فهرست مطالب

Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine - Volume:9 Issue:3, 2019
  • Volume:9 Issue:3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Farnad Imani *, Vikram B. Patel Page 1
  • Amany Faheem Omara *, Ahmed Fetouh Abdelrahman, Maha Lotfy Elshiekh Page 2
    Background

    Nowadays, propofol total intravenous anesthesia (propofol TIVA) is a very attractive choice for routine pediatric anesthesia practice.

    Objectives

    To compare propofol- vs. sevoflurane-based anesthesia for pediatrics undergoing cleft palate repair in emergence characteristics and respiratory adverse effects.

    Methods

    Eighty infants, aged from six months to one year, scheduled for cleft palate repair surgery, were randomly divided into two groups (40 patients each). The group I received general anesthesia induced with intravenous propofol 2.5 mg/kg, 0.1 mg/kg of lidocaine, fentanyl one µg/kg and cisatracurium 0.15 mg/kg, and maintained by a continuous infusion of propofol 9 mg/kg/hr and cisatracurium 3 µg/kg/hr. While in the group II, general anesthesia induced by O2/sevoflurane, intravenous fentanyl one µg/kg and cisatracurium 0.15 mg/kg then the maintenance was carried out by O2/air, sevoflurane 2 MAC, and cisatracurium three µg/kg/hr. Postoperative FLACC behavioral pain assessment Scale, modified Hannallah score, postoperative laryngeal spasm incidence, the recovery time, time to extubation, and postoperative complication were recorded.

    Results

    The quality of emergence was assessed by modified Hannallah score, there was a significant decrease in the number of patients developed agitation after propofol TIVA in comparison to sevoflurane anesthesia (P < 0.001) with a significant decrease in the number of patients developed postoperative laryngeal spasm (P < 0.047). On the other hand, a significantly prolonged time of extubation was observed in the propofol TIVA group (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    Propofol TIVA regimen was the more peaceful recovery approach with less perioperative respiratory complications than sevoflurane-based anesthesia in infants undergoing cleft palate repair surgery.

    Keywords: Cleft Palate, Emergence Agitation, Modified Hannallah Score
  • Mahin Seyedhejazi, Dariush Sheikhzade, Behzad Aliakbari Sharabiani, Mahsa Sadeghian, Reyhaneh Abri * Page 3
    Background

    Endotracheal suctioning (ETS) is a common procedure in intubated patients for the clearance of secretions and improvement of oxygenation.

    Objectives

    Owing to the controversies in previous studies, we studied the effects of open ETS before surgery on respiratory parameters in children with pulmonary crackles.

    Methods

    In this clinical trial, 100 children with pulmonary crackles, candidates for surgery were randomly assigned into two groups. After intubation, in the group A (n = 50), deep and open suction was done until the crackle was cleared and in the group B (n = 50), anesthesia without suctioning was continued. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were compared.

    Results

    The patients in group A had higher oxygen saturation with a statistically significant difference in 15th to 75th minutes of the operation (P < 0.001) and in post-anesthetic care unit (P = 0.004). After suction, before and after extubation, there was a statistically significant reduction of crackles in the group A in comparison to the group B (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the end-tidal CO2, airway pressure and respiratory rate between the two groups (P > 0.05). Relevant complications and the emergence of anesthesia time were statistically lower in the group A (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant change in terms of blood pressure in the two groups (P > 0.05). The heart rate in the 15th, 30th, and 45th minutes of surgery was statistically lower in the group B (P < 0.05).

    Conclusions

    This study indicates positive effects of open and deep suction in improving oxygen saturation and reducing complications and emergence time. Pulmonary auscultation of the group A before and after weaning was statistically better than group B. However, this study found no positive effect of ETS on airway pressure, ETCO2, blood pressure, and respiratory rate. Meanwhile, increased heart rate in the group A might introduce the potential risk of dysrhythmia and hemodynamic instability.

    Keywords: Anesthesia, Intubation, Children, Respiratory, Suction, Crackles
  • Alireza Behseresht, Pejman Pourfakhr, Reza Shariat Moharari, Farhad Etezadi, Mohamadreza Khajavi *, Farsad Imani Page 4
    Background

    One of the complications of nitroglycerin infusion during surgery is methemoglobinemia.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of methemoglobinemia and its association with nitroglycerin infusion for the treatment of hypertension during general anesthesia.

    Methods

    Patients received nitroglycerin infusion at a dose of 2 μ/kg/min. The aim of controlling blood pressure was to set the blood pressure at 20% of the patient’s baseline. Then, the amount of methemoglobin was recorded at 15-minute intervals. Backward stepwise logistic regression test was used to determine the factors affecting methemoglobinemia.

    Results

    Based on the criterion of methemoglobin level above 2%, the prevalence of pathologic methemoglobinemia was 56.6%. After adjusting for confounding variables in the final model, the total prescribed dose was the only factor affecting pathologic methemoglobinemia.

    Conclusions

    For the first time, we showed that more than half of the patients undergoing surgery suffered from methemoglobin level above 2% after prescribing nitroglycerin, and the only predictor of abnormal methemoglobin level was the rate of nitroglycerin prescription. Anesthesiologists are recommended to be more careful about the speed of nitroglycerin infusion, and if the patient needs higher doses, patient care for the early detection of methemoglobinemia should be the priority.

    Keywords: Blood Disorder, Methemoglobinemia, Nitroglycerin
  • Fatemeh Davari, Tanha, Saghar Samimi, Zahra Khalaj, Ehsan Bastanhagh * Page 5
    Objectives

    The current study aimed at evaluating the effect of intraperitoneal infusion of normal saline (NS) and pulmonary recruitment maneuver (PRM) on the reduction of pain in shoulder, upper abdomen, and incision site after elective laparoscopic gynecologic surgery.

    Methods

    Totally, 280 patients (mean age: 30.5 years) that underwent laparoscopic gynecologic surgery from October 2013 to August 2015 were randomly and equally allocated into four groups. Group A received intraperitoneal infusion of NS 1.5 - 2 mL/kg of body weight; group B received PRM with five manual pulmonary inflations at a maximum pressure of 60 cm H2O; group C simultaneously received two former interventions; and finally the control group D received routine method of gentle abdominal pressure. All patients were assessed in the first 24 hours after surgery.

    Results

    There was an unsteady pattern for pain in shoulder, upper abdomen, and incision site at different time points across the studied groups over the trial. Patients in group B showed significantly lower shoulder pain 24 hours after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery (P = 0.01), while patients in group D had significantly lower incision site pain (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    PRM was superior to intraperitoneal infusion of NS for reducing pain in the first 24 hours after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery.

    Keywords: Pulmonary Recruitment, Intraperitoneal Infusion, Laparoscopy, Pain, Carbon Dioxide
  • Fatemeh Javaherforoosh Zadeh *, Farahzad Janatmakan, Mohsen Shafaee Tonekaboni, Mansoor Soltanzadeh Page 6
    Background

    Spinal surgeries often have a high risk of hemorrhage during and after surgery, thus most patients require blood transfusions and blood products. Fibrinogen is used in different forms to control hemorrhage.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of prophylactic fibrinogen administration in reducing hemorrhage after lumbar surgery.

    Methods

    This was a randomized clinical trial conducted on 30 patients undergoing lumbar surgery. The levels of fibrinogen, as well as hemoglobin (HB), hematocrit (HCT), prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), and INR, were assessed preoperatively as the baseline values. The patients were divided into two groups: intervention (N = 15) and control (N = 15) groups. The intervention group received 1 g fibrinogen dissolved in 50 cc distilled water with surgical incision and the control group received 50 cc distilled water with the surgical incision. At the end of the operation, the volume of hemorrhage transfused blood products (fresh frozen plasma, packed cell, and platelet) was measured. In addition, at 0, 6, and 24 hours after the end of surgery and transfer to recovery, serum levels of fibrinogen, HB, HCT, INR, PT, PTT, and hemovac drain volume were measured.

    Results

    The hemorrhage during and after the operation in the control group was significantly higher than that of the intervention group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between hemoglobin and serum level of fibrinogen before and after surgery between the two groups. The postoperative hypotension showed no significant difference between the two groups.

    Conclusions

    The findings showed the effectiveness of fibrinogen in reducing acute hemorrhage. Considering the adverse consequences of hemorrhage and coagulopathy in patients undergoing surgery, using fibrinogen as prophylaxis is recommended in surgeries with high risks of hemorrhage.

    Keywords: Fibrinogen, Hemorrhage, Lumbar Surgery
  • Susilo Chandra *, Alfan Mahdi Nugroho, Ikhsan Amran, Annemarie Chrysantia Melati Page 7
    Background

    Inadequate postoperative pain management poses unique challenges for anesthesiologists. The transition from epidural analgesia to other analgesic drugs has its own challenges. Increasing pain during this period is defined as analgesia gap.

    Objectives

    This study aimed at determining the incidence of analgesia gap and its associated factors, such as type of surgery, analgesic drugs, and timing of analgesic administration.

    Methods

    This was a prospective cohort among acute pain service patients at a tertiary hospital from July to October 2018. There were 220 subjects included in this study. All subjects were scheduled for elective surgery with epidural analgesia. Following last epidural regimen administration, the pain scale was assessed using VAS. If the patient had VAS more than four, then they were classified as having analgesia gap. Type of surgery, type of analgesic drugs, and timing of drugs administration were measured as the associating factors.

    Results

    The incidence of analgesia gap in this tertiary hospital was 26.6%. Type of surgery was not significantly associated with the incidence of analgesia gap (P = 0.057). However, type of analgesic drugs and timing of analgesic administration were related to incidence of analgesic gap (P = 0.016 and P < 0.001).

    Conclusions

    The incidence of analgesia gap in this study was 26.6%. Type of analgesic drugs and timing of analgesic administration had a significant association with the incidence of analgesia gap. However, type of surgery did not have a significant association with the incidence of analgesia gap.

    Keywords: Analgesia Gap, Postoperative Pain, Epidural Analgesia
  • Afsaneh Enteshari, Moghaddam, Khatereh Isazadehfar, Afshin Habibzadeh *, Mehdi Hemmati Page 8
    Background

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) leads to low quality of life due to pain and limitation in daily activities. Recent studies indicated that Methotrexate (MTX) could reduce pain due to its anti-inflammatory effects.

    Objectives

    In this study, the researchers aimed at evaluating the efficacy of MTX in pain control and improvement of quality of life in patients with moderate to severe knee OA.

    Methods

    In this randomized clinical trial, 100 patients with moderate to severe knee OA were allocated to receive MTX (n = 50) 7.5 mg weekly to be increased to 15 mg weekly after first months or placebo (n = 50) for six months. Pain severity was measured using the numerical rating scale (NRS), so was functional status by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) and quality of life by SF-12 questionnaire before the treatment, and three months and six months after the intervention. The results were compared between the groups subsequently. Nine patients from the MTX group were excluded due to the use of corticosteroids during the treatment period.

    Results

    The MTX group compared to the placebo group had significant improvement in pain severity and quality of life during six months and WOMAC parameters at three and six months after the intervention. The need for NSAIDS was slightly higher in the placebo group with no significant difference (22% versus 36%, P = 0.14). The MTX adverse effects were not observed.

    Conclusions

    Treatment of moderate to severe knee OA with MTX could reduce pain severity and improve functional status and quality of life in OA patients.

    Keywords: Knee Osteoarthritis, Pain, Quality of Life, Methotrexate
  • Seyed, Mojtaba Mousavi, Hamid Asayesh *, Fatemeh Sharififard, Mostafa Qorbani Page 9

    Job satisfaction is shown to be the strongest predictor of turnover intention and actual leaving among healthcare personnel. The aim of this study was to identify job satisfaction and turnover intention among anesthesiologists in Iran. This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 177 anesthesiologists. A set of self-administered questionnaires were applied to evaluate job satisfaction and intention to quit anesthesiology. It was found 39.5% of the participants reported that they wanted to quit the anesthesiology profession in the next year. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that job satisfaction was a significant predictor of intention to leave after controlling for other independent variables. A significant association was found between job satisfaction and anesthesiologists’ intention to leave their current employment. Therefore, increasing anesthesiologists’ job satisfaction can lead to a higher propensity to retention in the healthcare system.

    Keywords: Intention to Quit, Job Satisfaction, Anesthesiology, Iran
  • Zahra Moradi *, Roya Kokabi, Fatemeh Ahrari Page 10
    Background

    Doing and repairing episiotomy in a natural vaginal delivery is a painful phenomenon and various methods have been used to reduce its pain. Nowadays, topical ointments are being increasingly used due to low systemic absorption and ease of use.

    Objectives

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of lidocaine-prilocaine cream (XYLA cream) and lidocaine injection on the reduction of pain while doing and repairing episiotomy.

    Methods

    This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 98 pregnant women with the gestational age of > 37 weeks. In the intervention group that contained 50 women, 5 gr XYLA cream was applied to the episiotomy area one hour prior to delivery. It was also applied to healthy wound edges to numb the area while repairing episiotomy. In the control group, lidocaine 2% injection was used at the time of delivery. The two groups were compared regarding demographic characteristics, delivery characteristics, pain intensity based on visual analogue scale (VAS), and satisfaction with the applied technique.

    Results

    The results showed no significant differences between the two groups with respect to age, occupation, mother’s weight and education level, gestational age, parity, number of deliveries, and infant’s weight and head circumference (P > 0.05). Also, no significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the length of the active, second, and third phases of labor (P > 0.05). Considering postpartum complications (episiotomy wound infection), the infection was detected in three participants in the XYLA cream group and four individuals in the lidocaine group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.376). It should be noted that the application of XYLA cream did not cause eye irritation in any of the infants. The results also revealed no significant differences between the two groups regarding pain intensity and satisfaction with the applied technique after doing and repairing episiotomy (P = 0.288).

    Conclusions

    The results indicated that XYLA cream had no specific complications and had an effect similar to lidocaine injection while doing the episiotomy.

    Keywords: Episiotomy, Lidocaine, Pain Intensity, XYLA Cream (Lidocaine-Prilocaine)
  • Yuryo Murakami, Ryusuke Ueki *, Taihei Tachikawa, Munetaka Hirose Page 11
    Background

    The pathophysiological mechanism of propofol-related infusion syndrome (PRIS) is believed to be due to the injury to the mitochondrial electron transport chain and the resultant metabolic disorders that are caused by both propofol agents and the lipid solvent. However, the mechanisms and causative factors of PRIS have not been fully elucidated.

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of a research model using the culture of differentiated C2C12 cells for fundamental research of PRIS.

    Methods

    First, differentiated C2C12 cells were cultured accompanied by several concentrations of chemical reagents of 2,6-diisopropylphenol (2,6 DIP) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 60 hours and the cell death rate was examined by trypan blue staining. Second, The cells were incubated with a commercially available propofol reagent or lipid reagent for 48 hours. The supernatant fluid of the cell culture medium was gathered and the numbers of floating cells were measured by cell counter. To investigate the mitochondrial disorder by the propofol preparation, JC-1, an experiment using fluorescent reagent, was performed for the 48 hours with 100 µg/mL propofol incubation.

    Results

    The rate of cell death was increased with elevating concentrations both of chemical reagents of 2,6 DIP group and dimethyl sulfoxide group. The rates of cell death were significantly higher in the 2,6 DIP group than DMSO group. The numbers of floating cells were increased with elevating concentrations both commercially available propofol reagent and lipid reagent groups. The decreased red/green fluorescence ratio by JC-1 staining in the propofol 100µg/mL group proved an attenuated mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Conclusions

    The dose-dependent cell damage induced by the propofol reagents and a lipid solvent may provide a proposed model as a basic experimental model for further investigations into PRIS.

    Keywords: Propofol-Related Infusion Syndrome (PRIS), Rhabdomyolysis, Skeletal Muscle, C2C12 Cell, Mitochondria
  • Ana Margarida Silva Santos *, Daniela Coelho Page 12
    Introduction

    Operative hysteroscopy intravascular absorption (OHIA) syndrome is caused by intravascular absorption of fluid distension/irrigation medium during hysteroscopy. There are very few reported cases of this syndrome using saline as irrigation fluid. The current report was on a case of severe OHIA syndrome that necessitated resuscitation in an intensive care unit (ICU).

    Case Presentation

    A 41-year-old, 65-kg, smoker female patient was admitted for an endoscopic resection of submucous uterine myoma under general anesthesia using a laryngeal mask airway. In the 50th minute of the procedure, end-tidal CO2 dropped from 35 to 25 mmHg and pulse oximetry (SpO2) from 100% to 90%. Crackling sounds were heard from the base of the lungs. As a pulmonary oedema was suspected, the volume of irrigated saline was checked. A total of 4000 of the total 9000 mL of the saline had been absorbed into intravascular compartment. She developed a severe metabolic acidosis (pH 7.09) with severe hypokalemia (K+ 2.3 mEq/L), hypocalcaemia (Ca2+ 0.76 mEq/L), anemia (hemoglobin 5.3 g/dL), and hypothermia (tympanic temperature 33°C), as well as a generalized oedema with pulmonary and airway oedema. Due to airway oedema, she could only be intubated with a 6.5-mm tracheal tube. Resuscitation in the ICU was required. Electrolyte disturbances were corrected and furosemide was administered. She had a full recovery after 24 hours and 48 hours later, she was discharged.

    Conclusions

    Absorption of the irrigation fluid can result in life-threatening fluid overload. Accurate fluid balancing and limiting the operation time may prevent such complications. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome is emphasized.

    Keywords: Hysteroscopy, Intravascular Absorption