the case-based approach, the hypothesis is based on the assumption that an effect is a specific combination of causal conditions. For instance, an equation in the form of (y = AB + CDE) means that the effect (y) is resulted either from the combination of the conditions A and B (AB), or from the combination of E, D and C (EDC). Generally, in an equation, English capital letters indicate the presence of each causal condition and small letters represent the absence of them (Kafi, 2014: 136-139). Then, the data related to the causal conditions (socio-economic, the youth of population, population density, immigration databases) and the effects (Social pathologies and the formation of super wicked neighborhood) have been evaluated based on the district divisions of Isfahan.  
    Discussion of Results & Conclusions
    Based on socio-cultural homogeneity, six different types of urban areas were identified including the historical (1st and 3rd), rural-urban (2nd, 9th and 11th), the modern (5th and 6th), marginalized and super wicked (14th) areas etc. The super wicked and marginalized areas have been expanded and have been concentrated mainly in the eastern and northern parts of Isfahan. According to the results of this study, the western area of Isfahan had the lowest level of social pathology, delinquency and crime in spite of having high rate of unemployment, high level of poverty and the countless worn-out tissues. In other words, it can be claimed that this is due to the type of social structure, traditional and indigenous texture as well as mechanical integrity that are still maintained in the region. On the other hand, a low stocking density has taken place in this area. In fact, each 15 districts of Isfahan have their own crime zone. However, some urban parts of Isfahan can be interpreted as super wicked areas that have converted into a network of interconnected issues. By the same token, Delake et al. (2017) revealed that the concentration of cultural, social and health infrastructures either in the historical part or in the modern part of the city have led to a high level of social resilience in these areas. Therefore, they need to have the required capacity to endure and face with the tensions and external disorders. On the contrary, the marginalized areas have less resilience due to the lack of required infrastructures.
    Keywords: Social pathologies, Fifteen Areas of Isfahan, Super Wicked Neighborhood, Marginalization, Boolean analysis