فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 47 (پاییز 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/08/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • سمیه کوه جانی گوجی، علیرضا شیخی* صفحات 4-28
    پژوهش حاضر، در کنار ارزش نسخه شناسی قرآن، به مطالعه بصری صفحات افتتاح مجموعه ای از قرآن های محفوظ در آستان قدس رضوی از سده 6 تا 9 هجری با هدف تاکید بر صفحه آرایی،تناسبات، تزئینات و تذهیب پرداخته است. لذا به این پرسش می پردازد که ویژگی صفحه آرایی صفحات افتتاح در قرآن های محفوظ در آستان قدس رضوی از قرن 6 تا 9 هجری و دوم وجوه افتراق و اشتراک در صفحه آرایی قرآن ها چیست؟ بنابراین در قرآن های مذکور بعد از معرفی، صفحه افتتاح قرآن ها از دیدگاه صفحه آرایی وتزئینات مورد بحث و تفسیر قرار گرفت. این پژوهش با رویکرد کیفی و روش تحقیق تاریخی،توصیفی به انجام رسیده و با جامعه آماری هدفمند و نمونه گیری متوالی در جهت حداکثر تفاوت و تشابه طبقه بندی و سپس تجزیه و تحلیل شده است. نتایج یافته های پژوهش نشان داد که صفحه آرایی صفحات افتتاح قرآن ها از سده 6 تا 9 هجری سیر تکاملی را پیموده است. در دوره سلجوقی خط و خوشنویسی رشد قابل توجهی داشته و خطوط سته به نظم و قاعده درآمدند، در تزئینات قرآن ها از فرم های هندسی، اسلیمی های ساده و رنگ های محدود و علی الخصوص زرین استفاده شد، در عصر ایلخانی ترکیب بندی و صفحه آرایی منسجم تر و منظم تر گشت استفاده از رنگ های زرین و لاجوردی مرسوم شد، فرم های هندسی جایگاه خود را در کنار برخی عناصر طبیعت گرا حفظ کردند. قرآن های کتابت شده عصر تیموری به لحاظ ساختاری، استفاده از عناصر طبیعت گرا و ظرافت نقوش اصولی و قاعده مند بودند و کاربرد رنگ های زرین، لاجوردی و شنجرف در کنار رنگ های متنوع دیگر از خصوصیات شاخص در تزئینات این دوره بوده است. در نهایت می توان عنوان کرد که هنر کتابت از شکل ساده و بی پیرایه به سوی انسجام و پر نقش و نگاری پیش رفته و تزئینات نیز در قرآن ها به عنوان عنصری زیباشناسانه در صفحه آرایی محسوب شد و ترکیب بندی تناسبات و تقسیمات اجزاء براساس نظمی خاص بوده است. لذا ساختار هندسی، تناسب و توازن در صفحه آرایی قرآن های مورد مطالعه اهمیت داشته و کاتب این اصول را براساس علوم، فنون و هنر رایج زمان خود رعایت و در نتیجه ترکیب بندی های زیبا و بی بدیلی خلق کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: قرآن کریم، صفحه آرایی، صفحه افتتاح، آستان قدس رضوی، سلجوقی، ایلخانی، تیموری
  • ابراهیم رایگانی*، داود پاک باز کتج صفحات 28-45
    در سده های میانه اسلامی، که اوج ترقی هنر ها محسوب می شود، سفالگری نیز پا به پای سایر عرصه های هنری، به مثابه پایه تجدید حیات هنری، در رقابت با صنعت ساخت ظروف درباری طلا و نقره حرکت نمود و سفالگران این دوره از خاک رس، نقش و لعاب ظروفی مجلل تولید نمودند. از آنجا که محصول و هر اثر هنری زاییده جامعه ای است که آن اثر را می طلبد، دو گونه ظروف فلزی وهمچنین جایگزینی سفالینه های زرین فام چالشی قابل توجه در سده های میانه اسلامی به شمار می رود. این تحقیق، ضمن بررسی ویژگی ها و شرایط اجتماعی مردمان عصر سلجوقی و ایلخانی، تاثیر این عوامل اجتماعی را در بازنمایی نقوش سفالینه های زرین فام و ظروف فلزی برجای مانده ردیابی می نماید. نگارندگان در پژوهش پیش رو کوشیدند تا روند جانشینی ظروف زرین فام و رقابت با ظروف فلزی سده های میانه را تشریح کنند. بنابراین مقاله حاضر در پی پاسخگویی به این پرسش هاست که ویژگی ها و شرای اجتماعی مردمان عصر سلجوقی و ایلخانی کدام اند، و کدام یک از نقوش سفالینه های زرین فام و ظروف فلزی این عصر متاثر از شرایط اجتماعی وقت بوده است. روش مقایسه ای _ تحلیلی به کار گرفته شده در مقاله حاضر بر مبنای مطالعات کتابخانه ای است. افزون بر این، تحلیل این آثار و بازتاب جامعه تولید کننده آنها بر پایه نظریات جامعه شناختی صورت گرفته و مصداق آنها در دوره زمانی مورد بحث با ارائه تصاویر و مطالبی از منابع تاریخی این دوره ارائه گردیده است. ظروف زرین فام مورد مطالعه، هم به لحاظ زیبایی و درخشش و هم از نظر تزئین، رنگ و فرم، چنان به ظروف فلزی نزدیک شدند که جز به لحاظ جنس، تقریبا نقش ظروف فلزی را به طور کامل ایفا می کردند، به طوری که هم با شریعت اسلام تطابق داشتند و هم با قیمت مناسبی نسبت به ظروف فلزی، عرضه می شدند. در نتیجه، مشخص شد که این آثار بازتاب جامعه ای در حال گذار و پیشرفت است که تحولاتی چون رشد صنایع، تخصص گرایی، تقسیم کار، ظهور طبقات جدید، تجمل گرایی، آفرینش شیوه های بدیع فلزکاری و سفالینه های زرین فام را در آن شاهد هستیم.
    کلیدواژگان: دوره سلجوقی، دوره ایلخانی، سفال زرین فام، ظروف فلزی، وضعیت اجتماعی
  • فائزه نوروزی*، جمال عرب زاده، ایرج اسکندری صفحات 46-61
    نستعلیق و تشعیر دو عنصر هم نشین در کتاب آرایی محسوب می شوند. شروع تقریبی این دو هنر در یک برهه تاریخی و کاربرد مکرر آن ها در کنار یکدیگر از عواملی است که پرداختن به این موضوع را ضروری می نماید. هدف این تحقیق شناسایی دقیق فرم نستعلیق و تشعیر در کتاب آرایی ایرانی در فاصله زمانی دوره تیموری تا قاجار است. پرسش های این مقاله عبارت اند از: 1- چه عواملی سبب شکل گیری فرم نستعلیق و تشعیر در کتاب آرایی ایرانی شده است؟ 2- بر اساس رویکرد صورت گرایی نقاط اشتراک و افتراق میان نستعلیق و تشعیر چیست؟ برای رسیدن به پاسخ این پرسش ها از روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و با رویکردی به نظریه صورت گرایی این تحقیق بررسی شده است. شیوه جمع آوری اطلاعات کتابخانه ای است. به طور خلاصه نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش نشان می دهد الحاق این دو هنر به یکدیگر پس از دوران فترت، سبب نمایش ظواهر تزیینی تیموریان در جهت نمود سرمایه شده و ناشی از ادراک زیباشناسانه حاکمان آن هاست. کاربرد بیش از پیش نستعلیق و تشعیر کنار یکدیگر در دوره صفویه به اوج می رسد و خصوصیات صوری مشترک میان آن ها در مرقعات به تعادلی پایدار تبدیل می شود. همچنین قابلیت تزیینی تشعیر و واژگان نستعلیق در قالب سیاه مشق که از دوره قاجار به صورت مجزا شکل می گیرد از دیگر تشابهات میان آن هاست. تمایزاتی از قبیل قاعده مند بودن نستعلیق در برابر تشعیر و اولویت داشتن وجه روایی نستعلیق دربرابر وجه تزیینی تشعیر در طول ادوار مورد مطالعه همواره مورد توجه بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: نستعلیق، تشعیر، صورت گرایی، کتاب آرایی ایرانی
  • مژگان خیرالهی ازناوله*، اسماعیل بنی اردلان صفحات 62-81
    نقش مایه بته در میان نقوش هنر اسلامی جایگاه ویژه ای دارد. تنوع شکل و گستره حضور این نقش مایه پژوهشگران بسیاری را بر آن داشته است که طی سده اخیر در خصوص چیستی آن مطالعه و پژوهش نمایند. این پژوهش ها هنوز هم ادامه داشته و محققان هنر اسلامی هر از چند گاهی شاهد ارائه نظریه جدید درباره سرچشمه و اصل این نقش هستند. دلیل این تشتت آراء و ظهور فرضیه های جدید در خصوص این نقش را می توان جامع و قابل تعمیم نبودن آن ها به همه نقوشی دانست که تحت عنوان نامی واحد بته قرار گرفته اند. پرسش های پژوهش حاضر عبارت اند از: 1 علت پراکندگی و عدم جامعیت آراء در خصوص منشا و چیستی بته چیست؟ 2 ویژگی های متمایزکننده نقش بته از سایر نقوش مشابه کدام اند؟ 3 چه شواهد تاریخی، فرهنگی و هنری در دست هست که بتوان درخت سرو را منشا و اصل این نقش مایه دانست؟ روش تحقیق تاریخی تحلیلی بوده و شیوه گردآوری داده ها، به روش مطالعه کتابخانه ای و جستجوی میدانی و اینترنتی بوده است. بررسی اجمالی مهمترین آراء پژوهشگران حوزه مطالعات هنر اسلامی و طبقه بندی آن ها در سه گروه گیاهی، جانوری و غیر این دو نشان دهنده آن است نقوشی با منشاهای گوناگون تنها به جهت مشابهت در صورت کلی، یکسان پنداشته شده اند. ویژگی هایی از قبیل شکل کلی مخروطی، گیاهی بودن، جهت دار بودن، مستقل بودن و... بته را از سایر نقوش مشابه متمایز می نماید. همچنین بررسی منابع مزدیسنایی، آثار هنری، تاریخی و... پیش از اسلام نشان دهنده آن است که دلیل محکمی که نشانده قداست درخت سرو در اندیشه ایرانیان باستان باشد وجود ندارد.
    کلیدواژگان: بته، بوته، بته جقه، درخت سرو، هنر اسلامی
  • مریم اکبرزاده*، محمدصادق میرزاابوالقاسمی صفحات 82-93
    شیوه ساخت خاتم گره نسبت به سایر انواع خاتم پیچیده تر و دشوارتر است. خاتم گره معمولا بر اساس نقوش گره تند و کند هندسی شکل می گیرد و زاویه برش مصالح نیز در آن متفاوت است. گره پنج از متداول ترین نقوشی است که مبنای شکل گیری سایر نقوش خاتم گره نیز قرار می‏گیرد. این نقش مبنای شکل گیری سایر نقوش خاتم گره نیز هست و تقریبا در تمام انواع خاتم گره مشاهده می شود. بر این ‏اساس، موضوع این مقاله به بررسی شیوه ساخت و گل بندی خاتم گره پنج اختصاص یافته و تلاش شده است تا به سه پرسش پاسخ داده شود: 1 ویژگی‎های کلی خاتم گره کدام است و تمایز آن از سایر انواع خاتم در چیست؟ 2 مراحل طراحی و ساخت خاتم گره پنج چگونه است؟ 3 ترکیب رنگی در تولید خاتم گره پنج چگونه اعمال می شود؟ برای این منظور ضمن توجه به ویژگی های اصلی خاتم گره به‏ترتیب نحوه ترسیم هندسی، مصالح گیری، مراحل خاتم پیچی و گل بندی، تنوع ترکیبی و رنگ بندی در خاتم گره پنج بررسی گردیده است. این مقاله به شیوه توصیفی تحلیلی و بر مبنای مطالعات میدانی و کتابخانه ای نوشته شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که چند شیوه متفاوت برای پیچیدن خاتم گره پنج وجود دارد. با این حال، در تمام این شیوه ها نوع برش و مقدار مصالح یکسان است. همچنین رنگ بندی اجزای گره در گل بندی خاتم گره پنج نیز غالبا از ترکیب دو رنگ به دست می آید و اگر این نقش در سایر نقوش خاتم گره مورد استفاده قرار گیرد به صورت ترکیبی از سه رنگ گل بندی و اجرا می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: خاتم سازی، خاتم گره، خاتم گره پنج، خاتم پیچی، گل بندی
  • اعظم حکیم*، ابوالقاسم دادور صفحات 94-109
    یکی از موضوعات نقاشی قهوه خانه ای موضوعات دینی و عاشورایی است. نقاشی قهوه خانه ای عاشورایی مانند بخش بزرگی از تاریخ نقاشی ایران و نقاشی های دینی دیگر از جمله نقاشی های مسیحی، روایی و به متن های زبانی مکتوب و شفاهی وابسته است. نقاشی های گوتیک و موضوعات مربوط به زندگی حضرت مسیح (ع)، بخشی از نقاشی های مسیحی به شمار می آید که در این مقاله به آن پرداخته خواهد شد. این دو گونه از نقاشی با وجود شکل گیری در زمان ها و مکان های گوناگون، ویژگی های مشابهی در روایت پردازی یافته اند. از آنجایی که بخشی از مطالعات تطبیقی با تاکید بر شباهت ها به مطالعه ارتباط میان متن ها می پردازد، هدف از این جستار نشان دادن این شباهت ها  و در مرحله بعد پاسخ به این پرسش است که علت شباهت های موجود در چه عواملی است؟ نتایج حاکی از آن است که شیوه های ترکیب بندی مستمر (مستمر هم زمان و غیر هم زمان) از مهم ترین شباهت ها میان دو حوزه نقاشی و همینطور تکرار الگوی های بصری یکنواخت از دیگر وجوه اشتراک در شیوه های بیان تصویری آن ها می باشند. از سویی دیگر به غیر از وابسته بودن به روایات زبانی، مشابهت نگرش خالقان این نقاشی ها و کارکرد تعلیمی و عبادی آن ها در ارتباط با مخاطبینشان که عامه مردم هستند نیز از جمله عواملی هستند که در ایجاد مشابهت های نام برده نقش بسزایی داشته اند. تحقیق پیش رو به لحاظ روش، توصیفی، تحلیلی و تطبیقی است. در هر کدام از حوزه ها دو نمونه به صورت هدفمند، بر اساس سوالات و فرضیه های مقاله و از طریق منابع کتابخانه ای و اینترنتی انتخاب شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: نقاشی قهوه خانه ای، نقاشی گوتیک، عاشورا، مصائب مسیح، نقاشی دینی
  • شبنم حقیق نژاد*، نادیا معقولی، مهدی حقایق صفحات 111-129
    در معماری اسلامی تزئین و آرایش بنا جزء لاینفک ساختمان محسوب می شود. حضور بارز آرایه هایی چون خط نگاره ها، نقوش گیاهی و طرح های هندسی، ماهیت فرعی هنر اسلامی را تشکیل می دهد. آرایه های گچی نیز از آذین های هنر و معماری اسلامی هستند اما  این هنر بار محتوایی بالایی داشته و علاوه بر زیبایی، جهت انتقال پیام های معناگرایانه کاربرد داشته اند. مقبره بایزید بسطامی از مجموعه های تاریخی شهر شاهرود است که در دوران قبل از سلجوقی ساخته شده است و در دوره های مختلف تاریخی مرمت و گسترش شده است.  تزئینات گجبری چله خانه از طرح های هندسی تشکیل شده اند که دیوارها، طاقها و محراب را پوشش میدهند. هدف از این پژوهش مطالعه و شناسایی طرح های هندسی و تزیینات چله خانه بایزد بسطامی است و در پی پاسخ دهی به این سوال است که در تزئینات گچبری چله خانه از چه نوع نقوش و خط نوشته ها استفاده شده است؟ و همچنین کارکردهای معناشناسانه این تزیینات در چه بخشهایی از بنا و در چه انواعی ظاهر شده اند؟ و در نهایت انواع نقش مایه های به کار گرفته شده در چله خانه کدامند؟ بدین لحاظ پس از گردآوری اطلاعات به صورت میدانی و کتابخانه ای، داده های بدست آمده به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی مورد بحث قرار گرفته اند. مطالعه نقش مایه ها نشان داد که در گچبری های چله خانه گره ها برای تزئین و پوشاندن فضای داخلی طاقنما و دیوارهای بنا استفاده شده اند و گره ها با عناصر گیاهی(اسلیمی و ختایی) تلفیق شده و یا در کنار آن ها به صورت توامان وجود دارد که این عامل از ویژگی های بارز آرایه های هندسی محراب های گچبری دوره ایلخانی به شمار می رود. طراحی کتیبه در چله خانه حاصل ترکیب عناصر متعددی است که در ترکیب و اتصالات آن از گره های ترئینی میانی، انتهای تزئینی حروف، تزئینات ساقه ها و طرح های گیاهی، تزئینات ریز نقش های متنوع استفاده شده است. اما در کارکرد معناگرایانه این نقش و تزیینات مشخص گردید که گچبری ها، اسلیمی و اعداد مقدس و کتیبه های موجود در این بنا همه در جهت ایجاد رابطه معنایی بین عناصر کالبدی و غیر کالبدی در جهت ایجاد مفاهیم عرفانی اسلامی جهت فراهم آمدن شرایط مناسب برای خلوت نشینی سالکان بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تزئینات، گچبری، چله خانه، بایزید بسطامی، معماری اسلامی
  • ملیحه ایمانیان نجف آبادی*، منصور حسامی کرمانی صفحات 131-145
    منظره نگاری ایرانی با حضور تاثیرگذار خود اگرچه در نگاه عمومی بخشی از بافت روایی و در ارتباط با متن مصور به نظر می رسد، اما از نگرشی ویژه به طبیعت برخوردار است و جنبه هایی نمادین به خود می پذیرد. چنانکه مناظر همیشه بهار نگارگری، مکان رویدادها را در حالتی ازلی و آغازین نمایش داده که به آن جلوه ای تقدس گونه می بخشد. تحقیق پیش رو با در نظرداشتن این معنی به دنبال بررسی جنبه های اساطیری طبیعت در نگارگری مکتب شیراز سده های8تا10هق است که با مضامین آفرینش طبیعت در فرهنگ ایران باستان مرتبط به نظر می رسد. انعکاس برخی از مضامین تقدس گونه طبیعت در نگارگری ایران، بیشتر با شواهدی در رابطه با «کوه» و «زمین» و در تجلی مفهوم «مقدس» از مکان همراه است و آن را در آرای میرچا الیاده پیرامون تقدس مکان در طبیعت می توان مشاهده نمود و از آن در این پژوهش بهره برد. واکاوی الگوی اسطوره شناسانه تقدس طبیعت در آرای الیاده و بازخوانی و ارجاع اسطوره های آفرینش طبیعت در ایران باستان به متون اصلی و پایه اساطیری قبل از اسلام مانند بخش های مختلفی از اوستا، به ویژه «بندهش» و ردیابی آن در نگارگری و منظره پردازی، هدف اصلی این تحقیق می باشد. در همین راستا، این مقاله به دنبال پاسخ دو سوال اصلی است:1- اساطیر آفرینش طبیعت در ایران باستان تا چه اندازه در منظره پردازی هایی از نگارگری حضور دارد؟ 2- الگوی تقدس محور طبیعت در اسطوره شناسی الیاده تا چه میزانی درباره آنها مصداق دارد؟ اطلاعات ضروری تحقیق، به صورت کتابخانه ای و اسنادی جمع آوری شده و به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته اند. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد، بیان تجسمی ویژه از طبیعت و روح کلی مناظر نگارگری ایران که «زمین»و«کوه» دو عنصر غالب آن به شمار می رود، با روایت های اساطیری از «طبیعت» در فرهنگ ایران باستان مرتبط بوده و در مواردی نیز به آنها اشاره مستقیم دارد و همانگونه که الیاده به «تقدس طبیعت» در اساطیر سرزمین های مختلف اعتقاد دارد، الگوهای کلی طبیعت پردازی نگارگری ایران نیز نشان دهنده تقدس طبیعت و عناصر اصلی آن است.
    کلیدواژگان: نگارگری، طبیعت، ایران باستان، میرچا الیاده، کهن الگو، اسطوره
|
  • Somayeh Jani Ghoji, Ali Reza Shaikhi * Pages 4-28
    The present study, alongside the value of the manuscriptology of Quran, makes a visual study of the opening pages of a collection of Qurans that have been preserved in Astan Quds Razavi from the 6th to the 9th century AH with the aim of laying stress on the layout, proportions, decorations and illumination. In this research, it is intended to find answers in connection with the layout feature of the opening pages in the Qurans that have been preserved in Astan Quds Razavi from the 6th to the 9th century AH and also the similarities and differences existing in the layout of the mentioned Qurans. Thus, in the above-mentioned Qurans, after the introduction, the opening page of the Qurans was examined, analyzed and discussed in terms of layout and decorations and notable results were obtained in this regard. It should be stated that the current study has been conducted by using a qualitative approach in which a historical, descriptive and analytical research method has been employed. Further, this research has been classified and then analyzed while having targeted statistical population and sequential sampling in the direction of maximum differences and similarities. Based on the findings obtained from the present research, it has been demonstrated that the layout of the Qurans’ opening pages has had an evolutionary movement from the 6th to the 9th century AH. In the Seljuk period, we observe that scribing and calligraphy have had significant growth and the sextet hands were also regulated and systematized. Moreover, during this era, skilled well-known scribes wrote the words of Allah on the surface of the paper. In the mentioned period, Kufic and Riqa’ scripts were applied more than any other scripts in the writing of the Quran. In the decoration of the Qurans, geometric forms consisting of regular polygons, circles and arabesques limited to twisted lines and limited simple bergamots and colors such as brown, vermilion, black and especially golden color were used. In layout proportions, the priority was the blank space and the artist paid special attention to this issue. It should be also noted that the greatest surface, in most cases, has been dedicated to the central inscription and the upper and lower inscriptions in some Qurans did not have equal proportions. From the first periods, the artists were familiar with the ruler and cleverly took into consideration the lineation and line space. These artists even accurately placed the sign of verses over the last verse, which also continued in later periods. In the Ilkhanid period, it can be seen that composition and layout became more consistent and more orderly and the layout principles were more closely respected and the blank space was reduced in this era. The use of golden and azure colors, along with colors used in the previous periods, became widespread. Geometric forms kept their place alongside some naturalistic elements such as arabesque foliage and colorful Khataei designs in the page. Motifs of flowers and cloud-shape margins and hachures and sometimes arabesques in this period, along with verses, featured in the central inscription. Scribed Qurans in the Timurid era were principled and systematic in terms of structure and using naturalistic elements and elegant designs. The maximum use of the blank space of the margin by wide lassos with azure rays of light in the opening pages attracts the attention of the viewer. In addition, dynamic proportions were found more than the static proportions in the aforesaid Qurans. The application of golden, azure and vermilion colors, along with other various colors, was among the main characteristics of decorations in this period. Also, in proportions of the components, the greatest part has been allocated to the epigraph after the lasso and the central inscription, and the smallest part has been dedicated to the lower inscriptions. Verses have been also written on the inscriptions with Sols, Riqa’ and Reyhan scripts. Finally, it can be mentioned that since the beginning page of the Divine Word has been considered as the most important part in the writing of Qurans, it has also been of crucial importance in terms of layout, proportions and illumination in the page. Therefore, the art of scribing, from the 6th to the 9th century AH, has advanced from a simple and unadorned form towards integrated and elaborate designs, and decorations in Qurans have been also considered as an aesthetic element in layout. Further, the composition of proportions and division of the components were based on a certain order. Hence, geometrical structure, proportion and balance are of great importance in the layout of the Qurans under study and the scribe has observed these principles based on the science, technology and art which have been popular in his own time and thus has created beautiful and unmatched compositions.
    Keywords: Quran, Layout, Opening Page, Astan Quds Razavi, Seljuk, Ilkhanid, Timurid
  • Ebrahim Raygani*, Davood Pakbaz Kataj Pages 28-45
    In the mid-Islamic centuries that culminated in the advancement of arts, pottery also moved into other artistic arenas, as a basis for artistic revitalization, to compete with the industry of making vessels of gold and silver, and the potters of this period from clay, designs and glaze were produced Luxurious containers. Since the product and any work of art originates from a community that requires that work, two types of metal containers, as well as the replacement of luster pottery, are a significant challenge in the middle ages of Islam. The purpose of this research, while investigating the characteristics and social conditions of the Seljuk and Ilkhanid, traces the influence of these social factors on the representation of designs and the form of luster ceramics and metal containers. In the present research, the authors tried to explain the process of succession of luster ceramics and competition with metal containers of the Middle Islamic Ages. Therefore, the present article seeks to answer the following questions: What are the characteristics and social conditions of the peoples of the Seljuk and Ilkhanid era? And which of the luster ceramic designs and metal containers of this era have been affected by social constraints? The comparative-analytical method used in this paper is based on library studies. In addition, the analysis of these works and the reflection of their productive society have been based on sociological theories and their case has been discussed in the course of time by presenting pictures and material from the historical sources of this period. The luster ceramics studied, both in terms of beauty and shine, and in terms of decorating, color and form, were so close to metal containers that they played almost completely the role of metal containers, except in terms of mater, so that both They conformed to Islamic law and were offered at reasonable prices in comparison with metal containers. As a result, it became clear that these works are a reflection of a transition society that has witnessed developments such as industrial growth, specialization, division of labor, the emergence of new classes, luxury, the creation of innovative methods of metalworking and luster ceramics.
    Keywords: Seljuk Period, Ilkhanid Period, Luster Pottery, Metal Containers, Social Status
  • Jamal Arabzadeh Pages 46-61
    Nasta'līq and Tash'ir are two companion elements in Iranian book illustration. The two art forms have been shaped almost at the same historic era. Therefore, they have been frequently used together. Accordingly, addressing this issue in the present study is of paramount importance. The present study is aimed at identifying the exact form of Nasta'līq and Tash'ir in Iranian book illustration from Timurid period to Qajar period. In the matter of this issue, the present research study is sought to answer the following research questions: 1. What factors have led to the formation of Nasta'līq and Tash'ir in Iranian book illustration from Timurid period to Qajar period? 2. According to the formalist approach what similarities and differences are found in Nasta'līq and Tash'ir? The answers to these questions have been reached through a descriptive-analytical method with a view to the theory of formalism. Data is collected using library sources. In summary, the results of this study show that the inclusion of these two arts after interregnum led to the display of the Timurid external decorations to show their assets. Cumulating wealth in his territory, Timur contributed to the growth of the art of book decoration during his successors' period, so that the Timurid kings paid more attention to the appearance than to the content of the manuscripts, and constantly produced a variety of copies of a book. This is also evident in the architecture of that period. Therefore, the decorative margins and the delicate texts of Nasta'līq, which were used for the beauty of the manuscripts, were directly associated to the display of the immense wealth of the Timurid. Another point that led to the emergence of these two arts in the art of book decoration was the combination of the art of the past, that is, as Nasta'līq was formed by the combination of Naskh and Taʿlīq, Tash'ir came from the combination of Persian miniature and illuminated manuscript. Therefore, dichotomy is a common point between them; in addition, other commonalities such as the strength and weakness of the lines, the dispersion of patterns and letters, the selection of color of Tash'ir and the Nasta'līq, having certain rules in measuring the size of patterns and letters, all served the coordination and unity of the manuscripts. The increasing application of Nasta'līq and Tash'ir together during the Safavid period reached its peak, and the common external features among them in Muraqqa reached a stable equilibrium. In fact, if Muraqqas were not prevalent, Tash'ir would not have flourished to such an extent. Moreover, the decorative potential of Tash'ir also appeared in Nasta'līq vocabulary, indicating their impact on each other and causing a further similarity between them. From the Qajar period, a new form of art was created separately for the purpose of Nasta'līq calligraphy, which was called Siyah mashq. Calligraphy that always had narrative was then free of narrative, and letters and words had only decorative aspect. The placement of different layers of gray produced from compound concentrations of ink, made a variety of decorative compounds. In addition to the above mentioned commonalities, one of the main differences between them is Nasta'līq's regularity compared to the free exercise of Tash'ir. The exercise of Tash'ir is done by paintbrush, causing irregular movement of Tash'ir designs throughout the whole margins of the manuscripts, while Nasta'līq letters are exercised using reed pen to be written on a given line. Failure to observe this rule causes the apparent coherence of the text to be eliminated. Another distinction is the priority of narrative aspect in Nasta'līq, compared to the decorative aspect of Tash'ir. In the qualitative system of book decoration, there is a hierarchy in which the text has a priority and the decorations are in the next levels. Nasta'līq's position in the main page and Tash'ir's at the margins, indicate degrees of the book decoration. On the other hand, there is another difference in their position. Tash'ir ornaments should not be entered into the text frame on the page, because they make it difficult to understand the text and create a disorder on the page, but the text frames can break the rectangular shape of the margin and enter it. These points have been studied over the course of different studies.
    Keywords: Nasta&#039, līq, Tash&#039, ir, Formalism, Iranian Book Illustration
  • Mozhgan Kheirollahi Aznavle *, Esmael Bani Ardalan Pages 62-81
    Botteh motif or Paisley Pattern is of great status in the Islamic art. This motif in a variety of different types is used in Islamic artworks such as textiles, carpets, stucco, etc. During recent centuries, the variety of this motif has persuaded scholars to do research on the origin of it.  None of these are comprehensive, and they cannot be attributed to all the motifs called Botteh; therefore, various new hypotheses have already been raised about the origins of this motif. They are always looking for the cause of this dispersion of opinions and trying to justify these various ideas. In this paper, by asking three questions, the quiddity of this motif and the cause of the dispersion of ideas about its origin are investigated. 1. What is the reason for the dispersion and incompleteness of the ideas about the origin of the Botteh motif? 2. If the reasons for the dispersion of ideas are motifs that are similar in appearance but have different meanings and origins, then what are the properties of a Botteh motif that distinguish it from other motifs? 3. What are the historical, cultural and artistic evidences that confirm the cypress tree as the origin of this motif? The main hypothesis of the paper is that a group of motifs with different origins is imagined alike due to similarity in form. Then all of them were named “Botteh” which is the most known motif among these types of motifs. The second hypothesis is as follows: The origin of the Botteh motif is a kind of conifer, but it cannot be a cypress. In order to answer the research questions and to test the validity of the hypotheses, firstly the most important opinions of the researchers of the field of Islamic art studies on Botteh motifs were briefly reviewed. And then they were classified in three groups of plants, animals, and other ideas to better enable us to analyze them.‏ In the following, the meaning of the name of this motif was studied in Lexicons. By comparison of the results of these two sections and image examples called Botteh, it is inferred that several types of motifs with various origins are imagined to be the same due to the similarity of the apparent form. In the second part, the idea of the cypress, as one of the most important opinions about the origin of the Botteh motif, is criticized. The most important outcome of this research is getting to the point that several types‏ of motifs with different origins are considered to be the same because of their evident formal similarities.‏ The second result of this research is suggestion of some distinctive properties for the Botteh motif. Some of them are as follows: The first property is the conical shape of the motif. The second property, according to the meaning of the name of this motif, is the separation of tree motifs from non-tree motifs; with the help of components and details such as stems, branches, trunks, etc. or other indications that allude to the motif of the tree. In this paper it is shown that there was no mention of the sanctity of the cypress in the old Zoroastrian scriptures until the eighteenth century. Ferdowsi's Shahnameh is the oldest book in which it was recorded. On the other hand, the precise examination of Persepolis petroglyphs shows that these trees are not of the Cupressaceae family, and it seems that they belonged to the Pinaceae family, such as the Pinus, Abies, etc.‏ The third point, according to Parham, is regarding religious rigors in drawing of the cypress tree. Among the artworks of the Islamic era in Iran, plant motifs and various trees, including cypress, have been replicated very often. Even since the third century AH, animal and human motifs have also been used in many examples of Islamic arts. The method of research is historical-analytical and it is conducted using library resources and the internet.
    Keywords: Botteh, Buteh, Paisley Pattern, Cypress Tree, Islamic Art
  • Maryam Akbarzadeh *, Mohammad Sadegh Mirzaabolghasemi Pages 82-93
    Inlay (Khatam) is one of the most significant Iranian wooden traditional arts. In this profession, objects’ surfaces are covered and decorated with the combination of wood, metal, bone and such materials based on geometric shapes. As it is known, geometric shapes are among the fundamental and common patterns in traditional arts. The use of such geometric shapes is similar and common in many related arts disciplines. However, Inlay is one of the few disciplines in which its patterns and details of the construction are inspired by geometric shapes.     Geometric shapes are technically called “Golbandi” in the art of inlay. For creating “Golbandi”, the materials are first cut off with proportional angles and edges, once the pieces are aligned next to each other according to the scheme, the so-called “khatampichi” or binding khatam begins. In general, inlay is divided into three general categories: “khatam Moraba” (Square inlay), “khatam Shesh” (Six inlay) and "khatam Gereh” (Knot inlay), which is based on difference in the cutting of primary materials in Golbandi. In fact, the cutting angles of inlay materials lead to the creation of sides with different cross-sectional area, and these three types of inlay distinguish in appearance. For instance, the cutting of materials in Square inlay is based on square and rectangle; in Six inlay, the cut is based on equilateral triangle and rhombus; in Knot inlay, it is based on isosceles triangle with (acute and obtuse angles) and pentagon geometric shapes.     The method of constructing Knot inlay is generally more complicated and difficult than the other types of inlay. The Knot inlay is usually formed on the basis of geometric designs (acute and obtuse angles), and the cutting angle of materials is also different. “Gereh Panj” is one of the most commonly used patterns, which is the basis for the formation of patterns in Knot inlay and is observed in almost all types of Knot inlay. Accordingly, the subject of this paper is dedicated to the study of “Golbandi” construction techniques in “Gereh Panj” inlay and seeks to answer three questions as follows: 1-      What are the general characteristics of a knot inlay, and what is its distinction from other types of inlay? 2-      What are the stages of designing and constructing of a “Gereh Panj” inlay? 3-      How does the color combination apply to the creation of a “Gereh Panj” inlay?     For this purpose, while considering the main characteristics of Knot inlay, the geometric drawing method, preparing materials, stages of “Golbandi” and “Khatampichi”, combining variation and coloring in the “Gereh Panj” inlay have been investigated. In the preparing materials section, the author describes the calculation methods of inlay materials. The main stages of the production of the “Gereh Panj” inlay are illustrated as specific linear drawings throughout the article. This paper is written using the descriptive-analytical method and relies on library studies and field research.      As mentioned above, Knot inlay is formed based on geometric shapes. However, the creation of “Golbandi” is different from drawing of the geometric shapes. In order to construct a “Gereh Panj” inlay, the following materials are required: one “Shamseye Panj”, five “Kardi” and five “Baghal Shesh”. All materials need to be rubbed and prepared before “Golbandi”. The most important part is the precise and accurate adjustment of the knot components in order to create a regular polygon knot.     Furthermore, the materials used in Knot inlay are different and have higher quality. On the other hand, the variation in the Knot inlay can be achieved by creating a variety of materials’ color scheme. Colors of inlay components affect final color of “Gholbandi”. The Knot inlay is made up of wood with natural colors and the phenomenon of wood staining, which is very common in the production of other types of inlay, is very rare. Layers applied around the sides of “Gereh Panj” or other components of Knot inlay are those that are commonly used in “Gholbandi” construction. Of course, in some cases, depending on the location of “Gereh Panj”, the layers may not be applied to all sides of a knot. As it is known, the use of layers is one of the characteristics of the Shiraz inlay.    The research results demonstrate that “Gereh Panj” is used in all kinds of Knot inlay. The appearance of “Gholbandi” in Knot inlay is based on geometric shapes. In addition, several different ways of binding “Gereh Panj” are explored in the context. All materials for construction of binding “Gereh Panj” should be natural with high quality. As mentioned that “Gereh Panj” is used in all types of Knot inlay, the color scheme of “Ghereh Panj” has a huge impact on “Gholbandi” in other kinds of Knot inlay patterns.
    Keywords: Inlay, Knot Inlay, Gereh Panj Inlay, Khatampichi, Golbandi
  • Azam Hakim *, Abolghasem Dadvar Pages 94-109
    Religious art is rooted in theology and teachings of the same religion, such as the religious Coffee House painting and also the Gothic painting. School of Coffee House painting was formed and became widespread in the late 13th and early 14th century AD. A Coffee House painting was ordered for a variety of places, including a coffee house, a Husseinieh and etc. The theme of the Coffee House painting is wide-ranging; from religious to epic, romantic, and routine. One of the religious themes of this school of painting is depicted in Ashura paintings. Ashura Coffee House paintings, as a big part of the history of Persian painting and other religious paintings such as Christian religious paintings, are narrations and therefore depended on written and verbal text. Christian painting from the beginning and more since Christianity was declared the official religion in forms such as illustration of books, mural painting, typography, mosaic work, glass painting, portraiture iconography, tapestry scenes and painting on canvas narrates topics such as biblical narrations and anecdotes related to the Apostles and saints. Most of these paintings were created for the church or ordered by the same place. Gothic paintings and issues related to the life of Jesus Christ are part of Christian paintings which in this study will be discussed. Although Imam Hussein and Jesus are different in terms of the history of religion in the two missions of the Imam and the Prophet, they are similar in the works of painting in the periods discussed due to the orientation of these characters.These two types of painting, despite their formation in different times and places, have similar characteristics. As part of comparative studies emphasizes on similarities to study the relationship between texts, the purpose of this study is to show these similarities and in the next step to answer to the question that what causes the similarities? The results indicate that continuous composition techniques (continuous simultaneous and non-simultaneous) constitute the most important similarities between the two areas of painting and the repetition of the uniform visual patterns is another shared aspect in techniques of their visual expression. On the other hand, besides depending on linguistic narratives, the similarity of the attitudes of the creators of these paintings and their educational and religious use in relation to their audience, i.e. general public, are also among the factors that played a significant role in the aforementioned similarities. According to the research history, there are few examples of comparative and inter-cultural studies in the field of Coffee House painting. On the other hand, no article that has been written independently on the comparative study of Ashura in Coffee House painting and Gothic painting has been found. The present paper, with a periodic selection of the history of Western painting, and discovering of similarities and common grounds in creation and receiving of works with regard to Ashura in Coffee House painting and Gothic painting, aims to provide a fresh reader on how to narrate the images. The research is descriptive, analytical and comparative. In each of the domains, two samples are selected purposefully and based on the questions and hypotheses of the paper.
    Keywords: Coffee House Painting, Gothic Painting, Ashura, Passion of Christ, Religious Painting
  • Shabnam Haghighnejad *, Nadiyana Maghuly, Mehdi Haghayegh Pages 111-129
    In Islamic Architecture, building decoration and ornamentation are considered as integrated elements of any buildings. Apparent presence of decorations such as line drawings, vegetative and geometrical designs, composes the secondary nature of Islamic art. Stucco decorations are amongst the decorations of Islamic art and architecture; however this field of art enjoys a rich semantic content and has been used to transmit semantic-oriented messages apart from beauty. Shrine of Bayazid Bastami is one of the historical complexes of Shahroud city, constructed in pre-Seljuk eras and has been renovated and developed within various historical eras. Stucco decorations in Chelleh-Khaneh are composed of geometrical designs that cover the walls, arches and altar. The purpose of this study is to investigate and identify the geometrical designs and decorations of Bayazid Bastami Chelleh-Khaneh, and to answer to the question that what types of motifs and inscriptions are used in the stucco decorations of Chelleh-Khaneh? In what parts of the building and in what forms the semantic functions of these decorations have appeared? Finally, what types of motifs are used in Chelleh-Khaneh? In order to do so, first of all the decorations were photographed on site and then their linear designs were extracted from such photos and were discussed using a descriptive-analytical method. The studies of motifs indicated that mainly the knots have been used in Chelleh-Khaneh stucco designs to decorate and cover the internal area of arcades and walls of the building. The types of rhythms ruling this Chinese knot were predominant regular repetitive rhythms. In examining the designs in these Chinese knots, it is clearly evident that nodes 4, 6, 8 and 21 are most observed, which are based on pair numbers and are merged with vegetative elements (arabesque and khataei patterns) and/or exist simultaneously beside them. This is considered as one of the apparent features of geometrical decorations in stucco altars of the Ilkahnid era. The general motifs were placed in a circularly shaped area and the circular element was dominant. Design of the inscription in Chelleh-Khaneh is the result of combination of a variety of elements and middle decorative knots, words with decorative endings, stalks and vegetative decorations, and various minute decorations have been used in combination and connection to the same area. The Kufic and Thuluth scripts, in combination with the decorations, along with a variety of arabesque and geometrical designs, have given a special beauty to these plasterings. Nevertheless, in the semantic-oriented function of such designs and decorations it was found that there is a coherent relationship between beauty and form with mystical meanings and concepts in this building. In fact, the relationship between non-physical factors such as God's attributes and religious and mystical principles has been well established with physical factors such as form and geometry. The theme of the verses used in the Bayazid Bastami's Chelleh-Khaneh is divided into two categories of "Monotheism" and "Anthropology". The themes of all verses are positive and guiding, and none of them addresses the punishment. Therefore, the themes of the inscribed Qur'anic verses are in accordance with the altar, and the place of its implementation is in direction of faith, guidance and unity of the believers. The contents of the inscriptions of the Bayazid’s Chelleh-Khaneh have grand mystical basics. The most important forming sources of these basics in the first place are the verses of God in the Holy Qur'an, which is considered to be the most comprehensive program of salvation, and next, the hadith of the great Prophet of Islam (pbuh). Most of the verses and hadiths have certain meanings and interpretations. Arabesque patterns and sacred numbers and inscriptions used in this building are all intended to establish a semantic relationship between the physical and non-physical elements in order to create Islamic mystical concepts to provide the proper conditions for the seclusion seekers.
    Keywords: Decorations, Stucco, Semantic-oriented Function, Chelleh-Khaneh, Bayazid Bastami, Islamic Architecture
  • Maliheh Imaneian Najafabadi *, Mansour Hessami Kermani Pages 131-145
    Landscape painting in Iran, is part of the narrative and literary context, but it has a particularly influential and distinctive look, which takes a particular look at nature and has a symbolic aspect. In one general principle of Persian painting, spring is considered for the scene and location of the adventures and their time represents an eternal state that gives it an expression of holiness. In this research, the mythological aspects of nature in the Shiraz school of painting of the 8th to 10th centuries AH are examined, which appear to be related to the themes of the creation of nature in ancient Iranian culture. The symbols of nature and the story of creation, which are one of the most important subjects of the mythology of each culture, are represented by the specific expressions of the elements of nature and landscapes in Iranian art. The reflection of some of the "sacred place" themes in Iranian art is accompanied by evidence of nature and more in relation to the elements of "mountain" and "earth". To this end, this study uses Eliade's view of  "sacred" in the creation myth and for the study of the Iranian myths of creation, pre-Islamic texts are referred to as the different parts of the Avesta, and in particular the "Bondahesh. By examining the landscapes of Persian paintings from the 8th to 10th centuries AH, it is clear that the manifestation of nature in Persian painting has a common pattern that can be found through the study of the mythology of ancient Iranian creation. Usually, "the land and the mountain", along with the reference to the symbol "water" in the center, is a common combination in the various schools of Iran, which is always described in the form of spring scenery. What matters is the understanding of the existential meaning of this composition and the kind of landscape-oriented look at the mythological patterns of the mountain and the earth. It is certain that the visualization of place and time in the landscape of Persian painting does not simply imply visual perception or excitement, but rather, it represents a permanent eruption of life in images and it is a sacred place. Shining all forms of painting in light and dismissing perspective science are also for the sights. Iranian painting in a perfectionist and unifying idea portrays the images of each element of nature with their own identity and importance, and in a manner of early and eternal harmony, which portrays them as "the sanctity of nature" and the patterns of "creation" in mythology. This point approaches to Eliade's view. Iranian landscapes sometimes have the main mythological elements of Iran's nature, such as the mountains, and especially the Alborz Mountains, which is consistent with the description of these elements in the mythological context of Iran. Looking at the forms of expressing the landscapes and nature in Shiraz school from the 8th to 10th centuries AH, it seems that their relationship with Iranian myths and the existence of a bond between their common souls is acceptable. In this regard, the ideas of mythology of Eliade about Creation and manifestation of the sacred in the form of "ancient patterns of nature" is acceptable for the art of Persian painting. Because from the viewpoint of Eliade, the narrative myth is an event at the time of its beginning in this regard and the main task of mythology is the recurrent recall of the same incident. So the perfection that myths narrate is only at the beginning. Therefore, the identification and retrieval of "sacred samples and patterns" of nature is an aim which is pursued by the artist in order to re-establish and sustain them. These ancient patterns are commonly used according to the taste and memory of the Iranian painters of different periods, and involved small differences in a general rule. The special expression of the naturalization of Iranian painting, and in particular the use of the fundamental elements of the creation of nature, is the same as in the mythological narratives of the Iranians, and is even referred to directly in some cases. This was more evident in the paintings of the Shiraz school and in the central Iranian area which was more loyal to ancient Iranian culture than other Iranian areas. Data were collected via library sources and examined using descriptive-analytic method.
    Keywords: Persian Painting, Nature, Ancient Iran, Mircea Eliade, Archetype, Myth