فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/02/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Musa IW *, Sani NA, Gaba EE, Lawal MI Pages 1-6
    Three case reports describing the clinicopathological diagnosis and surgical management of subcutaneous lipomas in adult exotic and Nigerian indigenous chicken, as well as deep lipoma in exotic chickens are here presented. Two dead and one live chickens were presented to the Poultry Clinic, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, on the 15th October, 2016 and 13th August, 2017, respectively. The live indigenous hen was presented with a slow growing 8 month-old large mass on the right, ventro-lateral aspect of the neck. The mass was clinically observed to be pendulous, circumscribed, soft, lobulated, painless, subcutaneous seated and about 8 cm in diameter. The two dead exotic birds were earlier presented with the first having a similar lesion of different dimensions located in the ventro-lateral aspect of the left thigh and the second with lesions in the liver. Cytological evaluation of fine needle aspirates of the masses revealed well differentiated adipocytes interspersed with nucleated red blood cells. Consequently, the masses were tentatively diagnosed as subcutaneous and deep lipomas, and the management decision taken in the live chicken was surgical following standard procedures. Sections of the excised masses were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin and processed for histopathological examination. Histopathology revealed well differentiated adipocytes of uniform sizes interspersed with few blood vessels and connective tissue. Final diagnoses of lipomas were made. Depending on location and possible complications, subcutaneous lipomas may not be life threatening but they can be a source of discomfort to the patient and may cause emotional distress to their owners if not removed surgically. Deep lipomas may compromise organ functions leading to death.
    Keywords: Surgical, Chicken, Deep-lipoma, Management, Subcutaneous
  • Rezvani MR *, Moradi A, Izadi M Pages 7-13
    This study was conducted to compare ileal digestibility of calcium, dry matter and ash, growth performance, gut characteristics, bone parameters and retention of calcium in broiler chickens fed diets containing different calcium sources. A total of 96 commercial Ross 308 broiler chickens were allocated to three experimental diets. The experimental diets included a diet containing inorganic calcium carbonate powder (1.43% in grower and 1.37% in finisher), a diet with oyster shell powder (1.48% in grower and 1.42% in finisher), and a diet with eggshell powder (1.52% in grower and 1.45% in finisher). Each treatment had four replicates with eight birds per each. Results showed that the treatments had no significant effect on daily growth performance of broiler chickens during grower (d 11 to 25), finisher (d 25 to 39) and entire experimental period (d 11 to 39). The average relative weight of the intestine, gizzard and pancreas, as well as the intestinal length, live body weight and dressing percentage of broiler chickens were not affected by the treatments. Dry matter digestibility was higher in broilers received eggshell compare to those birds received oyster shell (P < 0.05). Also, digestibility of calcium and ash were higher in eggshell treatment compared to the inorganic calcium carbonate treatment (P <0.05). The digestibility of organic matter, calcium retention, dry matter, ash and diameter of femur and tibia were not affected by the treatments. This study suggested that eggshell could be added as a calcium source in broiler chicken diets with a positive effect on the apparent calcium digestibility and no negative effects on broiler chicken performance.
    Keywords: Calcium, digestibility, Broiler chicken, Eggshell, Retention
  • Hajilari D, Shams Shargh M *, Ashayerizadeh O Pages 15-23
    The aims of this study was to determine the effect of organic and inorganic Zn and Cu supplements on performance, footpad dermatitis (FPD), carcass characteristics and blood profile in broiler chickens. A total of 336 one-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were distributed into 24 floor pen and reared for 42 days. A basal mineral premix (without Zn and Cu) was supplemented with organic or inorganic Zn and Cu to meet 100% (i.e., 110 and 16 mg/kg of the mineral premix, respectively) or 50% (i.e., 55 and 8 mg/kg of the mineral premix, respectively) of the recommended levels. Six dietary trace mineral premix were formed with inclusion of 1) inorganic Zn and Cu at the level 100%, 2) organic Zn and Cu at the level 100%, 3) inorganic Zn and Cu at the level 50%, 4) organic Zn and Cu at the level 50%, 5) organic Zn at the level 50% and inorganic Cu at the level 100%, and 6) inorganic Zn at the level 100% and organic Cu at the level 50%. Results indicated that organic Zn and Cu supplementation improved (P< 0.05) body weight gain and feed conversion ratio than inorganic form. However, the incidence and severity of FPD were significantly lower in broilers received only organic Zn and Cu than those of birds under inorganic Zn and Cu at the level 50%. Broilers fed lower level of inorganic Zn and Cu supplement showed the lowest breast yield compared to the other treatments. In contrast to the alkaline phosphatase enzyme, serum cholesterol concentration decreased (P< 0.05) in broiler chickens received organic Zn when compared to the supplementing of inorganic Zn and Cu at the level 50%. The results showed that organic Zn and Cu, as a proper alternative to inorganic forms, are useful to improve performance and health of broilers.
    Keywords: Calcium, Egg shell, Retention, digestibility, Broiler chicken
  • Faraji Arough H *, Rokouei M, Maghsoudi A, Mehri M Pages 25-32
    Native poultry is a valuable genetic source with high resistance against diseases providing an important subject for breeding programs. The non-linear mathematical modeling of the growth pattern may partly explain the relationship between requirements and body weight to precise feeding that plays a vital role in the animal enterprises. A study was conducted to compare five non-linear models including Gompertz, Richards, Lopez, Logistic, and Von Bertalanffy describing the growth curve of Khazak native chickens. A total of 120 Khazak chickens (male and female) were individually weighed from 0 to 29 weeks under the same condition. The models were fitted on body weight data set and then evaluated by goodness-of-fit criteriaincluding root mean square error (RMSE), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), Akaike information criterion (AIC), and adjusted coefficient of determination (R2Adj). Based on goodness-of-fit criteria, Lopez model was the most suitable one for describing the growth curves in female and male chickens. The effect of sex was significantly important on curve parameters in all models (P< 0.05). The highest and lowest initial weight (W0) parameter was estimated by Logistic and Richards models, respectively, however, the other parameters of the growth curves were higher in Lopez model compared to others. Male chickens had higher values for age (ti), and weight (wi) at inflection point than females. Using an appropriate model to describe the growth curve in native Khazak chickens could increase the accuracy of selection for rapid growth at early stages of age.
    Keywords: Body weight, Lopez model, Inflection point, Growth pattern
  • Rostami S, Jafari Ahangari Y *, Akhlaghi A, Ansari Pirsaraei Z, Hashemi SR, Saemi F Pages 33-42
    Published data on 4-week-long administration of exogenous thyroxine in broiler breeder hens to decline the cold-induced ascites in their progeny suggest that the long-term maternal hyperthyroidism would affect egg quality characteristics traits in Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens. Seventy 47-w-old broiler breeder Cobb 500 hens (5 replicates and 7 hens each) were assigned in separate cages and allotted to two treatments, control and hyperthyroid. Thyroxine was orally administered to the hyperthyroid group (0.3 mg hen/day) for a period of 100 days consecutively. Simultaneously, distilled water was orally administered to the control group. The blood sampling was done every two weeks to analyze T3, T4, and estrogen assays, using commercially kits and the egg quality attributes were evaluated for weeks 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12. Thyroxine treatment resulted in an increase in plasma concentration of T4; however, the T3 level and estrogen were not affected. The results of this study showed that the long-term administration of thyroxine had adverse effect on the most of egg quality traits in broiler breeder hens; although the results may be distinct for treatments that using other birds, doses and duration of treatments, among the different egg quality traits of broiler breeder hens evaluated in this research. Therefore, further studies should be done to make a final conclusion to use of long-term maternal hyperthyroidism treatment to reduce the ascites incidence.
    Keywords: Ascites, Breeder, Thyroxine, Egg quality
  • Soltani T, Salarmoini M *, Afsharmanesh M, Tasharrofi S Pages 43-49
    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of intra-amnion administration of different doses of ascorbic acid (AA) on hatchability, growth performance, blood metabolites, jejunal morphology, and tibia breaking strength in 36h post hatch fasted broiler chickens. Two hundred eighty-eight Ross-308 fertile eggs at the 15thday of incubation were divided into four treatment groups, each containing four replicates of 18 eggs. The treatments included non-injected (control), injected into the amnion with 0.7 mL diluent (distilled water; sham treatment), and injected with 0.7 mL diluent containing 3 or 6 mg AA. The neonatal chicks were deprived of feed and water for 36 h. Hatched chicks were raised till 10 d of age. Hatch percentage was increased due to in ovo injection of 6 mg/egg AA.In ovo injection of different levels of AA had no significant effect on body weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio. In ovo injection of AA, especially at the 6 mg level, significantly increased villus height, villus width, and villus height: crypt depth ratio at 3 d of age. Tibia resistance and breaking strength were improved by in ovo injection of 6 mg AA when compared to the control at 10 d of age. In conclusion, it seems in ovo injection of 6 mg AA/egg on 15th d of incubation could have a positive impact on hatchability, intestinal morphology, and bone characteristics in broiler chickens.
    Keywords: Ascorbic acid, In ovo Injection, Intestinal morphology, Tibia breaking strength
  • Mouffok C *, Semara L, Ghoualmi N, Belkasmi F Pages 51-61
    This study was conducted to compare some nonlinear functions to describe the broiler growth curve of the Cobb500 strain. A flock of fifty one-day-old chicks were randomly selected from a henhouse of 2500 chicks. Our goal was to establish a growth curve using weighting data using mathematical solutions of time-dependent differential functions. In total, six equations were subjected to a statistical calibration by a sequential quadratic programming under the non-linear regression procedure of the SPSS program. The results showed that the heterogeneity rate between individuals of the same batch increases with the age of the chicks, from more than 10% an early age to less than 30% at the slaughter age. The goodness of fit for six dynamic models showed that the number of iterations required increases with the number of parameters of the model. However, the three parameter models were the best model for describing growth curve (the greatest efficiencies and the lowest error components). The asymptomatic values ​​(3500g to 7500g) and their estimation errors (2% to 12%) are relatively acceptable for the three-parameter models compared to those of four parameters (more than 8000g and up to 100% error). Finally, the comparison between actual and predicted values by models shows that the Gompertz model was the most suitable till up to the four weeks of age. After 1 month of age, the Gompertz has a lower precision and the logistics, Von Bertalonffy and WLS models accurately described the growth curve.
    Keywords: Model, Broiler, growth, Function, Cobb500
  • Zhaleh S, Golian A *, Zerehdaran S Pages 63-75
    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of corn-soybean meal finisher (29-42d) diets containing flaxseeds (rolled or extruded) on pellet quality, performance, n-3 fatty acids (FA) and oxidative stability of meat in broiler chickens. Seven pelleted diets were provided in a 3×2 factorial arrangement with three flaxseed levels (5, 10, and 15%) and two processing methods (rolled or extruded) and a zero flaxseed diet (control). Birds fed diet containing 15% flaxseed had significantly lower weight gain and higher feed conversion ratio compared to those fed diets contained 0, 5 and/or 10% flaxseed. The type of flaxseed processing did not influence (P > 0.05) fatty acid profile and the MDA content in muscles. Chickens fed the control diet had relatively high levels of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and low levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Feeding diets contained flaxseed markedly reduced the levels of saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and increased polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly the n-3 fatty acids in meat. It is concluded that the addition of 15% flaxseeds to finisher diet can increase n-3 fatty acids and lipid peroxidation in meat, while reducing growth performance of broiler chickens. However, feeding finisher diet containing 10% flaxseed compared to 5 or 15% flaxseed is of more practical to achieve an acceptable level of Omega-3 fatty acids in breast and thigh muscles without compromising the performance of broiler chickens.
    Keywords: Broiler, Flaxseed, Extrusion, Meat quality, Finisher diet
  • Aami Azghadi M, Kermanshahi H *, Golian A, Kadkhodaee R, Vakili AR Pages 77-86
    Since, choline chloride caking causes serious operating difficulties and customer complaints, two experiments were conducted to optimize in vitro production of a novel encapsulated choline chloride (ECC) with minimum hygroscopic property and optimize delivery in gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The in vivo verification test of ECC was used to compare it with the commercial choline chloride (CC) in Ross 308 broiler chickens. Twelve factors with 3 levels including 27 formulations on ECC properties were evaluated using the Taguchi method (signal/noise ratio analysis).  The produced ECC particles showed a decrease in hygroscopic property and release rate under simulated GIT. The in vitro study showed that the encapsulation efficiency of 27 formulations were ≥ 80% and choline content in ECC particles ranged from 507 to 718 g/kg (wt/wt). The oil, wax, whey protein concentrate (WPC), and calcium stearate contents had the most influence on hygroscopic property (P < 0.05). The ECC particle gastric resistance was improved by increasing oil and wax contents as well as sonication time, pH, and carrier content (P < 0.05). Average daily gain of broiler chickens fed diet supplemented with choline chloride (CC or ECC) was increased compared to those fed negative control diet during starter period (P < 0.05). The serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride, and cholesterol were decreased in birds fed diet supplemented with choline chloride (CC or ECC; P < 0.05). The results showed that ECC with no hygroscopic property might be an alternative to CC without negative effect on performance of broiler chickens.
    Keywords: Broiler, Flow ability, Encapsulation, Taguchi method, Choline chloride
  • Shokaiyan M, Ashayerizadeh O *, Shams Shargh M, Dastar B Pages 87-94
    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of algal fucoidan and probiotic Bacillus subtilison growth performance, blood metabolites and intestinal morphology in broiler chickens. A total of 250 one-day-old Ross 360 male broiler chickens were randomly distributed into 5 treatments (6 replication pens/treatment) and reared for 42 d. The 5 dietary treatments were as follow: 1) a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control treatment); 2) a basal diet supplemented with antibiotic oxytetracycline; 3) a basal diet supplemented with the prebiotic fucoidan; 4) a basal diet supplemented with a probiotic product containing Bacillus subtilis spores; and 5) a basal diet supplemented with both the prebiotic and probiotic (served as a synbiotic). Birds received antibiotic and probiotic exhibited greater body weight gain (about 5.42% and 4.80%, respectively) than control treatment. The percentage of thigh and abdominal fat in birds fed probiotic diet were lower compared to the antibiotic treatment. The use of fucoidan and probiotic resulted lower (P< 0.05) serum concentration of triglyceride than those of antibiotic treatment. Supplementing of synbiotic increased villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum (P< 0.05). Present study revealed that supplementing of probiotics with fucoidan could be advised as an effective synbiotic, instead of antibiotics, to improve the performance and health of broiler chickens.
    Keywords: Fucoidan, Synbiotic, Villus surface, Broiler chickens