فهرست مطالب

پژوهش های حبوبات ایران - سال نهم شماره 2 (پاییز و زمستان 1397)
  • سال نهم شماره 2 (پاییز و زمستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/02/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • حسن پرسا، عبدالرضا باقری *، علی گنجعلی، محمد عابد صفحات 12-27

    به منظور بررسی خصوصیات مورفوفنولوژیک، فیزیولوژیک و عملکردی ژنوتیپ های امیدبخش متحمل به خشکی نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) در شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی، آزمایشی در نیشابور در سال زراعی1390-1389 اجرا شد. در این آزمایش، پنج ژنوتیپ امیدبخش حاصل آزمایشات گذشته (MCC80، MCC352، MCC392، MCC537 و MCC696) و دو ژنوتیپ تجاری به عنوان شاهد (ILC482 و کرج31-60-12) در شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی (آبیاری در زمان کاشت و نیز مرحله گلدهی) در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. بر اساس نتایج، تنوع قابل ملاحظه ای میان ژنوتیپ ها از نظر تعداد روز از کاشت تا سبزشدن، گلدهی و غلاف دهی، ارتفاع بوته و تعداد شاخه در بوته، شاخص سطح برگ، سرعت رشد محصول و سرعت رشد نسبی، اجزای عملکرد دانه و عملکرد دانه وجود داشت؛ به طوری که تفاوت های معنی داری برای این صفات در میان ژنوتیپ ها مشاهده شد. ژنوتیپ MCC80 با 970کیلوگرم در هکتار از بیشترین عملکرد دانه برخوردار بود که بیش از دو برابر عملکرد دانه در شرایط دیم و حدود 75درصد عملکرد دانه نسبت به شرایط آبی در منطقه می باشد. این ژنوتیپ، کمترین تعداد روز تا گلدهی و غلاف دهی و بیشترین تعداد غلاف در بوته را نیز دارا بود؛ اما عملکرد دانه ژنوتیپ های شاهد کرج12-60-31 (324کیلوگرم در هکتار) و ILC482 (320کیلوگرم در هکتار)، از متوسط عملکرد دانه نخود در شرایط دیم منطقه نیز کمتر بود. بنابراین می توان ضمن تکرار چنین آزمایشاتی، گزینه کشت ژنوتیپ هایی ازجمله MCC392، MCC352 و به ویژه MCC80 را همراه با آبیاری تکمیلی در زمان کاشت و هنگام گلدهی در این منطقه، به عنوان ژنوتیپ های امیدبخش متحمل به خشکی درنظرگرفت.

    کلیدواژگان: تعداد غلاف در بوته، سرعت رشد محصول، سرعت رشد نسبی، شاخص سطح برگ، شاخه های اولیه و ثانویه، گلدهی
  • مرتضی گرزین *، سیده سکینه حسینی، فرشید قادری فر، افشین سلطانی، یونس محمدنژاد صفحات 28-40

    در این مطالعه تغییرات عملکرد و کیفیت بذر ماش (Vigna radiata L.) در پاسخ به برخی عوامل محیطی نظیر دما، رطوبت نسبی، بارندگی و طول دوره روشنایی در تاریخ‏های مختلف کاشت در شرایط مزرعه مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. این آزمایش در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی گنبد در سال زراعی1389 انجام شد. در این تحقیق ژنوتیپ VC-1973A در پنج تاریخ کاشت (2 اردیبهشت، 20 اردیبهشت، 13خرداد، 30 خرداد و 20 تیر) کشت شد. پس از اندازه گیری عملکرد دانه، کیفیت بذر با استفاده از آزمون های جوانه زنی، تسریع پیری، هدایت الکتریکی و بررسی درصد سبزشدن در مزرعه تعیین شد. وقوع بارندگی و رطوبت نسبی بالا همراه با دماهای بسیارزیاد (بیش از C°40) طی دوره پرشدن بذر در کشت‏های زودهنگام باعث کاهش درصد جوانه‏زنی و افزایش هدایت الکتریکی بذرها شد؛ اما به ازای هر روز تاخیر در کاشت، جوانه‏زنی پس از تسریع پیری به میزان 23/0درصد افزایش و هدایت الکتریکی به میزان 48/0میکروزیمنس بر سانتی‏متر بر گرم کاهش یافت. برخلاف کیفیت بذر، عملکرد بذر به ازای هر روز تاخیر در کاشت به میزان 84/10 کیلوگرم در هکتار کاهش یافت که مهم‏ترین دلیل آن کاهش طول مراحل مختلف نمو و به‏ویژه دوره پرشدن بذر بود. از آنجایی که تاریخ کاشت مناسب، آن است که ضمن حفظ خصوصیات کیفی بذر در سطح مطلوب، عملکرد بالایی نیز تولید کند، انتظار می‏رود با کاشت ماش در اواسط خرداد بتوان ضمن دستیابی به عملکرد مطلوب، بذرهایی با کیفیت بالا نیز تولید کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: دما، جوانه ‏زنی بذر، زمان حرارتی، طول دوره روشنایی، قدرت بذر
  • حمیدرضا بلوچی *، فاطمه امینی، محسن موحدی دهنوی، محمود عطارزاده صفحات 41-54

    آلودگی خاک‏ها با فلزات سنگین اغلب ناشی از فعالیت‏های انسان بوده و کاهش میزان آن در گیاهان با استفاده از ترکیبات مختلف بستر کاشت راهکاری موثر و اقتصادی می‏باشد. به منظور بررسی تاثیر ترکیبات مختلف بستر کاشت بر انباشتگی فلزات سنگین در لوبیاچیتی (رقم صدرا)، آزمایشی به طور جداگانه برای چهار فلز سنگین (نیترات کادمیوم، نیترات سرب، نیترات نیکل و سولفات مس) و به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار در گلخانه دانشگاه یاسوج در سال1392 اجرا گردید. فاکتور اول آزمایش شامل ترکیب های آلی خاک با چهار ترکیب (شاهد خاک، کمپوست، ورمی کمپوست و خاک اره سپیدار) و فاکتور دوم شامل غلظت هر فلز با دو سطح (شاهد و غلظت 50 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم خاک) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد کمپوست و ورمی کمپوست سبب افزایش میزان انباشت فلز کادمیوم در شاخساره و ریشه لوبیا گردید. از سوی دیگر کمپوست و خاک اره سپیدار سبب کاهش میزان نیکل در شاخساره و ریشه لوبیا گردید. همچنین بیشترین میزان انباشت مس در ریشه لوبیاچیتی، در شرایط کاربرد خاک اره سپیدار و کمپوست به دست آمد. انباشت فلزات سنگین در ریشه به مراتب بیشتر از شاخساره و دانه بود. در مجموع با توجه به انباشت کم فلزات سنگین در دانه لوبیاچیتی و جذب زیاد توسط ریشه و شاخساره، این گیاه جهت کشت در مناطق آلوده مناسب و درصورت امکان خروج ریشه و شاخساره از زمین و رشد سریع جهت گیاه پالایی نیز مناسب است.

    کلیدواژگان: خاک اره سپیدار، سولفات مس، کمپوست، گیاه پالایی، نیترات کادمیوم، نیترات نیکل
  • اکبر همتی *، محمد فیضیان، هادی اسدی رحمانی، خسرو عزیزی صفحات 55-65

    جهت بررسی اثرات سویه های باکتری ریزوبیوم در عملکرد لوبیاچیتی در شرایط تنش خشکی، اقدام به اجرای آزمایش کرت های خردشده در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1393 به صورت گلدانی و در سال 1394 به صورت مزرعه ای گردید. در سطوح اصلی این آزمایش تیمارهای تنش خشکی شامل آبیاری بر اساس60،30 و80 درصد آب قابل استفاده خاک و در سطوح فرعی تیمارهای باکتری ریزوبیوم لگومینوزارم بیوار فازئولی شامل سویه های، 54، 58، 160 و 177 (جمع آوری شده از مزارع استان های زنجان و خراسان) قرار داشت. حجم آب مصرفی، کارآیی مصرف آب آبیاری، نیتروژن اندام هوایی، تعداد و وزن گره های تثبیت کننده نیتروژن در ریشه گیاه، وزن خشک و تر بوته، عملکرد زیستی و عملکرد تولید دانه از جمله صفات مورد اندازه گیری در این آزمایش بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثرات تنش خشکی و باکتری ریزوبیوم در عملکرد تولید دانه و کارآیی مصرف آب در سطح 5درصد معنی دار بودند. بیشترین مقدار عملکرد دانه و کارآیی مصرف آب به ترتیب به میزان 3066کیلوگرم در هکتار و 810گرم در مترمکعب آب با تلقیح بذر لوبیا با باکتری ریزوبیوم لگومینوزارم بیوار فازئولی سویه 160 و آبیاری بر مبنای60درصد آب قابل استفاده به دست آمد. مصرف آب در این تیمار برابر 3798مترمکعب در طی فصل رشد بود که 19درصد کمتر از تیمار شاهد (80درصد آب قابل استفاده) بود. نتایج این آزمایش نشان داد در شرایط تنش خشکی، در صورت استفاده از باکتری ریزوبیوم، گیاه لوبیا قادر به تحمل تنش خشکی و حصول حداکثر عملکرد دانه و کارآیی مصرف آب خواهد بود.

    کلیدواژگان: تنش خشکی، ریزوبیوم، عملکرد، لوبیا
  • محمد خادم پیر *، محمدکاظم اسلامی، ابراهیم زینلی، افشین سلطانی صفحات 66-80

    به منظور تخمین سطح برگ سبز با استفاده از روابط آن با سایر صفات رویشی، آزمایشی با استفاده از دو رقم باقلا (رقم متداول برکت و رقم جدید فرانسه)، سه فاصله بین ردیف (25، 50 و 75سانتی متر) و دو فاصله روی ردیف (8 و 15سانتی متر) در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در سال زراعی90 1389 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان به اجرا درآمد. نمونه گیری برای اندازه گیری سطح برگ و وزن خشک برگ سبز و زرد به تفکیک طی فصل رشد با فوصل زمانی 7 تا 15روز (بسته به شرایط دمایی و سرعت رشد بوته ها) انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که رابطه سطح برگ با وزن خشک برگ و وزن خشک کل بوته تحت تاثیر رقم، فاصله بین ردیف و فاصله روی ردیف نگرفت. بنابراین می توان برای رابطه سطح برگ با وزن خشک برگ و وزن خشک کل بوته در تمام تیمارها از یک معادله استفاده کرد. علاوه بر این، با توجه به این که رابطه سطح برگ با وزن خشک برگ سبز و تعداد گره در ساقه دارای ضریب تبیین بالاتر (98/0) و جذر میانگین مربعات کوچک تر (05/1) و در نتیجه دقت برآورد بالاتری نسبت به صفات دیگر بود، پیشنهاد می شود از رابطه بین سطح برگ سبز و وزن خشک برگ سبز (رابطه دوتکه ای) برای برآورد سطح برگ سبز سریع، آسان، کم هزینه و با دقتی قابل قبول استفاده شود. همچنین از این رابطه می توان در مدل های شبیه سازی باقلا نیز به منظور پیش بینی سطح برگ سبز باقلا استفاده کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: ارتفاع بوته، باقلا، روابط آلومتریک، سطح برگ، وزن خشک برگ
  • سکینه دستورانی، شاهین شاهسونی *، شاهرخ قرنجیک صفحات 81-99

    مطالعه حاضر به منظور ارزیابی تاثیر کاربرد باکتری های ریزوبیوم، تیوباسیلوس و گوگرد بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد نخود رقم هاشم انجام شد. این آزمایش در مزرعه ای واقع در 12کیلومتری شهرستان جغتای در فروردین ماه سال زراعی 1393-1392 اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل باکتری های مزورایزوبیوم در سه سطح، عدم تلقیح (Meso0)، تلقیح با مزورایزوبیوم سویه سیسری استرین ام اس190(Meso1) و تلقیح با مزورایزوبیوم سیسری (Mesorhizobium ciceri) استرین ام اس9(Meso2) و تیوباسیلوس در دو سطح، تلقیح (T1) و عدم تلقیح (T0) و گل گوگرد (S) در سه سطح (صفر، 500، 1000کیلو گرم در هکتار) به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد که سه عامل بالا تاثیری بر طول ساقه، وزن ریشه، تعداد غده در ریشه و نیتروژن خاک نداشت، اما مزورزوبیوم سویه سیسری استرین ام اس190 تاثیر مثبتی روی طول ریشه (20درصد) و عملکرد نخود (18درصد) داشت. برهمکنش گوگرد و مزورایزوبیوم بر تعداد غلاف در بوته و عملکرد در هکتار و درصد پروتئین تاثیر مثبتی داشت و در بین مزورایزوبیوم ها، مزورایزوبیوم سویه استرین ام اس190 نسبت به مزورزوبیوم سویه استرین ام اس9 تاثیر بیشتری بر افزایش عملکرد داشت (73/1146کیلوگرم در هکتار). همچنین نتایج نشان داد که استفاده از کودهای زیستی (مزورایزوبیوم و تیوباسیلوس) موجب افزایش غلظت عناصر غذایی از جمله پتاس، فسفر و گوگرد در خاک شد. برهمکنش گوگرد و تیوباسیلوس و همچنین گوگرد و مزورایزوبیوم، به ترتیب فسفر قابل جذب خاک را به میزان 55 و 53درصد افزایش داد. در بررسی اثر کودهای زیستی بر خصوصیات شیمیای خاک مشخص شد که برهمکنش هر سه عامل آزمایشی بر pH، EC و گوگرد خاک مثبت بود. استفاده از کودهای زیستی (مزورایزوبیوم و تیوباسیلوس) باعث بهبود صفات زراعی نخود و خصوصیات شیمایی خاک شد.

    کلیدواژگان: باکتری مزورایزوبیوم، تیوباسیلوس، گوگرد، نخود
  • محمد حسن رحیمی *، سعداله هوشمند، محمود خدامباشی، نرگس قاسمی سیانی صفحات 100-113

    آگاهی داشتن از میزان تنوع ژنتیکی و ارتباط بین صفات، از اهمیت ویژه ای در پیشبرد تحقیقات به نژادی و انتخاب ژنوتیپ های مطلوب، برخوردار است. از این رو، به منظور بررسی تنوع ژنتیکی و شناسایی روابط بین عملکرد دانه و برخی صفات زراعی در لاین های عدس، آزمایشی در قالب طرح لاتیس ساده 10×10 با دو تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهرکرد در سال زراعی 92-1391 اجرا گردید. به دلیل عدم معنی دارشدن اثر بلوک های ناقص درون هر تکرار برای کلیه صفات، داده ها به صورت طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفتند. تجزیه واریانس حاکی از وجود تنوع بالا در بین لاین های مورد مطالعه از لحاظ کلیه صفات بود. نتایج حاصل از مقایسه میانگین صفات نشان داد لاین های ILL590، ILL947، ILL3963، ILL2795، ILL461، ILL459، ILL353 و ILL5888 از لحاظ عملکرد دانه و سایر صفات، برتر از سایرین بودند. بیشترین مقدار ضریب تنوع ژنتیکی، وراثت پذیری عمومی و پیشرفت ژنتیکی برای صفات تعداد غلاف در بوته، وزن غلاف در بوته، عرض برگ و عملکرد زیستی به دست آمد. نتایج حاصل از بررسی همبستگی های ساده نشان داد که تعداد و وزن غلاف در بوته، تعداد روز از کاشت تا گلدهی و رسیدگی، ازجمله صفات مهم و موثر بر روی عملکرد دانه بودند. تجزیه به عامل ها با استفاده از 13صفت زراعی، نشان از انتخاب چهار عامل داشت که در مجموع 97/77درصد از تنوع کل را توجیه کردند. تجزیه خوشه ای به روش Ward، لاین های مورد بررسی را در هشت خوشه قرار داد و لاین های برتر در خوشه هشتم قرار گرفتند.

    کلیدواژگان: تجزیه به عامل ها، تجزیه کلاستر، تنوع ژنتیکی، لاین های عدس، همبستگی
  • سوده ملکی *، علی نخ زری مقدم، سید حسین صباغ پور، عباسعلی نوری نیا، حسین صبوری صفحات 114-125

    به منظور بررسی اثر سطوح مختلف آبیاری و مصرف مقادیر مختلف زئولیت و پتاسیم بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد نخود رقم آزاد، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 94-1393 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی همدان به صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل رژیم رطوبتی در چهار سطح (شرایط دیم (بدون آبیاری)، آبیاری در مرحله گل دهی، آبیاری در مرحله غلاف دهی و آبیاری هم در مرحله گل دهی و هم غلاف دهی) به عنوان عامل اصلی و ترکیب تیماری مقدار زئولیت در سه سطح شامل 0، 15 و 30 تن در هکتار و مقدار پتاسیم در سه سطح شامل 0، 100 و 200کیلوگرم در هکتار (از منبع سولفات پتاسیم) به عنوان عامل فرعی بود. نتایج نشان داد که سطوح مختلف آبیاری، زئولیت و پتاسیم تاثیر معنی داری بر پرولین، غلظت پتاسیم دانه، پروتئین، میزان کلروفیل در زمان گلدهی و پرشدن دانه، عملکرد دانه، وزن بوته داشتند. اثر متقابل آبیاری و زئولیت در تمامی صفات به جز بر میزان کلروفیل در زمان پرشدن دانه معنی دار بود. در این بررسی بالاترین عملکرد دانه از آبیاری در مرحله گل دهی و غلاف دهی و مصرف 30 تن زئولیت در هکتار به دست آمد. با مصرف پتاسیم عملکرد دانه از 8 تا 13درصد افزایش یافت، به طوری که با مصرف 200کیلوگرم پتاسیم عملکرد دانه به 1243کیلوگرم در هکتار رسید. نتایج بررسی نشان داد که مرحله گل دهی حساس ترین مرحله به کمبود آب است و مصرف زئولیت و پتاسیم در شرایط تنش می تواند با تعدیل خسارات ناشی از تنش خشکی، اثر مثبتی بر عملکرد دانه داشته باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: آبیاری تکمیلی، پروتئین، پرولین، عملکرد دانه، نخود دیم
  • محمود محمدی * صفحات 126-138

    به منظور بررسی تاثیر کاربرد کودهای زیستی و شیمیایی فسفاته و روی بر برداشت عناصر غذایی توسط لوبیا، آزمایشی مزرعه ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح آماری بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار به مدت دو سال اجرا شد. عوامل آزمایش شامل دو رقم لوبیاچیتی (تلاش و صدری)، چهار سطح فسفر (P0: شاهد، P1: مصرف 100کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپر فسفات تریپل، P2: مصرف کود زیستی فسفاتی و 50کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپر فسفات تریپل، P3: کود زیستی فسفاتی) و سه سطح روی (Zn0: شاهد، Zn1: مصرف50کیلوگرم در هکتار سولفات روی،Zn2 : کود زیستی روی) بود. کود زیستی فسفاتی شامل تلقیح با قارچ های میکوریزی Clariodeoglumus etunicatum ، Rhizophagus intraradices و Funneliformiss mosseae و باکتری Azetobacter و تیمار زیستی روی تلقیح با باکتری های Pseudomonas بود. صفات مورد بررسی در این آزمایش عملکرد دانه، غلظت و برداشت عناصر غذایی نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم، آهن، روی، منگنز و مس بود. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین مقادیر عملکرد، غلظت و برداشت عناصر غذایی از رقم صدری مشاهده شد. تیمار P2 باعث افزایش 8/21، 39، 98، 59، 32، 57، 5/44 و 28درصدی عملکرد و برداشت نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم، آهن، روی، منگنز و مس نسبت به شاهد شد. حداکثر میزان عملکرد دانه، غلظت نیتروژن، پتاسیم و روی به ترتیب به میزان 3404کیلوگرم در هکتار، 93/3، 25/2درصد و 41/31میلی گرم در کیلوگرم از تیمار Zn1 به دست آمد. در خصوص اثر متقابل معنی دار، بیشترین میزان عملکرد دانه، غلظت نیتروژن، روی و مس به ترتیب به میزان 3656کیلوگرم درهکتار، 1/4درصد، 57/36 و 6/21میلی گرم در کیلوگرم از تیمارP2Zn1 به دست آمد. کودهای زیستی مورد استفاده علاوه بر کاهش مصرف کودهای شیمیایی فسفری باعث افزایش برداشت عناصر غذایی و تولید بذور غنی از عناصر غذایی مورد مطالعه شدند.

    کلیدواژگان: Azotobacter، عملکرد، فسفر، میکوریزا
  • جعفر نباتی *، احمد نظامی، علیرضا حسن فرد، ژاله حقیقت شیشوان صفحات 139-150

    فتوسیستم در دستگاه فتوسنتزی، حساس ترین مولفه به تنش دمایی است. به منظور ارزیابی تحمل دو توده باقلای بروجرد و نیشابور به تنش یخ زدگی (دمای 0، 4-، 8-، 12-، 16-، 20-، 24-درجه سانتی گراد) آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در سال 1394 در پژوهشکده علوم گیاهی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد اجرا شد. عوامل فلورسانس کلروفیل قبل، 3، 6، 12، 24، 48 و 72ساعت پس از اعمال یخ زدگی اندازه گیری شد. درصد بقای توده ها نیز سه هفته پس از اعمال تیمارهای دمایی تعیین شد. بیشینه فلورسانس برگ سازگار شده به نور (F'm)، در توده بروجرد نسبت به توده نیشابور چهار درصد بیشتر بود. مولفه های فلورسانس کلروفیل با کاهش دما از صفرتا °C12- تغییر قابل ملاحظه ای نشان ندادند، ولی با کاهش دما از 12- به °C16- عوامل فلورسانس کلروفیل روند کاهشی پیدا کردند و در °C24- به حداقل مقدار خود رسیدند. کاهش عوامل فلورسانس کلروفیل ازجمله بیشینه کارآیی پتانسیل فتوسیستم F'v/F'm تا 24 ساعت پس از اعمال یخ زدگی با شیب تندی ادامه پیدا کرد و پس از آن با شیب ملایم افزایش یافت، اما F'm، 72ساعت پس از اعمال یخ زدگی به مقدار قبل از تنش نرسید. با افزایش شدت یخ زدگی درصد بقای نمونه ها کاهش یافت، به طوری که در دمای °C12- درصد بقا به 83درصد رسید با کاهش دما از 12- به °C16- درصد بقا به شدت کاهش یافت، در این دما در توده بروجرد هیچ گیاهی باقی نماند و در توده نیشابور تنها پنج درصد از گیاهان قادر به تحمل این شدت از تنش یخ زدگی بودند. ضریب رگرسیونی بالایی بین F'v/F'm و درصد بقا در توده بروجرد (99/0=R2) و نیشابور (98/0=R2) مشاهده شد. به طور کلی این مطالعه نشان داد که باقلا قادر به تحمل سرما تا دمای °C12- است و با استفاده از شاخص های کلروفیل فلورسانس پس از تنش یخ زدگی می توان میزان خسارت را در این گیاه تخمین زد.

    کلیدواژگان: بقا، عملکرد کوانتومی، فتوسیستم، کارآیی فتوسیستم
  • روزبه فرهودی *، محسن حمزه صفحات 151-165

    با توجه به محدودیت علف کش های ثبت شده جهت کنترل علف های هرز ماش و در راستای اختلاط علف‏کش‏ها، آزمایشی در قالب طرح آزمایشی بلوک های کامل تصادفی با 11تیمار در سه تکرار در سال زراعی 94-1393 در شهرستان شوشتر اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایش عبارت بودند از کاربرد علف کش‏های هالوکسی فوپ آر- متیل، بنتازون و اکسی فلورفن (در دزهای توصیه شده)، کاربرد علف‏کش‏های بنتازون + هالوکس فوپ-آر متیل، بنتازون + اکسی فلورفن، هالوکس فوپ - آر متیل + اکسی فلورفن در سطوح 50 و 80 درصد مقدار توصیه شده، تیمار وجین کامل علف هرز و شاهد (بدون کنترل علف هرز). عمده علف های هرز مزرعه را کنجد شیطانی، سوروف و اویارسلام ارغوانی تشکیل می دادند. کمترین تراکم علف هرز اویارسلام ارغوانی تحت تاثیر تیمارهای کاربرد دز توصیه شده بنتازون و اختلاط بنتازون + اکسی فلورفن 80درصد دز توصیه شده به ترتیب با تراکم 3/1 و 3/2 بوته در متر مربع مشاهده شد. مصرف علف کش هالوکسی فوپ آر- متیل سبب نابودی کامل علف هرز سوروف شد. بهترین عملکرد دانه ماش (2733 کیلو گرم در هکتار) نیز با کاربرد اختلاط علف کش‏های بنتازون + هالوکس فوپ - آر متیل در سطح 50 درصد دز توصیه شده مشاهده گردید، اما اختلاط این دو علف‏کش با 80 درصد دز توصیه شده باعث گیاه سوزی شدید ماش شد. بنابراین تیمار کاربرد علف کش‏های هالوکس فوپ - آر متیل+ بنتازون به مقدار 50 درصد دز توصیه شده به صورت اختلاط، تیمار علف کشی مناسبی جهت استفاده در زراعت ماش می باشد.

    کلیدواژگان: اویارسلام ارغوانی، بنتازون، سوروف، کنجد شیطانی، هالوکسی فوپ- آر متیل
  • مریم حاتم آبادی فراهانی *، زهرا تنها معافی صفحات 166-177

    نماتدهای انگل گیاهی یکی از عوامل خسارت زا به حبوبات از جمله لوبیا محسوب شده و باعث کاهش میزان تولید می شوند. با توجه به سطح زیرکشت بالای لوبیا در استان مرکزی، تحقیقی جهت بررسی و شناسایی نماتدهای انگل گیاهی مزارع لوبیای استان انجام شد. بدین منظور در سال های 91 و 92 طی فصل رشد گیاه (اوایل تیرماه تا پایان شهریورماه) تعداد 174نمونه خاک و ریشه از مزارع لوبیا در شهرستان های خمین، شازند و اراک جمع‎آوری شد. شناسایی گونه ها بر اساس مشخصات مورفولوژی و مورفومتری نماتد ها انجام گرفت. در این بررسی22گونه نماتد از 18جنس متعلق به زیرراسته Tylenchina فوق بالا خانواده Tylenchomorpha شناسایی گردید. در بین نماتدهای شناسایی شده، از جنس Ditylenchus گونه های D. destructor و D. kheiri، Aphelenchoides spp. و از خانواده Pratylenchidae گونه های Pratylenchus neglectus ، Pratylenchoidesritteri و Zygotylenchus guevarai جدا شد که از بین گونه های شناسایی شده سه گونه اخیر به ترتیب با داشتن 100، 95 و 58درصد فراوانی، رایج ترین نماتدهای انگل گیاهی در مزارع لوبیای استان مرکزی بودند. نماتدهای زیرخانواده Merliniinae و خانواده Hoplolaimidae به ترتیب با فراوانی 56 و 39 درصد تنها در مزارع شهرستان خمین و شازند یافت شدند. از بین نماتدهای سیستی علاوه بر گونه Heterodera filipjevi که در مزارع لوبیا در تناوب با گندم یافت شد، گونه Heterodera goettingiana در یک مزرعه لوبیا در قاسم آباد اراک شناسایی شد.

    کلیدواژگان: استان مرکزی، لوبیا، مناطق انتشار، نماتد
  • هادی خاوری *، قدرت اله شاکرمی صفحات 178-190

    امروزه مصرف نامتعادل کودهای شیمیایی یکی از مهم ترین عوامل آلودگی های زیست محیطی و محدودکننده رشد و عملکرد گیاهان زراعی است. در این راستا استفاده از پتانسیل حمایتی ریزجانداران خاکزی در جهت بهبود حاصلخیزی خاک و تولید پایدار محصولات کشاورزی، طی سال های اخیر مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. این آزمایش با هدف بررسی اثر کودهای زیستی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ارقام لوبیاقرمز، به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در سال زراعی 1395 در منطقه بیران شهر لرستان اجرا شد. عوامل شامل تلقیح (با گونه های Glomus etunicatum, G. Intraradices, G. mossea) در دو سطح (تلقیح و بدون تلقیح)، مایه زنی (با Azotobacter chroococcum Strain 15) در دو سطح (مایه زنی و عدم مایه زنی) و ارقام لوبیاقرمز (توده بیران شهر، ارقام اختر و گلی) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر ازتوباکتر و میکوریزا بر تعداد غلاف در بوته، وزن100دانه، شاخص برداشت و همچنین اثر دو جانبه میکوریزا و رقم، بر تعداد دانه در غلاف، وزن100دانه، عملکرد زیست توده و شاخص برداشت ارقام لوبیا معنی دار و افزایشی بود. مایه زنی ازتوباکتر و تلقیح میکوریزا عملکرد دانه را به ترتیب 4/12 و 5/24 درصد نسبت به شاهد افزایش دادند. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در رقم گلی به دست آمد که نسبت به رقم اختر و توده بیران شهر به ترتیب 2/45 و 1/51درصد افزایش داشت. یافته های آزمایش نشان داد که همیاری قارچ میکوریزا و ازتوباکتر، دارای اثر افزایشی بر عملکرد گیاه لوبیا است و می توان در جهت تولید پایدار این محصول در نظام های زراعی بوم سازگار درنظرگرفته شوند.

    کلیدواژگان: تولید پایدار، حاصلخیزی خاک، کودهای زیستی، همیاری
  • هوشنگ قمرنیا *، آزاده خلدی رضاپی، مختار قبادی صفحات 191-203

    آب زیرزمینی کم عمق، یک منبع آب بالقوه و کارآمد در کشاورزی است. در این پژوهش به بررسی اثر اعماق سطوح ایستابی کم عمق 60، 80 و 110سانتی متر بر تامین نیاز آبی، کارآیی مصرف آب و عملکرد دو رقم عدس (کیمیا و ILL6037) در دو سال زراعی 92-1391 و 93-1392 پرداخته شده است. آزمایشات در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی گروه مهندسی آب پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه با بهره گیری از لایسیمترهای پلی اتیلنی با قطر 280میلی متر به صورت فاکتوریل دو عامله و بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام گرفت. لازم به ذکر است که در این تحقیق هیچگونه استفاده ای از آبیاری سطحی نشد و صرفا آب مورد نیاز گیاه از طریق سطح ایستابی کم عمق و با استفاده از آب بارن تامین گردید. مطابق نتایج به دست آمده، عمق 60سانتی متر بیشترین میزان مصرف از آب زیرزمینی و عمق110سانتی متر کمترین میزان مصرف از آب زیرزمینی را داشت، به طوری که متوسط مشارکت آب زیرزمینی برای اعماق 60، 80 و 110سانتی متر به ترتیب 76/53درصد، 50/36درصد و 23/15درصد به دست آمد. بیشترین کارآیی مصرف آب زیرزمینی بر اساس عملکرد دانه در سال های اول و دوم به ترتیب برای ارقام ILL6037 و کیمیا در عمق آب زیرزمینی110سانتی متر و کمترین کارآیی مصرف آب برای رقم های ذکرشده در اعماق آب زیرزمینی60 و 80 سانتی متری، به دست آمد. همچنین در این آزمایش متوسط بیشترین و کمترین میزان عملکرد دانه با 31/91 و 80/37گرم بر مترمربع در هر دو سال برای رقم کیمیا به ترتیب در اعماق سطح ایستابی 60 و 110 و بیشترین و کمترین میزان پروتئین به ترتیب برای رقم کیمیا در عمق 110 سانتی متر و رقم ILL6037 در عمق 60 سانتی متری به دست آمد.

    کلیدواژگان: پروتئین، سطوح ایستابی کم عمق، عملکرد، کارآیی مصرف آب، لایسیمتر
  • مرتضی گلدانی *، سعید صانعی، مهدی پارسا صفحات 204-219

    به منظور بررسی تاثیر کاربرد کودهای زیستی بر خصوصیات ریشه و اندام هوایی دو رقم لوبیاچیتی، آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی در سه تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد و در شرایط کنترل شده در سال1394 انجام شد. فاکتور اول شامل شش تیمار کودهای زیستی 1) نیتروکسین® (حاوی باکتری هایAzotobacter sp. وAzospirillum sp)، 2) بیوفسفر® (PSB) (حاوی باکتری های حل کننده فسفاتBacillus sp. وPseudomonas sp.)، 3) باکتری همزیست لوبیا (Rhizobium، مجموعی از کودهای زیستی همزیست لوبیا)، 4) ترکیب کودهای زیستی نیتروکسین و بیوفسفر 5)، 60 کیلوگرم کود اوره در هکتار و 6) تیمار شاهد و فاکتور دوم شامل دو رقم لوبیاCOS16) و 21676(بود. نتایج نشان داد که وزن خشک ریشه، سطح ریشه، قطر ریشه، مجموع طول ریشه، حجم ریشه، وزن خشک کل اندام هوایی، وزن خشک برگ، ارتفاع، تعداد غلاف دربوته و تعداد دانه درغلاف تحت تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی اختلافات معنی داری را نشان دادند. رقم21676 در صفات وزن خشک ریشه، سطح ریشه، قطرریشه و رقم COS16 در صفات حجم ریشه و مجموع طول ریشه کارآیی بهتری داشتند. در صفات وزن خشک ریشه، سطح ریشه، مجموع طول ریشه کود زیستی نیتروکسین و در صفت حجم ریشه بیوفسفر از سایر تیمارهای کودی برتر بودند. به طورکلی نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین تعداد غلاف و دانه در غلاف در تیمار نیتروکسین و رقم COS16، و کمترین میزان در تیمار شاهد و رقم21676 به دست آمد. در این تحقیق، به نظر می رسد باکتری هایAzotobacter sp. و .Azospirillum sp که اصلی ترین محتویات کود زیستی نیتروکسین را شامل می شوند، به دلیل توانایی بالا در تثبیت نیتروژن و فراهمی عناصر غذایی مورد نیاز گیاه اثرات مثبتی بر صفات مورد بررسی بخصوص در رقم21676 از خود نشان داد.

    کلیدواژگان: بیوفسفر، حبوبات، کودهای بیولوژیک، نیتروکسین
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  • Hassan Porsa, Abdolreza Bagheri *, Ali Ganjeali, Mohammad Abed Pages 12-27
    Introduction

    In the region of Khorassan, chickpea often is sown traditionally at the end of the rainy season (March or April) based on the moisture stored in the soil. On the other hand, the amount and distribution of rainfall during the growing season is also very unsuitable. Therefore, the plants usually encounter intermittent drought stress during the vegetative growth and in the reproductive growth stage and may meet terminal drought stress and heat, simultaneously; resulting in a disturbance on pollination and assimilate the seed that leads to severe yield reduction. In these areas, the synchronization critical stages of plant phenology with adequate moisture in the soil is important. So, the selection of genotypes that their life cycle is completed before the heat and drought occurrence at the end of the season, is considered as a first step to improve the chickpea production under rainfed conditions.

    Materials & Methods

    In order to evaluate the morphophenological characteristics, yield and yield components of promising drought tolerant chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes under supplementary irrigation, this study was carried out in Educational-Researching Farm of Shahid Rajaei, College of Agriculture in Neyshabour during 2010-2011. This study was performed based on Randomized Compelete Blocks Design with five promising chickpea drought tolerant genotypes (MCC80, MCC352, MCC392, MCC537 and MCC696) and two genotypes as control (ILC482 and Karaj 12-60-31) with four replications. Seeds were prepared from seed bank of Research Center for Plant Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Mashhad Chickpea Collection; MCC). Planting operations was performed in April 2011. Planting density was 30 plants.m-2 and row spacing was 50 cm. Two times irrigation as supplementary irrigation were applied at planting and flowering stages. Some characteristics such as days from planting to 50% of emergence, flowering and podding; plant height; primary and secondary branches number per plant; leaf area index (LAI); crop growth rate (CGR); relative growth rate (RGR); seed yield and yield components (pods number per plant and 100Seed weight) were measured.

    Results & Discussion

    Based on the results, there were significantly differences among genotypes for all traits. Genotypes MCC80, MCC696, MCC392 and MCC537 had the lowest and genotypes MCC358 and MCC252 had the highest number of days from planting to flowering, in which the difference between them was significant (P≤0.05). MCC80 had the lowest plant height and MCC537 and MCC392 showed the highest. MCC80 and MCC358 had the highest and lowest number of pods per plant, respectively. It seems that MCC80 growth would avoid collisions with high temperatures and consequently the flowering has taken place in lower temperatures and higher soil moisture. The above factors led to a reduction of the failure of flowers, so the number of pods per plant increased in MCC80 (23 pods) significantly, compared other genotypes. Based on the results, on both grain yield per plant and seed yield, genotypes MCC252 and MCC358 showed the lowest and MCC80 had the highest rate.

    Conclusion

    Although Karaj12-60-31 (MCC358) as a commercial genotype, showed the highest plant height and growth indices, but for traits such as number of pods per plant, 100 seed weight and seed yield, was poor. The results showed that MCC80 with 970 Kg.ha-1 had the highest seed yield and ILC482 (MCC252) and Karaj12-60-31 (MCC358) had the lowest. The average yield for the MCC80 with supplementary irrigation in this region, was twice more than the yield in rainfed and 75% of yield in irrigated conditions in the region. However, the seed yield of commercial genotypes of Karaj12-60-31 (MCC358) and ILC482 (MCC252), were 324 and 320 Kg.ha-1 respectively. Totally, we recommend the repetition of such tests in this ares; in addition we can consider the genotypes such as MCC392, MCC352 and especially MCC80 as promising chickpea drought tolerant genotypes with supplementary irrigation during flowering in this area.

    Keywords: CGR, Flowering, LAI, Primary, secondary branches, Pod number per plant, RGR
  • Morteza Gorzin *, Seyedeh Sakineh Hoseini, Farshid Ghaderi, Far, Afshin Soltani, Yunes Mohamad, Nejad Pages 28-40
    Introduction

    Planting date is one of the important issues in agronomy that could be changing quantitative and qualitative characteristics of crop seeds. Planting date changes seed quality by providing different environmental conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, day length, radiation, and incidence of pathogens. It is also effective on seed yield. It affects duration of growth and development. A suitable planting date leads to optimal utilization of climatic conditions such as temperature, humidity, day length. It is also important for flowering and grain filling period to take place at the same time with favorite environmental conditions. As a result, it can improve seed yield and seed quality. Some factors such as high temperatures, frequent wetting and drying of air, high relative humidity, and continuous rainfalls have a significant negative effects on seed quality. These conditions during seed development reduce seed quality in the field. It is obvious that such conditions can be occurred on both early and late planting dates. Thus, according to an important role of planting date in determination of seed yield and quality, in this study the effects of environmental conditions during seed filling period on seed yield and quality of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) were evaluated by implementing different planting dates in field conditions.

    Materials & Methods

    This experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station of Gonbad during 2010, which is located at three kilometers northeast of the city, with latitude and longitude of 37˚16́ N and 55˚12́ E, respectively, and a height of 45 meters above sea level. In this study, the genotype VC-1973A was cultivated in five planting dates. The planting dates included April 21, May 10, June 3, June 20 and July 12. The mungbean developmental stages were divided into three stages includes planting to flowering (PD-R1), flowering to beginning of seed filling (R1-R5), and beginning of seed filling to seed maturity (R5-R7). Afterwards, the relationship between the length of these developmental stages and environmental factors (temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and photoperiod) occurring during these stages were evaluated in terms of yield and seed quality. Seed quality was determined via germination, accelerated aging, Electrical conductivity tests, and field emergence percentage. Data analysis was performed by SAS 9.1.3 (Institute, Inc), and Excel 2007 was used to draw figures.

    Results & Discussion

    The results showed that seed quality increased as a result of delayed planting date, whereas seed yield decreased. Germination of the aged seeds increased by 0.23% per day of delay in planting. On the other hand, the electrical conductivity per day of delay in planting decreased by 0.43 µs.cm-1.g-1 which reflects the increase in seed vigor. Delaying the planting date led to an increase in field emergence percentage of about 0.23% per day. In fact, in this study the lowest seed quality was observed for planting date April 21 (first planting date). The reason for this occurrence can be related to occurrence of very high temperatures (more than 40°C) and rainfall during seed development (R5-R7). Although the average air temperature during R5-R7 increased in the next planting dates, but the number of days that temperature was more than 40°C decreased, which consequently led to increased seed quality. Also, the length of R5-R7 decreased by delay in planting date, so filling period (R5-R7) was exposed to environmental factors (particularly high temperatures) for a shorter period. In contrast to seed quality, seed yield decreased linearly with delay in planting date. The highest seed yield (1144.4 kg.ha-1) was achieved in the first planting date (April 21). Then, for each day that planting date was delayed, seed yield decreased by 10.84 kg.ha-1, and finally in the last planting date (July 12) reached the lowest amount (299 kg.ha-1). Reduction of the length of developmental stages (especially R5-R7) was the most important cause of seed yield loss.

    Conclusion

    Although, delay in planting date increased seed quality of mungbean, this delay reduced seed yield. Seed yield in the last planting date decreased 845.4 kg.ha-1 compared to the first planting date. In fact, delay in planting date decreased seed quantity, but increased its quality. The optimum planting date is the date that maintains the seed quality at a satisfactory level and produce high seed yield, simultaneously. Therefore, planting of mungbean in mid-June may lead to higher seed yield, as well as production of high-quality seeds

    Keywords: Seed development, Seed germination, Seed vigor, Temperature, Thermal time
  • Hamidreza Balouchi *, Fatemeh Amini, Mohsen Movahhedi Dehnavi, Mahmood Attarzadeh Pages 41-54
    Introduction

    Contamination of soils with heavy metals is often resulted from human activities and phytoremediation is an effective and economic strategy to remove toxic metals from soils. Heavy metals are significant environmental pollutants, and their toxicity is a problem of increasing significance for ecological, evolutionary, nutritional and environmental reasons. The term ‘‘heavy metals’’ refers to any metallic element that has a relatively high density greater than 4 g/cm3, or 5 times or more, greater than water and is toxic or poisonous even at low concentration. However, chemical properties of the heavy metals are the most influencing factors compared to their density. Heavy metals include lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), arsenic (As), silver (Ag) and the platinum group elements. Plants experience oxidative stress upon exposure to heavy metals that leads to cellular damage. In addition, plants accumulate metal ions that disturb cellular ionic homeostasis. To minimize the detrimental effects of heavy metal exposure and their accumulation, plants have evolved detoxification mechanisms. Such mechanisms are mainly based on chelation and subcellular compartmentalization. Chelation of heavy metals is a ubiquitous detoxification strategy described in wide variety of plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different compounds to reduce the toxicity and accumulation of heavy metals in the planting bed is pinto beans.

    Materials & Methods

    In order to evaluate the effects of different growing substrates on reducing toxicity and phytoremediation bean (cv. Sadri) under heavy metals, a greenhouse experiment was conducted as a factorial for four heavy metals (Cd(NO3)2, Pb(NO3)2, Ni(NO3)2 and CuSO4) seperately, based on CRD design with three replications in Yasouj University, 2013. The first factor included of four levels of different growing substrates (control, compost, vermicompost and Populus sawdust) and the second factor included of two levels of heavy metals (heavy metals with 50 mg kg-1 soil concentration and control).

    Results & Discussion

    Analysis of variance showed that the effect of organic compounds and cadmium nitrate in the soil and their interactions on amounts of cadmium accumulation in roots, shoot and grain was statistically significant. Compost and vermicompost significantly increased cadmium. Vermicompost can be used to remove metals from contaminated soils used because it is linked with metals and increases nutrient uptake by providing. A cadmium concentration in shoot tissue was more than adequate at all levels of the leveas (0.2-0.05 mg/kg dry weight). Lead levels in the tissues of roots, shoots and seeds in all treatments were the detection limit. It seems that due to the low accumulation of lead in beans can be attributed to the low mobility of lead in soil and plant. Means comparison showed the highest accumulation of nickel in the root of the control (normal soil) with an average of 14.45 mg/kg dry weight of roots and the lowest value of this attribute in use of poplar sawdust with an average of 11.42 mg/kg root dry weight that using compost and vermicompost was not significantly different. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of organic compounds in soil, copper sulfate and their interactions on the amount of copper metal roots was significant. When the low copper concentration in soil, compost and vermicompost with the stabilization of copper available and disabling decrease copper absorption and accumulation by the plants, but the high concentration of copper in the soil, add compost, vermicompost and poplar sawdust will not be enough to stabilize all accessible copper. In this study, the use of poplar sawdust to accumulate the highest amount of copper in copper sulphate roots in levels zero and 50 mg per kg dry weight soil.

    Conclusion

    The results showed that the use of compost and vermicompost increased amounts of cadmium accumulation in shoot and root. On the other side, compost and Populus sawdust decreases the amount of nickel in the bean shoot and root. Also, the highest accumulation of copper in roots of beans was achived by application of the Populus sawdust and compost. Accumulation of heavy metals in roots far more than shoots and seeds. In general, the results of this study showed that due to low accumulation of heavy metals in the seed of bean and high absorption by the root and shoot, this plant is suitable for cultivation in contaminated areas and if possible leaving the roots and shoots is also appropriate for the purification.

    Keywords: Cadmium Nitrate, Compost, Copper Sulphate, Nickel Nitrate, Phytoremediation, Populus sawdust
  • Akbar Hemmati *, Mohammad Feizian, Hadi Asadi Rahmani, Khosrow Azizi Pages 55-65
    Introduction

    The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the world’s most important legume grown for human nutrition. Legumes and their symbiotic root nodule bacteria are extremely sensitive to drought stress. The fact that N2 fixation is more sensitive to decreasing soil water content relative to leaf gas exchange constitutes an important constraint on N2 accumulation and the yield potential of legumes subjected to soil drying. We hypothesize that inoculation of bean with rhizobium strains mitigates some of the negative effects of drought stress on bean. It is believed that certain microbial species and/or strains enhance plant tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought (Yang et al., 2008). The Phyllobacterium brassicacearum strain STM196, a PGPR isolated from the rhizosphere of oilseed rape B. napus enhances plant tolerance to drought in two accessions of A. thaliana with contrasting flowering phenology (Bresson et al. 2013). We proposed a new means by which bacteria can enhance plant performance under both well-watered and drought soil conditions. Inoculated plants accumulated more biomass before reproduction and exhibited a better WUE. Sharma & Saikia (2013) found that the P. aeruginosa GGRJ21 strain is tolerant to water stress in mung bean plants by accelerating the accumulation of inherent levels of antioxidant enzymes, cell osmolytes, and consistently expediting the up regulation of stress responsive genes in PGPR-treated plants under water stress conditions.

    Materials & Methods

    In order to study the effects of rhizobium strains and drought stress on yield and water use efficiency of common bean, an experiment was conducted under greenhouse and field condition in 2014 and 2015 respectively. This experiment was carried with split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were irrigation base of 30, 60 and 80% available water of soil in main plot and 54, 58,160 and 177 rhizobium strains (Leguminosarom phaseoli) seed inoculated in sub plot. Water irrigation content, water use efficiency, plant nitrogen, nodule number, nodule dry mater, wet and dry shoot weight, yield and yield components were determined.

    Results & Discussion

    There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in yield grain, biological yield, water use efficiency,  100-seed weight, dry and wet shoot weight, nodule number and nodule dry matter between the levels of irrigation as well as between different bacterial strains. The highest grain yield (3066 kg/ha), biological yield (6882 kg/ha), water use efficiency (0.81 kg/m3), 100 seed weight (44 g) were obtained in irrigation at 60% available water and 160 rhizobium strain seed inoculated treatment. Similar observation has been reported by, Suarez et al, (2008) and Bhatt & Srinivasa Rao (2005). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in dry nodule mater and nodule number between irrigation and rhizobium strains. The irrigation levels showed significant difference on nodule dry matter but did not show a significant difference on nodule number, reverse, rhizobium strains have a significant difference on nodule number and have not significant difference in nodule dry matters. The most of nodule number (63 per plant) and nodule dry maters (0.458 g/plant) were obtained in irrigation at 80% available water and 177 rhizobium strain seed inoculation treatment. Nodule dry matter was reduced by increasing drought stress levels. Similar observations have been reported by Ramos et al, (2003). There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between wet and dry shoot weight and the irrigation levels but this result not observation in rhizobium strains treatments. Based on this experiment, it can be said that, rhizobium bacteria strains, similar as PGPR, can enhance plant performance and plant tolerance to environmental stresses by large variety of mechanisms. Some rhizobacteria help plants to maintain a favorable water status under water deficit (Creus et al. 2004) by enhancing the development of root system (Marulanda et al. 2009).

    Conclusion

    Our results showed that the use of rhizobium bacteria which can induce abiotic stress tolerance in the host as bio-fertilizers may be beneficial for increasing of yield and WUE in drought stress condition. In dry land like, Iran, we can use such microorganisms for lower use of water irrigation without decreasing seed yield in common bean.

    Keywords: Bean, Drought stress, Rhizobium, Yield
  • Mohammad Khadempir *, Mohammadkazem Eslami, Ebrahim Zeinali, Afshin Soltani Pages 66-80
    Introduction

    Since the leaves are the main source of production of photosynthetic substances in plants, dry matter production and crop yield potential is largely depend on the leaf surface, and many environmental changes affect growth and yield through changes in leaf area. Hence, green leaf area per plant and leaf area index measure in almost all studies of crop physiology to understand the mechanism of yield alteration. However, measurement of leaf area compared with other traits such as plant height and total plant dry weight is very difficult, precise instruments and spend more time and cost. Therefore, according to the allometric relationships in plants, extensive studies were done to find the relationship between leaf area and other plant traits that their measurement is easier, faster and cheaper, and does not require expensive equipment. Allometric relationships in plants reveal changes in the growth of an organ of plant than to all or another part or organ of plant. The leaf area in plant as main source of photosynthetic substances closely associated with the growth and yield. Thus, it is usually measured for justifying variations of the growth and yield. Due to the difficulty, time consuming and requires devices to measure leaf area, an alternative approach for measuring the leaf area is the use of allometric relationships between leaf area and traits that their measuring is easy and quick and requires no expensive equipment. This study aimed to obtain the allometric relationships between green leaf area and a number of vegetative attributes such as number of leaves per main stem, green leaf dry weight, total dry weight of vegetative parts of plant. Allometric equations was used successfully to calculate leaf area in various crops such as cotton, wheat, chickpea, faba bean, peanuts, soybean and sweet sorghum. The effects of three factors cultivar, inter and intra row spacing on the allometric relationships were examined.

    Materials & Methods

    This experiment was conducted using two cultivars of faba bean (a conventional, Barecat and a new cultivar, French), three inter row spacing (25, 50 and 75 cm) and two intra row spacing (8 and 15 inches) in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications in the farm of Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources during 2010 2011 growing season. Sampling to measure the green leaf area and leaf dry weight and other vegetative traits during the growing season was carried out with intervals of 7 to 15 days (depending on the temperature and rate of plant growth). Different mathematical functions were fitted to the data to obtain allometric relationships. To compare the accuracy of the equations, coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used. Higher coefficient of determination, and lower coefficient of variation and root mean square error reflects the higher accuracy of the equation to describe allometric relationships.

    Results & Discussion

    According to the results of this experiment, the relationship between leaf area and leaf dry weight and total plant dry weight in faba bean was not affected by cultivar, inter and intra row spacing, statistically. Thus, an equation was fitted to leaf area data against leaf dry weight or total plant dry weight in all treatment (both cultivars and all inter and intra row spacing). Also, results of this study showed that the relationship between green leaf area and leaf dry weight as well as number of nodes per main stem has higher coefficient of determination (0.98 for green leaf dry weight, and 0.98 and 0.95 for node number per main stem in 8 and 15 cm intra row spacing, respectively) and lower the root mean square (1.05 for green leaf dry weight, and 1.08 and 1.064 for node number per main stem in 8 and 15 cm intra row spacing, respectively) than other traits.

    Conclusion

    Since the relationship between green leaf area and green leaf dry weight per plant had a higher coefficient of determination (0.98) as well as smaller root mean square (1.05) than other traits including leaf number per main stem, as well as the ease of measuring the green leaf dry weight, it is suggested that the relationship between leaf area and leaf dry weight (a segmented relationship) is used to estimate green leaf area during the growing season in faba bean. Also, this relationship can be used to predict faba bean leaf area with sufficient accuracy in the simulation models.

    Keywords: Allometric relationships, Faba bean, Leaf area, Leaf dry weight, Plant height
  • Sakineh Dastorani, Shahin Shahsavani *, Shahrokh Gharanjik Pages 81-99
    Introduction

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a low cost crop in agronomic system of semi arid to arid region overall the world. This crop due to adaptable capacity is caltivated in wide range of environmental conditions and different type of soils. Chickpea seeds contain 24-34% protein, this is 2 to 3 times more than cereals and 14 to 24% more than tuber plants. Chickpea seeds inoculation with rhizhibium cause more N2 fixation and increase chickpea yield. Mesorhizobium ciceri is one of the rhizobium genus that can have good symbiosis with this crop and fix atmospheric nitrogen up to 60-90% of crop nitrogen requirement after establishment on root crop. Therefore it could be said that biological fertilizers can increase crop production in a sustainable system. Mesorhizobiom can increase chickpea seeds and ultimately increase soil Phosphorus and Zinc concentration. Researchs showed that sulphur deficiency cause decrease seed yield. Nevertheless soil sulphur supply can help seed filling and increase economic yield. The aim of this study was evaluating effect of Mesorhizobium and Thiobacillus bacteria’s and sulfur on yield and yield components of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and some soil parameters.

    Materials & Methods

    In order to study the effect of Mesorhizobium and Thiobacillus bacteria and sulfur on yield and yield components of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and some soil parameter, a field experiment was conducted at Jotai region of Khorasan Razavi province in 2013. This research was conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with three replications and 18 treatments. Experimental factors were three levels of sulphur (zero, 500 and 1000 kg ha-1), thiobacillus bacteria in two level (control and inoculation) and Mesoreizhobium in three levels (control, Mesorizhobium ciceri strain 190 and Mesorizhobium ciceri strain 9). Plot size was 2×4 m2 and row spacing and intra-row spacing were 60 and 20 cm, respectively. Irrigation were done at every 14 days. Weed control were done manually. Disease and pest were not recorded during experiment. After harvesting the crop, plant and soil samples from each plots were collected and transported to laboratory evaluation. Analysis of variance were done by SPSS software. Figures were prepared by Excel 2007. Mean comparison of data were done for least significant difference (LSD) at 1 and 5% level of significant.

    Results & Discussion

    Analysis of variance of plant height showed that main effect of sulphur on plant hight were significant at p<0.01 and interaction effect of sulphur and mesorhizibium bacteria on plant hight were significant at p<0.05. These result is consistent with results of Solemani & Asgharzadeh (2010). Analysis of variance of data showed that different species of mesorizhobium bacteria had significant effect at p<0.01 on cheickpea yield. Mean comperision showed that the highest seed yield (1146.73 kg ha-1) belong to mesorizhobium ciceri 190 and lowest seed yield (971.07 kg ha-1) belong to mesorizhobium ciceri 9. Scientific reports showed that mesorizhobium inoculation with 25 kg ha-1 zinc sulphate had significantly increased the number of pods in plant and handred seed weight. Analysis of variance of root length showed that main and interaction effect of treatments were not significant on root length excep in mesorizhobium that were significant at p<0.05. Analysis of variance of seed protein showed that main effect of sulphur, mesorizhobium, sulfhur and mesorizhobium and thiobacillus with mesorizhobium were significant at p<0.01. Role of sulphur on seed protein were well understood. Analysis of variance of seed yield showed that main effect of mesorizhobium and interaction effect of sulphur and thibacillus and sulphur and mesorizhobium on seed yields were significant at p<0.01. Shrivastava et al, (2000) showed that mesorizhobium bacteria inoculation had significant effect on soyabean yield. Analysis of variance of soil sulphur showed that interaction effect of sulphur and thiobacillus had significant effect at p<0.01 on soil sulphur, phosphorus and soil pH but had no effect on soil potassium and electrical conductivity at p<0.05. Main effect of sulphur had significant effect on soil phosphorus and soil pH at p<0.01. However the main effect of mesorizhobium bacteria had significant effect on soil phosphorus at p<0.01. Main effect of thiobacillus had only significant effect at p<0.01 on soil pH. The interaction effect of sulphur and mesorizhobium had significant effect at p<0.01 on soil phosphorus, soil potassium and soil pH at p<0.01, but interaction effect of thiobacillus and mesorizhobium bacteria had only significant effect at p<0.01 on soil phosphorus. Interaction effect of all three factors had significant effect at p<0.01 on soil phosphorus and at p<0.05 on soil sulphur, EC and soil pH.

    Conclusion

    Analysis of variance of data in this research showed that factors in this study had positive and significant effect on agronomic parameters of chickpea and soil physic-chemical properties.

    Keywords: Chickpea, Mesorhizobium bacteria, Sulfur, Thiobacillus
  • Mohammad Hassan Rahimi *, Saadolah Houshmand, Mahmoud Khadambashi, Narges Ghasemi Siani Pages 100-113
    Introduction

    Food legumes with high amounts of protein are known as the second largest source of human food. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) have large amounts of protein (28%), micronutrients and vitamins in its seeds and is one of the beans in the world that is highly consumed in human diets. Also, its straw contains 2% minerals and 59% carbohydrates and considered valuable in animal feeding. Study of the genetic diversity is one of the most important steps in plant breeding program, so that the genetic diversity is considered as the basis of selection. By studying the diversity, the relationships between traits can be understood, too, and the best assays for high yielding are selected. In this regard, the morphological markers are the selection criteria. As reviewed above, the present research was carried out for studying the genetic diversity of 100 lines of lentil in terms of agro-morphological, determining the relationship between seed yield and other traits and selecting the superior pure lines using multivariate statistics methods.

    Materials & Methods

    To evaluate the 100 lines of lentil that were imported from ICARDA, an experimental field was conducted in research station of Shahrekord University in based on simple lattice 10×10 with two replications at 2012-13 cropping season. Because of the incomplete blocks within each repeat for all characteristics were non-significant, the data were analyzed as the randomized complete block design. The studied pure lines were cultivated in late winter in 3-5cm depth and 10cm intervals on the plots which consisted of 2 rows of 1m length, and 30cm between rows. During the growth season, the weeding was done manually in several times. During the study, days to flowering and days to maturity were recorded. After the physiological maturity, 10 plants of each plot were harvested and some traits such as 100 seed weight (g), plant height (cm), number of pods per plant, weight of pods per plant (g), leaf length (cm), leaf width (cm), seed diameter (mm), stem diameter (mm), biological yield per plant (g), RWC (%) and seed yield (kg/ha) were measured. Analysis of variance, comparison of means, correlation analysis, cluster analysis, factor analysis, and estimate of Phenotypic coefficient of variability (PCV), Genotypic coefficient of variability (GCV), broad sense heritability (h2) and genetic advance (GA) were achieved to evaluate the yield performances, genetic diversity and the relationship between traits in pure lines of lentil in the present study. For above analysis, SAS software version 9.1 and SPSS software version 20 were used.

    Results & Discussion

    The results of analysis of variance showed that high genetic variation among studied lines as the differences between 100 pure lines were significant at 1% probability level. According to the means comparison, it was not observed a desirable line in terms of all studied traits but the superior pure lines (ILL590, ILL947, ILL3963, ILL2795, ILL461, ILL459, ILL353 and ILL5888) in terms of phonological characters, stem diameter, number of pods per plant, plant height and seed yield were identified. Number of pods per plant, weight of pods per plant, leaf width and biological yield had the highest values of GCV, h2 and GA. The correlation analysis indicated that seed yield had positive and significant correlation with number of pods per plant and weight of pods per plant at 1% probability level; while its relationship with days to flowering and days to maturity was negative and significant at 1% probability level. Thirteen agronomic traits have been classified into four groups which expressed 77/97% diversity of the total variation according to the factor analysis Each of the first, second, third and fourth components were able to allocate 26.16%, 25.37%, 17.30% and 9.13% respectively. Cluster analysis using Euclidean distance with Ward's method placed the studied lines into eight groups and desirable lines in Shahrekord climate were grouped on the cluster 8.

    Conclusion

    Identification of relationship between agronomic traits and genetic diversity can help the breeders to select the best traits and varieties. The results of this study showed significant genetic variation for agronomic traits in lines of lentil and lines ILL590, ILL947, ILL3963, ILL2795, ILL461, ILL459, ILL353 and ILL5888 had high genetic potential for increasing the seed yield. Also, the number and weight of pods per plant, days to flowering and maturity can be used to improve the seed yield in breeding programs.

    Keywords: Cluster analysis, Correlation, Factor analysis, Genetic diversity, Pure lines of lentil
  • Soode Maleki *, Ali Nakhzari Moghaddam, Sayyed Hossein Sabbaghpour, Abbas Ali Noorinia, Hossein Sabouri Pages 114-125
    Introduction

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is grown predominantly in Mediterranean environment where yield is faced with abiotic stresses such as water deficit. Due to shortage of water resources and sequential cropping in many areas, it is necessary to manage the irrigation water, because this would cause inadequate irrigation. Therefore, in order to achieve the maximum yield and efficient use of available water, prevention of waste of water is necessary. One of the reasons for the use of zeolite in agricultural production and productivity of soil, is the moisture absorption and maintain the property for a long time and prevent environmental pollution. Zeolite acts as a slow release fertilizer, giving the plant access to water and nutrients for more times. Also zeolite caused significant saving in water use and reducing the amount of fertilizer. Thus helping to decrease the amount of water used per crop and the contamination of aquifers due to overuse of chemical fertilizers. Adjustment of drought negative effects by maintaining inflammation pressure, transpiration reduction and increase of water use efficiency has been through consumption of potassium. Although potassium unlike N and P, does not enter into the composition of any product. Potassium has an important role either direct or indirect, under different environments, in major plant processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, protein synthesis, enzyme activation, water uptake, osmoregulation, growth and yield of plant. Considering the importance of chickpea in nutrition of human and weather conditions of arid and semiarid, supplementary irrigation is necessity for cultivation of this plant in Iran; with regard to role of zeolite and potassium in reducing sensitivity of plants to water deficit and since there is limited published work about the effect of application of potassium sulphate combined with zeolite, this research was conducted to compare their effects on some of characteristics and yield of chickpea.

    Materials & Methods

    In order to study the effect of different irrigation regimes and different Zeolite and Potassium application on quality characteristics and yield of chickpea cv Azad, an experiment was conducted as split factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with three replications in Research Station of Agriculture and Natural Resource Research center of Hamadan, during 2015 cropping season. Main plot included supplementary irrigation (check as non-irrigation, supplementary irrigation at flowering, irrigations at both flowering and pod setting and irrigation at pod setting stages) and subplot included three levels of zeolite (Z0=0, Z1=15 and Z2=30 ton ha-1) and three levels of potassium fertilizer (K0=0, K1=150 and K2= 250 kg ha-1 K2SO4) that located as split factorial in each sub plot. In this study, the amount of proline, potassium, protein, chlorophyll content (flowering and pod setting stage), seed yield and Plant weight were determined. Software SAS Ver. 9.1 was used for the statistical analysis and the means were compared by using Least Significant Difference (LSD) test at 0.05 level of significance.

    Results & Discussion

    The results showed that the different irrigation regimes, Zeolite and Potassium fertilizer levels had significant effect on proline, potassium, protein, chlorophyll (flowering stage), chlorophyll (pod setting stage) and seed yield. The results indicated that drought stress significantly decreased leaf potassium and leaf chlorophyll whereas protein percent and proline were increased. Interaction between irrigation and Zeolite was significant except for chlorophyll (pod setting). In this study, the highest plant weight and seed yield were obtained under irrigations at both flowering and pod setting along with 30 ton ha-1 zeolite. Enhanced proline accumulation during stress indicates that proline is thought to play a cardinal role as an osmoregulatory solute in plants. The flowering stage in chickpea cultivars is the most sensitive stage to drought stress and in deficit watercondition supplemental irrigation in this stage may considerably increases yield of chickpea.

    Conclusion

    Production in dry land farming systems in Iran is limited by deficiency of water. Chickpea has good potential to increase production in dry land conditions. Zeolite and potassium consumption can be positive effects on yield and quality characteristic of chickpea in severity and moderately stress conditions. It is concluded that zeolite and potassium consumption with ameliorate damages due to water stress could be effective on plant and formation economical yield in conditions of Hamadan region. Zeolite application in lands which are exposure to late season drought stress can keep soil water content and improve seed yield and production. Therefore, considering water shortage in drought area of the country, application of zeolite can be useful to save more water that leads to produce more yield. According to results of this study, potassium sulfate consumption has been enhanced 8 to 13 percent grain yield.

    Keywords: Chickpea, Proline, Protein, Seed yield, Supplementary irrigation
  • Mahmoud Mohammadi * Pages 126-138
    Introduction

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the richest seeds in legumes. Scientific and correct use of bio and organic fertilizers are a strategy to reduce the accumulation of chemical materials in agricultural products, soil and water resources and living organisms. Mycorhizal fungi, Phosphate and Zn solubilizing bacteria are the sample of these bio fertilizers. The most important beneficial effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis is increase the nutrient uptake, water use efficiency, productivity, improve plant nutrition and resistance to environmental stresses. The results of mycorrhizae symbiosis research in different plants show that the increase uptake of nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Iron (Fe), Zn, Copper (Cu) and Manganese (Mn). Mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Azotobacter spp., and Pseudomonas spp. are able to increase uptake of nutrient elements particularly when they are applied with others. Phosphate and Zinc solubilizing bacteria facilitate uptake of slowly diffusing nutrient ions such as P, Zn, Fe and increase their availabilities usually by increasing volume of soil exploited by plants, spreading external mycelium, secreting organic acids, production of dehydrogenase and phosphates enzymes and reducing rhizosphere acidity. The main objective of this farm study was to evaluate the effect of using of P and Zn chemical and bio-fertilizers on yield, concentration and uptake of nutrient elements for the first time in two cultivars of bean in the Chaharmahal-va- Bakhtiari province.

    Material & Methods

    This field experiment was carried out as a factorial based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments of this research consisted of two cultivars of Chiti bean (Talash and Sadri), four levels of P (P0: Control, P1: Chemical fertilizer on the basis of soil test, P2: 50 percent of recommended P + bio-fertilizer (P), and P3: bio-fertilizer (P)), three levels of Zn (Zn0: Control, Zn1: 50 kg ha-1 Zinc sulphate, and Zn3: bio-fertilizer (Zn)). Bio-fertilizer (P) treatment consisted of using inoculum of P solubilizing bacteria from Azotobacter chroococcum strain 5 and three species of mycorrhizal fungi from Glomus species (Clariodeoglumus etunicatum, Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformiss mosseae). Zn bio-fertilizer treatment consisted of using inoculum of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain MPFM and Pseudomonas fluorescent strain 187. Chemical fertilizers were applied from TSP at a rate of 100 and 50 kg ha-1 in P1 and P2 respectively, 50 kg ha-1 ZnSO4.7H2O in Zn1. After harvesting the seed yield and nutrient concentration were measured. The nutrient uptake was measured by multiple seed yield on nutrient concentration. Statistical analysis was done with SAS statistical software. Duncan’s multiple range test was used to compare means.

    Results & Discussion

    The results of this experiment showed that there were significant difference between two cultivars on seed yield, nutrient concentration and nutrient uptake. The maximum values of studying parameters were obtained for Sadri cultivar (table 2 and 4). The effect of P treatment was significant on studying parameters, in a way P2 treatment in comparison with control treatment caused to increase seed yield (29%) Nitrogen (39%), P (98%), K (59%), Fe (32%), Zn (57%), Mn (45%) and Cu (22%) Uptake (Table 2 and 4). These results were agreement with findings of other researches. The effect of Zn treatment was significant on seed yield and nutrient concentration except Mn and nutrient uptake except P and Mn. The maximum nutrient uptake and bio enrichment except Fe was obtained from Zn1 (Table 2 and 4). Bean is one of the sensitive plants to Zn deficiency. In this study, the response to using Zn fertilizer was showed because of low soil Zn content. The antagonistic effect between P and Zn caused to decreasing concentration and uptake of P in Zn1 and Zn2. The interaction effect between P and Zn was significant on seed yield, nutrient concentration and uptake except P and Fe uptake. The maximum of studying parameters was obtained from P2Zn1 (Table 3 and 5). In this study, the dual inoculation with phosphate and Zn bio-fertilizers caused to increase nutrient concentration and uptake and improve seed enrichment especially elements with slowly diffusion ions such as P and Zn. It can be done with increasing mycorrhizal symbiosis, root colonization, phytosiderophores secretion, organic acids and chelated compounds production.

    Conclusion

    The results of this research revealed that individual and dual use of phosphate and Zn bio-fertilizers caused to increase seed yield, nutrient concentration and uptake in two studied cultivars of bean. Microorganisms used in biological treatments caused to increase the availability, concentration and uptake of nutrient elements. It can be done with increasing mycorrhizal symbiosis, root colonization and enhance secretion of siderophore compounds, organic acids and chelate compounds. Also, plant hormones and enzymes promoting growth increased with using of these bio treatments. In this research, the best treatment was using of mycorrhizal fungi with Azotobacter inoculant and 50 kg ha-1 TSP and 50 kg ha-1 ZnSO4.7H2O. (P2Zn1 treatment). With using integrated bio and chemical-fertilizers of P and Zn in addition to reduce chemical P fertilizers application can be produce health grain with high quality and rich of nutrients.

    Keywords: Azetobacter, Mycorrhizae, Phosphorus, Yield
  • Jafar Nabati *, Ahmad Nezami, Alireza Hasanfard, Zhaleh Haghighat Sheshvan Pages 139-150
    Introduction

    Freezing tolerance is an important factor determining natural geographic distribution of plant species as well as growth and yield of many crop plants. Many plants from temperate and cold climates, including several important crop species, are able to increase their freezing tolerance in response to low, nonfreezing temperatures in a process termed cold acclimation. It is generally accepted that cellular membranes are the primary targets of freezing damage in plants. So, besides whole plant survival, determination of electrolyte leakage from plant tissues after freezing and thawing, using conductivity measurements has been the most frequently used method reported in the literatures. This method mainly monitors the ability of the plasma membrane to function as a semi-permeable barrier towards intracellular ions, but the intactness of the vacuole, as the major storage compartment for inorganic ions, may also impact the measurements. Under stress conditions, the possibility of over excitation of photosystem II (PSII) increases, and this reduces the photosynthetic rate and lead to an increase in the dissipation of absorbed energy through nonradiative processes. The measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence has been used for many years as a sensitive, reliable, and rapid method to determine the effect of environmental stresses, like drought, temperature, excessive light and air pollution on green plants. Decrease of the maximal rate of the fast rise of fluorescence after exposure of leaves to chilling temperatures, correlated well with the visual symptoms of chilling injury in several species

    Materials & Methods

    This study was carried out to measure chlorophyll fluorescence and determine the survival of two Vicia faba ecotypes (Borujerd and Neyshabur) in the fall and winter of 2015 at Research Center for Plant Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments were arranged as factorial based on completely randomized block design with four replications. Plants were grown in pots under natural conditions until four to six leaf stage for acclimation, and then were subjected to freezing temperatures (0, -4, -8, -12, -16, -20, -24 °C) in a thermo gradient freezer. Freezer temperature was 5 °C at the beginning and reached to -24 °C, decreasing two degrees centigrade per hour. Ice nucleation active bacteria was sprayed to nucleation formation in plants at -3°C. Plants were kept for an hour in each temperature and then were transported to a cold chamber (5±2 °C) and kept for 24 hours to avoid rapid melting. Chlorophyll fluorescence was recorded with a pulse amplitude modulation fluorometer (PAM-2000, Walz, Effeltrich, Germany) before and 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hour after freezing stress. The efficiency of excitation energy capture by open PSII reaction centers (F´v/F´m) and the quantum yield of electron transport at photosystem II (PSII), were determined. Survival percentage was determined after three weeks recovery in greenhouse condition. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA model, followed by Duncanʼs test for mean comparison at 95 % confidence level by Minitab 16 program.

    Results & Discussion

    Result indicated that maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (F'v/F'm) was four percent higher in Borujerd ecotype compared to Neyshabur ecotype. No significant change was found in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters with decreasing temperature from zero to -12°C but more temperature reduction caused chlorophyll fluorescence parameters to decrease in a way that the lowest mean was observed at -24°C. Rapid reductions were found in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters such as F'v/F'm until 24 hours after freezing stress which was followed by gently slope increasing trend, but the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, 72 hours after stress, did not return to the level before freezing stress. Survival rate was decreased as freezing temperature decreased and reached to 83% at -12°C. More temperature reduction to -16°C led to sever decrease in survival rate in a way that no plant survival and only five percent was observed in Borujerd and Neyshabur ecotypes, respectively. High regression coefficients were found between F'v/F'm and survival rate in both ecotypes (R2=0.99 and R2=0.98 for Borujerd and Neyshabur ecotypes, respectively)

    Conclusion

    Generally, evaluation of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of both Vicia faba ecotypes showed that chlorophyll fluorescence has a direct relationship with survival three weeks after freezing stress and can be used as an index for assessment of freezing tolerance

    Keywords: Photochemical efficiency, Photosystem, Quantum yield, Survival
  • Roozbeh Farhoudi *, Mohsen Hamze Pages 151-165
    Introduction

    The mungbean (Vigna radiate) alternatively known as green gram belongs to legume family. Mungbean is mainly cultivated today in India, China, Iran and USA generally. Weed infestation in mungbean crop is one of the main causes of low yield per hectare against the potential yield in the world. Weeds decreased mungbean yield up to 70% compared to weed control condition. Chemical weed control is the easiest and most successful alternative method in crop yields such as mungbean. Herbicides have increasingly become a key component of weed management programs, one being the reason accounts for increased crop yields in the world. Tank mixing is scientific methods for use of two or more herbicide in the field. The correct tank mix of two or more herbicides may save time and labor and may reduce equipment and application costs. In addition, such a mixture might also control a range of pests or enhance the control of one or a few weeds. The instant studies were undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of different herbicides alone and in mixture on dynamics of weeds in Mungbean to find out the suitable tank mixture of herbicides for the control of weeds in Mungbean.

    Materials & Methods

    Field experiment was conducted at college of agronomy, Shoushtar branch, Islamic Azad University, 2013-2014 to investigate the efficacy of some herbicide mixtures on weeds control and mung bean seed yield. The field experiment was carried out under completely randomized design with 10 treatments and 3 replications. Experimental treatments including Haloxyfop-R-methyl, Bentazone and Oxyflurophone (at recommended dose rates) mixing of Bentazone + Haloxyfop-R-methyl, bentazone + oxyflurophone, Haloxyfop R-methyl + Oxyflurophone (decrease dose to 80% and 50% of recommended dose rates). Check treatment was without any control of weeds. Experiment data were recorded on weed density, weed dry eight, Mungbean grain yield, biololgic yield, pod per plant, 100 grain weight, grain per pod and plant height.

    Results & Discussion

    The general weeds were included Clome viscose, Echinocloa colonus and cyperusrotondus. In this study, bentazone and bentazone+ oxyflurophone (decrease dose to 80%) decreased Cyperus rotundus density to 1.3 and 2.3 plant per m-2. The lowest Echinochloa crus-galli l.density obtained in Haloxyfop-R-methyl, Bentazon + Haloxyfop-R-methyl (decrease dose to 80% and 50%) respectively 0, 1.3 and 2 plant per m-2. All herbicide treatment control Clome viscose compared control except Haloxyfop-R-methyl (0.8 l ha-1). Maximum mungbean seed yield (2733 kg ha-1) obtained in application of combination Bentazone+Haloxtphobe_R- methyl (decrease dose to 50%) but the lowest Mungbean yield showed in Oxyfluorfen (2 l ha-1). Previous studies showed that there was phytotoxicity of herbicides on mungbean cultivars. The highest phytotoxicity effects of herbicides on mungbean after 30 days showed in Oxyfluorfen were applied at recommended doses (heavy damage scale). This signifies the necessity of the tank mix application of herbicide for better weed control and improve mungbean yield. Several researchers have reported better weed. Applying herbicides at lower doses by tank mixing methods has a fit in specific situations as they might allow increased profits to be realized by growers, reduce potential injury to current and succeeding susceptible crops, and minimize risk to the environment and results of this study showed Bentazone+ Haloxtphobe_R- methyl (decrease dose to 50%) that treatment had maximum mungbean seed yield compared other treatments.

    Conclusion

    Studies have demonstrated that low doses of herbicides by tank mixed herbicides could result in faster evolution of herbicide resistance. So reducing herbicide doses by tank mixing method is better combined with weed integrated management. Application doses of these post-emergence herbicides could be substantially reduced to below registered doses without sacrificing their efficacy on weeds. Results indicated that Haloxyfop-R-methyl was most effective on controlling grass weeds and Bentazone herbicides controlled broadleaf weeds efficiently. No one of these herbicides could not control of weeds effectively alone but Mixing of Haloxyfop-R-methyl + Bentazone at level 80% and 50% could reduce dry weight of total weeds (26.6 and 10.4 g m-1) and were successful in weed control. Reduction amounts depended on weed composition and herbicide due to different effectiveness of these herbicides on broadleaved and grass weeds. Results concluded that integrated application of Bebtazon + Haloxyfop-R- methyl (50% recommended dose rate) was the best treatment for weeds management in mungbean fields in Khuzestan condition.

    Keywords: Bebtazone, Clome viscose, Cyperus rotundus, Echinochloa colona, Haloxyfop-R-methyl
  • Maryam Hatamabadi Farahani *, Zahra Tanha Maafi Pages 166-177
    Introduction

    Regarding the importance of bean production in supplying of plant based protein for human being societies and its area under cultivation in Iran, identification and management of pests and diseases associated to this crop are important. Plant parasitic nematodes are one of the biotic agents that adversely affect the production of bean crops. In order to manage these pathogens, their identification and distribution is necessary. Plant parasitic nematodes damaging bean are widely reported through the world. In Florida, Belonolaimus longicaudatus ,Paratrichodorus christei, Dolichodorus heterocephalus and Hoplolaimus spp. are reported from bean cultivated field while causing severe damage (Rhoades, 1964, 1974). In Michigan Pratylenchus penetrans was the most common root lesion nematode. In fact Pratylenchus spp. have wide host ranges and are pathogenic to many important crops viz Phaseolus vulgaris. There are a few reports across Iran regarding the plant parasitic nematodes of bean. In a study of plant parasitic nematodes of pulse crops in southern Balochistan, Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne javanica were reported from bean fields. Five species Aphelenchoides cyrtus, Ditylenchus medicaginis, Merlinius brevidens, D. parvus and Paratylenchus coronatus with 37.6, 30.8, 24.6, 20.5 and 19.1 percent frequency, respectively, were the most common nematode species in the legume fields of Lorestan province. Although Markazi province is one of the poles of bean-growing in Iran but there is a few information about plant parasitic nematodes on bean. The aim of this study was to identify the plant parasitic nematodes associated with bean, determination their population density and geographical distribution.

    Materials & Methods

    In order to determine the plant parasitic nematodes 174 root and soil samples were collected from bean fields in Khomein, Shazand and Arak cities during 2012-2013. The samples were analyzed and the population density of the extracted nematodes was counted at genus level using counting slide. Then the obtained nematodes were fixed and transferred to hydrated glycerol, the nematodes were mounted on microscopic slides and identified at species level, based on morphometrical and morphological characters. Cyst nematodes were isolated using Fenwick can technique. After analyzing the samples, infested areas were identified and frequency based on the number of species compared to the total sample were determined.

    Results & Discussion

    In this study, 22 species belonging to 18 genera of suborder Tylenchina, infraorder Tylenchomorpha were identified. Ditylenchus destructor, Ditylenchus sp., Aphelenchoides sp. and family of Pratylenchidae including P. neglectus, Zygotylenchus guevarai and Pratylenchoides ritteri from family Merliniidae with 100, 58 and 95 percent frequency respectively, were the most common nematode species in the bean fields of Markazi province. Subfamily of Merliniinae the genera of Merlinius, Scutylenchus, Tylenchorynchus and Amplimerlinius with 56 percent frequency, were found in Khomein and Shazand bean fields. The family of Hoplolaimidae was detected in Khomein and Shazand bean fields with 39 percent frequency. Among the cyst forming nematodes in addition to Heterodera filipjevi which was found in bean fields rotated by wheat, H. goettingianawas found in a bean field in Ghasemabad, Arak, this species in known as pea cyst nematode. H. goettingiana had already been reported from two areas in Dorud region (Lorestan province). This species was found in some wheat fields that bean was one of the crops in rotation. According to the occurrence of this species in bean field in Markazi province which borders Lorestan Province, it seems that it is distributed in pea and bean fields in two provinces. Some nematodes identified in this study are important as plant parasiting and damaging for bean. P. neglectus with 93, 42 and 22 percent frequency respectively detected in the bean fields of Khomein, Arak and Shazand. Root lesion nematodes were reported as the most common nematodes on bean and other legumes in Italy, North africa and Middle East. Elliott & Bird (1985) reported damage of root lesion nematodes in bean fields among 10 to 80 percent.Therefore, it is necessary to research on the importance and evaluation the damage caused by this species. Moreover due to the abundance of Ditylenchus in bean fields of Markazi province, it needs intensive research as far as crop loss aspects are concerned.

    Conclusion

    In the present study, among identified nematodes, family of Pratylenchidae was the most important plant parasitic nematode with 58 percent frequency. Also genus of Ditylenchus spp. detected in all of bean fields of Markazi province.

    Keywords: Bean, Distribution, Markazi province, Nematode
  • Hadi Khavari *, Ghodratolah Shakarami Pages 178-190
    Introduction

    Nowadays, in conventional farming systems, due to the limited amount of cultivated land and the need for most of communities to increase the production of agricultural products, unbalanced fertilizers, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, have been consumed. The study of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P2O5) and potassium (K2O) fertilizers use in 2014 indicates that the average total consumption of these fertilizers worldwide is 85.5, 2.3 and 20.4 (kg. ha-1), an increase of 31.7, 28.1 and 12% respectively compared to 2000. On the other hand, increasing the health and security of food products produced in agricultural systems is essential for maintaining the dynamism of ecosystem resources based on ecological principles. Unbalanced consumption and excessive demand for chemical inputs (fertilizers and pesticides) have caused instability in farmland systems and the irreparable economic and environmental consequences of their consumption in agriculture all over the world. Sustainable agriculture relies on the reduction or elimination of chemical inputs for agricultural production, with the aim of achieving long-term sustainable production and adaptation to the environment. The main objective of sustainable agriculture is to increase the efficiency of the internal cycle of soil nutrients and the use of organic and organic fertilizers as an alternative to chemical fertilizers in order to improve the stability of grain yield and quality, while maintaining the proper utilization of soil and water resources in agricultural ecosystems. Researchers have shown that more attention to soil management and the beneficial potential of microorganisms from plant to soil can enhance biodiversity, health and, consequently, the dynamics of soil elements. So, in order to achieve a sustainable agricultural system, it is necessary to use inputs that improve plant ecological aspects in addition to meeting plant needs and reduce the negative effects of chemical inputs.

    Materials & Methods

    This experiment was conducted as factorial layout based on a randomized complete block design with four replications during growing season of 2016 at the experimental field of Beiranshahr city of Khorramabad in Lorestan Province, Iran (48° 31' E, 33° 40' N and 1653m above the sea level). Before conducting the experiment to determine the physical and chemical properties of soil samples were collected from 0-30 and 30-60 cm depth of soil. During this experiment effects of three factors were studied: 1. Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal M (Glomus etunicatum, G. Intraradices, G. mossea) in tow levels (M1= inoculation, M2= no inoculation), 2. Inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum (strain 15) A, in tow levels (A1= inoculation, A2= no inoculation) and 3. Different Cultivars of Red Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in three levels (V1: Beiranshahr landrace, V2: Akhtar and V3: Goli varieties). The seeds were inoculated with mentioned biological compounds before culturing. Traits such as: number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant, 100 seed weight, seed yield, biological yield and harvest index were measured.

    Results & Discussion

    The results showed that the effect of Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza, number of pods per plant, 100 seed weight, harvest index in the red bean cultivars were significantly increased, and as well as the effect of the Mycorrhiza and cultivars, the number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight, biological yield and harvest index Bean cultivars were significantly increased. Azotobacter and Mycorrhizal inoculation, 12.4 and 24.5 percent, respectively Bean plant yield was increased compared to control treatment. The highest grain yield in Goli varieties were compared to the 45.2 and 51.1 percent, Akhtar varieties and Beiranshhr landrace, respectively.

    Conclusions

    Obtained results of this experiment showed that the yield and yield components of Red Bean cultivars were influenced by applied treatments. It seems that the use of biological fertilizers (Mycorrhizal and Azotobacter) through better root and shoot growth, the balance between vegetative and reproductive development and improvement of bean pods per plant, seeds per pod, number of seeds per plant and 100 seed weight, could bean cultivars to significantly increase of economic performance. In this experiment, avoiding the use of chemical fertilizers, especially nitrogen and phosphorus was reduced traits significantly. That biological fertilizers cooperative could this decrease was caused by created nutritional, compensation. In general, the use of these microorganism’s favorable conditions for improving the yield and yield components of Bean plant provides. Generally, the application of these microorganisms provided the best conditions for improving the yield and yield components of bean plants, which, in view of the objectives of sustainable production of this plant, as well as to reduce the use of fertilizers in stable indigenous agricultural systems, could be used to be placed.

    Keywords: Biological fertilizers, Cooperative, Soil fertility, Sustainable production
  • Houshang Ghamarnia *, Azadeh Kholdei Rezaei, Mokhtar Ghobadei Pages 191-203
    Introduction

    Shallow groundwater is a resource which can provides and meets high values of plant’s water requirement. Shallow groundwater use by plant depends on different factors as: soil hydraulic conductivity, plant root features and characteristics, salinity tolerance level, a proper drainage system, irrigation system and management. In case of shallow groundwater use by plant, total irrigation number and water requirement will be reduced. Therefore, shallow groundwater, is a potential, efficient and free water resource in agriculture which sometimes defined as subsurface irrigation. The present study was conducted with the aim to examine the effects of shallow water table of 60, 80 and 110 cm depth on the water requirement, water use efficiency and different yield components of two lentil varieties namely that was conducted into two-factor factorial and based on completely randomized design with three replications. This research was carried out at Kermanshah with semi-arid climate by using lysimeters during two growing season 2013 and 2014.

    Materials & Methods

    The research was performed at the Irrigation and Water Resources Engineering Research Lysimetric Station, located at 47°9′ E and 34°21′ N, with an elevation of 1319 m (asl), as a part of the Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources of Razi University in Kermanshah, Iran. In this study 18 Polyetelen lysimeters with diameter of 280 mm were used. The bottom of lysimeters were blocked to prevent of any leaching. Groundwater levels in the lysimeters were determined and fixed by Marriott siphon that was installed beside of each lysimeter in different groundwater depths of 60, 80 and 110 cm. The soil texture in the lysimeters was Silty clay. The cultivation in the first and second year of the research was conducted in 13 and 16 March, years 2013 and 2014 respectively. To obtain the amount of water requirement of plants, evaporation data of pan class A was received daily from the meteorology station which was located at distance of one hundred meters from research station. In this research, water requirement was determined by considering three stages as: reference evapotranspiration (ETo), the crop coefficient (KC) and finally crop evapotranspiration. Analysis of variance and comparison of means were done for different treatment by MSTATC software

    Results & Discussion

    According to the results in both years of study, maximum and minimum consumption of groundwater belong to depths of 60 and 110 cm, respectively. The ground water contribution for depths of 60, 80 and 110 cm was obtained as 53.76%، 36.50%، 15.23%, respectively. The results showed that maximum groundwater use efficiency, based on seed yield, for ILL6037 and Kimia cultivars was obtained in depths of 110, and the minimum groundwater use efficiency, for ILL6037 cultivar was obtained in depths 60 and 80 cm during both years of study, respectively. Also the maximum and minimum seed yield in both years of study was obtained for Kimia cultivar, in water table depths 60 and 110 cm respectively. Moreover, the maximum and minimum protein values was obtained, for Kimia cultivar in depth of 110 cm and ILL6037 cultivar in depth of 60 cm respectively.

    Conclusion

    It can be concluded that by increasing the depth of water table the values of groundwater contribution to crop water requirement was reduced. It may reason of increasing the distance between plant roots and water table. As a result of this phenomenon, plant root access to water by the use of capillary rise to meet the water requirement reduced and therefore, the groundwater contribution for providing plant water requirement was reduced. The results of this research showed that legume crops such as Lentil can use groundwater properly.

    Keywords: Lysimeter, Protein, Shallow water table, Water use efficiency, Yield
  • Morteza Goldani *, Saeed Sanei, Mehdi Parsa Pages 204-219
    Introduction

    Human as the greatest utilization of land resources without posterity note with the aim being to further develop the standard of living, and ultimately increase the health of the population is taken. So that in 2025 the world population will reach over 8.3 billion people. Since the 1950s, the process was accelerated population growth, Agriculture provides food and supplies to people. The use of chemical fertilizers also as an agent to increase the amount of spread. Accordingly, applying the methods of sustainable agriculture and ecological agriculture to lead the world is required (Kochaki et al., 2005). Many studies suggest that the issue of excessive use of chemical fertilizers, crop yield has been faced with a significant drop (Khaje Hosseini & Koocheki, 2008). The reason for this decline is attributable to the lack of balance acidity of the soil; reduce soil biological activity, physico-chemical properties of soil loss (Kaushik & Garg, 2003; Adediran et al., 2004). Loss of biodiversity and groundwater and surface water (Brar et al., 2008) pollution and climate change cited. The use of biofertilizers in addition to economic benefits reduces environmental pollution, reduce production costs and improve product quality implications (Aseri et al., 2008). In addition legume plants are an important source of plant protein, which is important for low-income community. The positive effects of bio-fertilizers, especially in the root zone is the maintenance of water and food. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of biological and chemical fertilizers on root and shoot characteristics pinto bean cultivars is COS16 and 21676.

    Materials & Methods

    In order to evaluate the effect of biofertilizers on root characteristics of two varieties of beans, an experiment was conducted on factorial arrangement base on completely randomized design with three replications as in research greenhouses College of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2014. In this test we used pots was filled 1:1:1 relatively ratio with leaf compost, soil and sand. The first factor was two varities pinto bean (COS16 and 21676) and the second factor was six treatments of bio-fertilizers include 1) Nitroxin® (containing bacteria Azotobacter sp. And Azospirillum sp), 2) Bio - Phosphorus ® (PSB) (containing phosphate solubilizing bacteria Bacillus sp., And Pseudomonas sp.), 3) bacteria coexist beans (Rhizobium), total organic fertilizers symbiotic beans), 4) compound fertilizers Nitroxin and Bio-Phosphorus, 5) 60 kg urea per hectare, and 6) control. Seeds was obtained from the National Research Center Beans Khomeini. Inoculating seeds with biofertilizers base on standard method (Kennedy et al., 2004) away from direct light and follow the manufacturer's recommendations, along with the planting was done. By watering each pot was half a liter bottles. At the end was measure all morphological roots and shoot traits.

    Results & Discussion

    Resulted of analysis variation showed that the highest and lowest root dry weight was achieved in nitroxin and symbiotic bacteria treatement respectively. The 21676 vareity root dry weight was more than the COS16 vareity. Nitroxin bio-fertilizer had the greatest impact on root length and COS16 variety was longer than the 20676 variety. COS16 variety inoculated with bio-phosphorus fertilizer had the highest total dry weight. The COS16 variety was the lowest dry weight in control. The highest and lowest pods number recorderd in Nitroxin treatemnt and control, respectively. The highest umber of seeds per pod was in the treatment nitroxin and COS16, and the lowest in control and the 21676.

    Conclusion

    It seems that bacteria Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp. which is the main contents are included nitroxin bio-fertilizer, high in nitrogen fixation ability and the availability of nutrients needed by plants such as phosphorus, potassium, iron-siderophore production and Mhlvlsazy, the synthesis of phytohormones such as auxin, cytokinin, gibberellin the synthesis of enzymes that affect plant growth and development, especially in the 21676 positive effects on the traits of their own.

    Keywords: Beans, Biofertilizers, Bio-phosphorus, Low-input agriculture, Nitroxin, Stability