فهرست مطالب

Cardio Vascular and Thoracic Research - Volume:11 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:11 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/29
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
|
  • Rinku Ghimire*, Sahadeb Prasad Dhungana Pages 79-84
    Introduction

    There is lack of data on pattern of use of drugs in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) from Nepalese population. This study was conducted to explore the trends of evidence based medications used for CHF in our population.

    Methods

    This is a cross-sectional study on 200 consecutive patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II to IV symptoms of CHF who attended cardiology clinic or admitted from September 2017 to August 2018 at Nobel Medical College Teaching Hospital, Biratnagar, Nepal.

    Results

    Mean age of patients was 54 (range 15-90) years. Ischemic cardiomyopathy, rheumatic heart disease, dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertensive heart disease, peripartum cardiomyopathy were common etiologies of CHF. Analysis of drugs used in CHF revealed that 85% patients were prescribed diuretics, 58.5% angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), 53% mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), 38% beta-blockers (BBs) and 24% digoxin. Digoxin was mainly used as add on therapy for patients with atrial fibrillation (24% of all patients). Antithrombotics (warfarin or aspirin), inotropic agents (dopamine, dobutamine or noradrenaline), antiarrhythmic agent (amiodarone) and nitrates (intravenous glyceryl trinitrate or oral isosorbide dinitrate) were prescribed for 48%, 28%, 5% and 6% patients respectively. All CHF patients with preserved or mid-range ejection fraction (25% of all patients) were prescribed diuretics along with antihypertensive drugs for hypertensive patients.

    Conclusion

    CHF is associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to associated co-morbidities and underuse of proven therapy like BBs, ACEIs or ARBs and MRAs. Careful attention to optimization of different drugs therapy in patients with CHF may help to improve patient outcomes.

    Keywords: Chronic Heart Failure, Drugs, Evaluation
  • Niloufar Samiei, Mozhgan Parsaee, Leili Pourafkari *, Arezou Tajlil, Yeganeh Pasbani, Ali Rafati, Nader D Nader Pages 85-94
    Introduction

    Stress echocardiography is a safe and cost-effective method of evaluating the patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the risk factors of an adverse cardiovascular event after a normal exercise (ESE) or dobutamine (DSE) stress echocardiography are not well established.

    Methods

    A cohort of 705 patients without previous history of CAD and a negative ESE/DSE was studied. All studies were performed in a high-volume echocardiologic laboratory and interpreted by two experienced echocardiography-trained cardiologists. Patients with inconclusive studies and those with an evidence of myocardial ischemia were excluded. Demographic, echocardiographic and hemodynamic findings were recorded. Patients were followed for at least 2 years. Independent predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were determined by regression analysis.

    Results

    During a period of 55.7±17.5 months, MACE occurred in 35 (5.0%) of patients. Negative predictive value (NPV) of DSE was 89.2%, which was significantly less than 96.5% for ESE in predicting the occurrence of MACE (P = 0.001). MACE occurred more frequently among older (≥65 years) men with preexisting diabetes, hypertension, and/or hyperlipidemia. During ESE, a higher maximum blood pressure*heart rate product for the achieved level of metabolic equivalent (METS) of tasks was also an independent predictor of MACE.

    Conclusion

    Inability of patients to undergo traditional ESE that led to the choice of using DSE alternative reduces the NPV of the stress echocardiography among patients without previous history of CAD. A modest rise of heart rate and blood pressure in response to increased level of activity serves as favorable prognostic value and improves the NPV of stress echocardiography.

    Keywords: Stress Echocardiography, Long-term Mortality, Revascularization, Coronary Artery Diseases, Prognostic Factors
  • Naser Aslanabadi, Ahmad Separham, Leyla Valae Hiagh *, Farid Karkon Shayan, Mehrnoush Toufan, Samad Ghaffari, Elgar Enamzadeh Pages 95-99
    Introduction

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a relatively common cause of mortality among patients in the developing countries, and pure mitral valve failure is the most common form of RHD. An increase in the mean platelet volume (MPV) is considered as an independent risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the association of MPV with echocardiographic findings in patients with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis.

    Methods

    In a descriptive, analytical study, 100 patients with severe rheumatic mitral stenosis referred to Shahid Madani hospital of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and 100 age & sex-matched healthy individuals were included the study. MPV and echocardiographic findings including Wilkins score, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), pulmonary artery systolic pressure, and left atrial spontaneous echo contrast (LASEC) were evaluated in both groups.

    Results

    MPV in the case group was 10.45±0.98 and in the control group was 9.88±0.83. MPV in the patient’s groups was significantly higher than the control group (P = 0.001). Also, MPV in patients with positive LASEC findings was 10.69 ± 1.01 and in patients with negative LASEC findings was 10.25 ± 0.91. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.028).

    Conclusion

    Patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis has a higher MPV compared to the healthy individuals, and it is associated with LASEC sign seen in echocardiography.

    Keywords: Mean Platelet Volume, Echocardiography, Rheumatic Stenosis, Mitral Valve
  • Ali Soroush, Nasim Shams, Alizadeh, Afsoon Vahdat, Zeinab Mohebi, Mozhgan Saeidi, Saeid Komasi* Pages 100-108
    Introduction

    Regarding the expanding population in developing countries who are at risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), identification and management of effective factors are important in reducing the risk of CVDs. So, the present study aimed to assess the role of perceived heart risk factors (PHRFs) in the prediction of cardiovascular risk among outpatient patients.

    Methods

    The samples of this cross-sectional study included 150 outpatient patients who attend the clinic of Imam Reza hospital during October-December 2016. The participants were completed the Perceived Heart Risk Factors Scale (PHRFS) and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment Questionnaire (CRAQ). Data analyzed through Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses.

    Results

    Based on the findings, 28%, 40%, 22.7%, and 9.3% of patients were low, medium, high, and severely high-risk, respectively. The strongest predictors of the cardiovascular risk were physiological (β = -0.273; P = 0.004), psychological (β=0.236; P = 0.020), and biological risk factors (β=0.209; P = 0.016), respectively. In addition, the strongest predictor of the lifestyle risk was physiological risk factors (β = -0.264; P = 0.007). Other variables do not play a significant role in predict the lifestyle risk (P > 0.05). Our model was able to explain 9.2% of cardiovascular risk variance and 5.7% of cardiovascular risk caused by lifestyle variance.

    Conclusion

    The higher patients’ perception about biological and psychological risk factors is concerned as an alarm for increased cardiovascular risk while higher perception about physiological risk factors is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk caused by lifestyle and total cardiovascular risk. The programs reducing cardiovascular risk should target the high-risk groups to save cost and time.

    Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease, Heart Risk, Lifestyle, Perception, Risk Factors
  • Mahsa Mehrabi Pour, Mahboobeh Nasiri*, Hajar Kamfiroozie, Mohammad Javad Zibaeenezhad Pages 109-115
    Introduction

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), the main regulator of cardiac cell functioning, is regulated post-transcriptionally by autophagy-related 9B (ATG9B) gene. The proper function of the heart is partly determined by the intact interaction of these molecules. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ATG9B rs2373929 and rs7830 gene polymorphisms on the predisposition to coronary artery disease (CAD).

    Methods

    In this hospital-based case-control study, 150 patients with CAD compared with 150 healthy subjects for the genotype distributions of rs2373929 and rs7830 polymorphisms using T-ARMS PCR and ARMS PCR, respectively.

    Results

    Considering rs2373929 polymorphism, increased risk of CAD observed in the presence of TT genotype (OR: 3.65; 95% CI: 1.77-7.53; P < 0.001) and also in the recessive model for T allele (OR: 3.41; 95% CI: 1.76- 6.60; P < 0.001). The frequency of the T allele was higher in cases compared to controls (OR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.24-2.28; P = 0.001). The genotype and allele frequencies of the rs7830 polymorphism did not differ between the two study groups.

    Conclusion

    The ATG9B gene rs2373929 polymorphism might involve in the pathogenesis of the CAD and can be considered as a screening molecular marker in the subjects prone to CAD.

    Keywords: Coronary Artery Disease, ATG9B, Polymorphism
  • Yousef Veisani, Ensiyeh Jenabi, Shahrzad Nematollahi, Ali Delpisheh, Salman Khazaei* Pages 116-120
    Introduction

    The large portion of burden of diseases, especially in the developing countries is attributed to hypertension. Identification of the potential risk factors of hypertension is essential for disease management. In this study we investigated the role of socio-economic inequality in the prevalence of hypertension in Ilam Province.

    Methods

    Totally, 690 individuals aged over 15 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, through systematic random sampling from March 1 to October 30, 2017. Socio-economic status (SES) score was calculated by 7 variables including; age, sex, job, marital status, educational level, and economic status, residency, then, it was divided to five levels. Concentration index was used to estimate the inequality in hypertension. To estimate the percentage contribution in final step elasticity divided to concentration index for each contributor and contributions to inequality is estimated.

    Results

    The concentration index for hypertension was -0.154 95% CI (-0.02, -0.23), therefore hypertension was more prevalent in lower socioeconomic groups. The important socioeconomic contributors in inequality were job (P = 0.008), educational level (P = 0.005), and SES (P = 0.003). According to concentration index decomposition, the main sources of inequality in hypertension were job (15%), educational level (18%), and SES (21%), respectively.

    Conclusion

    Hypertension is more prevalent in lower SES groups and the job, education, and SES are important contributory factors of inequality. One substantial key point to achieve an effectiveness approach to deal with chronic diseases might be building partnership with disadvantaged populations.

    Keywords: Hypertension, Prevalence, Socioeconomic Factors, Inequality
  • Sedighe Kolivand, Peyman Amini, Hana Saffar, Saeed Rezapoor, Elahe Motevaseli*, Farzad Nouruzi, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa, Masoud Najafi* Pages 121-126
    Introduction

    Redox interactions play a key role in radiation injury including heart diseases. In present study, we aimed to detect the possible protective role of selenium-L-methionine on infiltration of immune cells and Duox1&2 upregulation in rat’s heart tissues.

    Methods

    In this study, 20 rats were divided into 4 groups (5 rats in each) namely: irradiation; irradiation plus Selenium-L-methionine; control; and Selenium-L-methionine treatment. Irradiation (15 Gy to chest) was performed using a cobalt-60 gamma ray source while 4 mg/kg of selenium-L-methionine was administered intraperitoneally. Ten weeks after irradiation, rats were sacrificed for detection of IL-4 and IL-13 cytokines, infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes as well as the expressions of IL4Ra1, Duox1, IL13Ra2 and Duox2.

    Results

    Results showed an increase in the level of IL-4 as well as the expressions of IL4Ra1, Duox1 and Duox2. Similarly, there was an increase in the infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages. There was significant attenuation of all these changes following treatment with selenium-L-methionine.

    Conclusion

    Selenium-L-methionine has the potential to protect heart tissues against radiation injury. Downregulation of pro-oxidant genes and modulation of some cytokines such as IL-4 are involved in the radioprotective effect of selenium-L-methionine on heart tissues.

    Keywords: Radiation, Selenium-L-Methionine, Heart, IL-4, Duox1, Duox2
  • Mahmood Zamirian, Forough Afsharizadeh, Alireza Moaref, Firoozeh Abtahi, Fatemeh Amirmoezi, Armin Attar* Pages 127-131
    Introduction

    Despite the normal systolic function at rest, cirrhotic patients often suffer from volume overload and symptoms of heart failure as they face stressful situations. This study investigated the myocardial reserve in cirrhotic patients at resting condition and peak stress by dobutamine speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI).

    Methods

    Twenty cirrhotic patients and 10 normal individuals aged 30-50 were selected randomly. For all of the participants, complete echocardiographic study of 2D, STE and TDI was done at rest and peak stress status with dobutamine. The following parameters were assessed: ejection fraction (EF), global longitudinal LV strain (GLS), strain rate in the septal basal segment and lateral wall and E’ in the septal basal segment by color-coded method.

    Results

    At baseline, EF was higher than 55% in both groups. GLS was higher (-22.6±2.4%) in the case group than the control group (-19.2±1.9%) at resting condition. After stress, it showed a greater increase (-22.5±1.7%) in the controls compared to cirrhotic patients (-22.6±3.3%; mean difference = 2.6 ± 2.03, P = 0.02). In cirrhotic patients, the average strain rate in the basal septal segment decreased after stress (-1.2 ± 0.3/s to-1.1 ± 0.3/s), but it increased in the control group (-1.1 ± 0.2/s to -1.8 ± 0.2/s).

    Conclusion

    Despite the presence of normal resting systolic function in cirrhotic patients, there was insufficient increase or even a decrease in myocardial function with stress; this may indicate the absence of sufficient myocardial reserve in cirrhotic patients. These findings would help to explain the reason for occurrence of heart failure or hemodynamic changes in cirrhotic patients.

    Keywords: Cirrhosis, Global Strain, Myocardial Reserve, Speckle Tracking, Echocardiography
  • Mahdiyar Iravani Saadi, Mohammad Ali Babaee Beigi, Maryam Ghavipishe, Maryam Tahamtan*, Bita Geramizadeh, Abdolhossein Zare, Ramin Yaghoobi Pages 132-137
    Introduction

    By aging population, the heart failure and its life-threatening complications have become an enormous issue in public health. Regarding the inflammation as a major contributing pathological factor, the determination of most important inflammatory targets for immunomodulation is a problematic puzzle in the treatment of heart failure patients and the inflammatory pathways primarily involved in different underlying conditions contributing to heart failure can be an area which is worthy of focused research. Considering the dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as a relatively high-incident disease leading to heart failure, the aim of this study is to determine the difference in the expression level of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-18 in patients with ischemic and idiopathic DCM.

    Methods

    39 non-diabetic patients with ischemic and 37 ones with idiopathic DCM were enrolled in the study. 48 healthy individuals were also considered as control group. For quantitative determination of the mRNA expression level of IL-6 and IL-18 genes, an in-house- SYBR Green real-time PCR was used and Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was considered as internal control gene. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated by 2D echocardiographic assessment. Data were finally analyzed via SPSS statistical software version 19.0 using independent t test and 2-∆∆Ct method and P<0.05 were considered statistically significant.

    Results

    The IL-6 was significantly higher expressed in patients with ischemic and idiopathic DCM than in healthy controls (274.3 and 168.8 times, respectively, both P values <0.001). The same higher expression of IL-18 was observed in ischemic DCM (48.5 times) and idiopathic DCM (45.2 times) compared with healthy individuals (both P values <0.001).

    Conclusion

    Both ischemic and idiopathic DCM associates with IL-6 and IL-18 overexpression. However, no significant difference was observed between these two subtypes of DCM in either interleukin expression level. There is certainly need to further studies for evaluating the uniformity of results and also assessing other molecules in determining their roles in pathophysiology and probable utility for management.

    Keywords: Dilated Cardiomyopathy, Heart Failure, Interleukin 6, Interleukin 18
  • Leila Azadbakht, Fahime Akbari, Mostafa Qorbani, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Gelayol Ardalan, Ramin Heshmat, Elnaz Daneshzad, Roya Kelishadi* Pages 138-146
    Introduction

    This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and dinner consumption in a nationally representative sample of Iranian adolescents.

    Methods

    The present study was conducted on 5642 adolescents aged 10-18 years old in 27 provinces in Iran. The subjects were included applying by multistage random cluster sampling. Participants who ate ≥5 dinners during a week were considered as a dinner consumer.

    Results

    Among 5642 subjects, 1412 (25%) did not consume dinner. Dinner consumers were less likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.001) and abdominally obese (P < 0.001) as well as to have an abnormal level of HDL-C (P = 0.02). Dinner skipper youths had a higher risk for overweight or obesity (odds ratio [OR]: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.39-1.89) and abdominal obesity (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.36-1.85) which remained significant after adjusting confounding factors (P <0001). No relationship was observed between dinner consumption and the rest of the CVD risk factors, neither in crude nor in adjusted models. A higher proportion of dinner-consumer adolescents had no CVD risk factors in comparison to dinner-skipper subjects (31.1% vs. 28%).

    Conclusion

    Eating dinner might be inversely associated with some CVD risk factors among Iranian adolescents. Further prospective studies will need to prove this theory.

    Keywords: Dinner, CVD Risk Factors, Adolescents
  • Alireza Moaref, Mahmood Zamirian, Hamed Mirzaei, Amin Attar, Elham Nasrollahi, Yaser Bahramvand* Pages 147-151
    Introduction

    Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM) develops in about half of all cirrhotic patients, affecting the long-term morbidity and mortality. Although some studies have shown an increased QT-interval in cirrhotic patients, no evidences of myocardial contractile and QT dispersion (QTd) changes are available. This study aimed to compare myocardial contractile dispersion (MCd), using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), as well as QTd between cirrhotic patients and healthy individuals, investigating their associations with cirrhosis severity.

    Methods

    This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with confirmed liver cirrhosis and healthy individuals. Participants with structural heart disease, heart ventricular pacing, electrolyte abnormalities, using drugs affecting QT interval were excluded. All individuals underwent 2D echocardiography, and TDI by vivid E9 echo machine. MCd and QTd were considered as main outcomes. Chi-square, independent-sample t test, and Pearson correlation test, were used for statistical analyses by SPPS version 17.0. P value <0:05 was considered statistically significant.

    Results

    Sixty participants (40 male/20 female) with a mean age of 40.1 ± 7.1 years in two groups of cirrhotic patients (n=30) and healthy individuals (n=30) were studied. Both groups were statistically similar in terms of age (P = 0.31) and gender (P = 0.39). MCd and QTd of cirrhotic patients were significantly higher than healthy individuals (MCd: 41.0 ± 26.8 versus 27.6 ± 18.1; P = 0.028; and QTd: 37.0  ±  22.1 versus 25.3 ± 8.9; P = 0.010). Cirrhotic patients with MELD score <15 had a lower MCd in comparison to score ≥15 (29.2 ± 13.8 versus 50.0 ± 31.1, P = 0.034).

    Conclusion

    Cirrhosis was associated with increased MCd, assessed by TDI. Also, MCd and QTd were associated with a higher MELD score. According to the results, it seems that MCd and QTd might be useful predictor of ventricular arrhythmia and negative prognostic factor in cirrhotic patients.

    Keywords: Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy, QT Dispersion, Tissue Doppler Imaging, Myocardial Contractile Dispersion
  • Sevda Saleh, Ghadimi, Sorayya Kheirouri, Ali Golmohammadi, Jalal Moludi, Hamed Jafari, Vayghan, Mohammad Alizadeh* Pages 152-160
    Introduction

    It has been established that omega 3 fatty acids have cardio-protective effects through modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors via multiple mechanisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of flaxseed oil on anthropometric indices and lipid profile in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).

    Methods

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 44 patients with CAD. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 200 ml of 1.5% fat milk supplemented by 5 g of flaxseed oil (containing 2.5 g α-Linolenic acid) as intervention or 200 ml of 1.5% fat milk as placebo group for 10 consecutive weeks. Anthropometric indices and lipid profile were assessed at baseline and post-intervention.

    Results

    The results indicated that supplementation with flaxseed oil had no impact on anthropometric indices. Weight, body mass index, waist circumference and hip circumference decreased statistically significant within groups, but not between groups. At the end of the intervention, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased significantly (P = 0.022) in the intervention group. Moreover, the triglyceride (TG) level decreased significantly in the intervention group from 173.45 (49.09) to 139.33 (34.26) (P < 0.001). Other lipid profile indices including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly within and between groups.

    Conclusion

    We observed that supplementation of flaxseed oil improved TG and DBP but had no effect on other lipid profiles and anthropometric indices in patients with CAD. Trial registration: This trial was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (Registration No. IRCT2016071211288N10) on November 18, 2016.

    Keywords: Anthropometric, Coronary Artery Disease, Flaxseed Oil, Lipid Profile
  • Muddassar Mahboob, Sana Hassan, Ashraf Ali Attia, Ebadur Rahman, Muhammad Shoaib Khan*, Syed Rizwan Bokhari Pages 161-163

    In general, nocardia infects immunosuppressed patients, however, sometimes it can also infect immunocompetent individuals. Nocardia infection can disseminate to any organ system of the body but the pulmonary system is the most commonly involved system. In some rare cases, the heart can also be involved and the resulting cardiac mycetoma can be treated successfully with antimicrobials without the need of surgery, unlike fungal cardiac mycetomas wherein surgery may be required in addition to antimicrobial therapy. We present an interesting case of post-renal transplant cardiac nocardiosis, which was treated successfully with a course of antibiotics.

    Keywords: Nocardia, Opportunistic Infections, Cardiac Nocardiosis
  • Gülay Gök, Tufan Çinar* Pages 164-166

    Vasospastic coronary artery disease (CAD) usually occurs during the percutaneous interventions and responds to conventional medical treatment. However, in rare conditions, it may be resistant to medical treatment, resulting in lethal complications, including acute myocardial infarction, ventricular arrhythmia, cardiopulmonary arrest, cardiogenic shock, and acute pulmonary edema. In this case report, a 44-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. During a diagnostic coronary angiography and in-hospital stays, multiple catastrophic complications due to vasospastic CAD occurred, and we were able to demonstrate a successful management strategy of these complications.

    Keywords: Vasospastic Coronary Artery Disease, Myocardial Infarction, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Complication