فهرست مطالب

Nuts - Volume:10 Issue:1, 2019
  • Volume:10 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Alireza Ghanbari *, Mohammad Faraji, Mahdi Behnamian, Asgar Estaji, Adel Pyrayesh, Somayeh Fahim Pages 1-8
    Genetic resources are the most valuable national treasure of countries, being vital to identify, conserve and use them. The Persian Walnut (Juglans regiaL.), a diploid species native to the mountainous regions of Central Asia, is the major walnut species cultivated for nut production and one of the most widespread tree nut species in the world. This research was conducted in Meshkinshahr in Ardabil Province. In this study, to determine the level of genetic diversity, a total of 31 walnut genotypes were analyzed using Inter Simple Sequence Repeats(ISSR) markers. Genotypes were evaluated using 10 ISSR markers and a total of 26 polymorphic alleles were identified.The average of the observed alleles was equal to 7 in each locus. The lowest and highest RP valueswere found ISSR5and ISSR9, respectivly.Cluster analysis based on Jacard similarity coefficient matrix using WARD method classified the genotypes into three main groups.The highest genetic distance was found between genotypes AK4 and RM2, and the lowest was among genotypes MZ4 and ES1.Both clustering and PCA divide genotypes with similar geographic origins.
    Keywords: Genetic similarity, Cluster Analysis, Walnut genotypes
  • Abdolbaset Ranjbar, Ali Imani *, Saeid Piri, Vahid Abdoosi Pages 9-24
    In this study, the response of selected almond cultivars on different rootstocks under drought stress base on Morpho-physiological traits using a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was investigated. The experimental was carried out at the Temperate Fruit Research Center of Horticultural Sciences Research Institute (HSRI) in 2016. The factors included cultivars in five levels (Supernova, Texas, Marcona, Shokoufeh and K13-40), rootstocks in three levels: GF-677, GN-22) (Peach × almond hybrids) and seedlings of bitter almond No.32 (Somewhat resistant to drought stress) and drought stress in four levels: irrigation intervals of 3 (control), 5, 10 and 15 days. The factors such as leaf abscission, leaf area (LA), cell membrane stability index (MSI), chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) and chlorophyll content index (CCI), minimal fluorescence (F0), maximal fluorescence (Fm), variable fluorescence (Fv) and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) were measured. The results showed that the interaction between the cultivar and the rootstock for F0 and for CCI was significant at 1% level. Interactions of cultivar and drought stress were significant for Fm and Fv at the 5% level and for CCI, F0, Fv/Fm at the 1% level. Interactions of rootstock × drought were significant for CCI, F0, Fv/Fm at the 1% level. Drought decreased Fv with increasing F0 and decreasing Fm, in the evaluated cultivars and reduced the Fv/Fm in sensitive cultivars on seedling rootstock and GN-22 from 0.82 to 0.66 but in resistance cultivar Shokoufeh on GF-677 was from 0.818 to 0.789. As a general result, all of the cultivars on the GF-677 rootstock showed greater resistance to drought stress, and Shokoufeh and Marcona cultivars, especially on the GF-677 rootstock, tolerated drought stress better, and these combinations of rootstock - scion were superior to present experiment.
    Keywords: Almond, Chlorophyll content index, Chlorophyll fluorescence, Rootstock, drought stress
  • Abolfazl Ranjbar Pages 25-34
    Water deficiency is one of the most important environmental stresses that limit plant growth and crop production. Measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters is considered as an important indicator to evaluate the photosynthetic apparatus. In the present study, the effects of regulated water deficit, investigated in four water-regimes in pistachio orchard with 12-year-old trees of Akbari cultivar (Pistacia vera cv. Akbari). The water regime treatments included 20, 15.6, 10.4, and 6 % of field capacity (FC) equivalent and irrigation intervals of 4, 12, 18 and 24 days. Chlorophyll fluorescence indices of photosystem 2 (PSII), photosynthetic pigments, and leaf water status parameters were studied. Drought stress inhibited PSII activity and induced alterations in thylakoid proteins. The results showed significant effects on effective quantum yield of PSII (ΦPII), maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), electron transport rate (ETR), quantum yield baseline (F0/Fm), non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and photoinhibition (PIHN) rate. Such changes may be due to either degradation of photosynthesis apparatus function or photoinhibition process. From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that exposure of pistachio trees (P. vera cv. Akbari) to an interval of 18-days (T18) may not significantly affected the parameters measured. This means that with an increase in irrigation intervals to 16-days, compared to the traditional interval (varies from 8 to 10-days), soil may be able to provide enough moisture for the pistachio trees to complete metabolic activities.
    Keywords: Chlorophyll, Drought, Photosynthesis, Photoinhibition, Photosystem
  • Maryam Zeinadini, Najmeh Sahebzadeh *, Sultan Ravan, Mehdi Basirat Pages 35-45
    The Adonis ladybird, Hippodamia variegataGoeze (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is known as an important predator of the Common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Despite using the selective pesticides to manage the pests in the pistachio orchards, these chemicals have influenced non-target organisms like predators and parasitoids. In the present study, the effects of spirotetramat and imidacloprid (500 and 400 ml/1000 L, respectively) on some biological parameters of H. variegata fed on the common pistachio psyllawere investigated under laboratory conditions (27.5 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% RH and 16:8 h L: D photoperiod). To this end, the eggs of ladybird beetles were exposed to pesticides via a Dipping method. In addition, the impact of pesticides on immature and adult stages was studied. The daily number of eggs laid by a female ladybird was also recorded in laboratory conditions. The results showed that spirotetramat and imidacloprid had increased the duration of immature developmental stages (egg, larva, and pupae) and the number of daily laid eggs of female ladybirds compared to those by control (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, p <0.05). The highest and the lowest of net reproductive rates were also observed in control and imidacloprid treatments, respectively. Considering the results, the spirotetramat and imidacloprid had caused adverse effects on the demographic parameters of H. variegata and had also influenced the efficiency of this predator. Therefore, spirotetramat and imidacloprid were suggested to be used in IPM of Agonoscena pistaciae with caution.
    Keywords: Demography, Hippodamia variegate, Life table, Pesticide, Pistachio
  • Amir Yazdanpanah, Gadir Nouri, Ganbalani *, Jabraeil Razmjou, Mehdi Basirat, Seyed Ali, Asghar Fathi Pages 47-55
    The pistachio green stink-bug, Brachynema germari Kolenati (Hem.: Pentatomidae), is an important pest of pistachio in Iran. In this research, the effects of four commercial pistachio cultivars that are commonly grown in Iran including Kaleghochi, Ahmadaghaii, Ohadi and Akbari were evaluated on the biology (developmental time, mortality rate, longevity) and demographic parameters of B. germari under the laboratory conditions at 27.5±1°C, 65±5% RH and 16: 8 (L: D) h, during 2016-2017. The longest and the shortest immature development times were observed on Akbari (38.11 days) and Kaleghochi (25.54 days) cultivars, respectively.  The highest and the lowest mortality rates of immature stages were on Akbari and Kaleghochi cultivars, respectively. The gross (GRR) and net reproductive rates (R0) were significantly lower on Akbari compared to other cultivars. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and the finite rate of increase (λ) were significantly different among the studied cultivars. The calculated rm values were 0.04, 0.06, 0.07 and 0.08 (day-1) on Akbari, Ohadi, Ahmadaghaii and Kaleghochi cultivars, respectively. Also the lowest value of λ was observed on Akbari cultivar that was significantly different from the other three cultivars. Moreover, the longest mean generation time (T) was also observed on Akbari cultivar. The reproductive parameters were also significantly different on the studied cultivars and the lowest and the highest values of all parameters were observed on Akbari and Kaleghochi cultivars, respectively. According to these results, it was concluded that among the studied cultivars, Akbari was the less suitable cultivar for pistachio green stink-bug compared to others and it can be used in IPM of this pest.
    Keywords: Brachynema germari, Pistachio cultivars, Suitability
  • Reza Sedaghat Pages 57-70
    Investigation of factors affecting total and partial productivity with applying these factors for reforming producers' economical/ technical management may provide a proper base for enhancing productivity and profitability as well, and then leading a more sustainable situation for Pistachio orchards in the future. In this paper with respect to scattering type of statistical population, a multi stage cluster random sampling method applied for data collection. The 200 producers selected based on area planted in each region and interviewed personally, with completing a research questionnaire, during 2012-2015. Turnquist- till index, multi-variable regression and analysis of variances applied to investigate orchards productivity and factors affected. Results indicated that average productivity, maximum productivity and productivity growth rate had declined during study period. Results also indicated that producers’ education level and chemical fertilizers amount had positive effect on total productivity, but number of garden fractions, number of family members, ratio of the number of male to female tress and amount of organic manures had negative effect on total productivity. Results also revealed that partial productivity of Labour force, fluid fertilizers, organic manures and water resources had positive effects on production per hectare. Finally, to enhance productivity and profitability of farming system and reach to a more sustainable one, it is suggested to provide necessary circumstances for entrance of agricultural graduated people in pistachio production sector, to program an integrate pistachio farms system and to put more effective supervision/monitoring on agricultural inputs and credits market.
    Keywords: Farming system, Kerman province, Pistachio, Productivity, Profitability, Sustainability
  • Vida Meshgi, Hossein Ali Asadi, Gharneh * Pages 71-78
    The pine nuts, as the most expensive ones, are a source of healthy oil. Accordingly, the hypothesis was genetic differences of pine species (Pinus spp.) affect their nut oil content and fatty acid phytovariability. A completely randomized design experiment with three replicates was done in Isfahan Flower Garden, Iran, using four pine species of chir pine (Pinus longifolia Roxb.), stone pine (P. pinea L.), eldar pine (P. eldarica Medv.) and mugo pine (P. mugo pumilio XENARI). The mugo pine and eldar pine species contained the highest (44.10%) and the lowest (37.40%) oil percentage, respectively. The eldar pine (12.45%) and the chir pine (12.23%) species contained the highest and the stone pine species (11.18%) contained the least rate of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Palmitic (6.33%) and oleic (36.29%) acids were the highest in the stone pine specie, and stearic acid (3.86%) was the highest in the chir pine specie. For human health, high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and little amount of saturated fatty acids are recommended. In conclusion, the oil content and fatty acid composition in studied pine species were highly variable, and are considered as a potential source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. According to our results, the mugo pine species due to possess of the highest amount of oil percent and linoleic acid and the lowest amount of palmitic and stearic acids can be introduced as an elite pine specie.
    Keywords: Behenic acid, Linoleic acid, Oleic acid, Palmitic acid, Saturated fatty acids, Stearic acid, Unsaturated fatty acids
  • Toktam Mohammadi Moghaddamm, Seyed Mohammad Ali Razavi * Pages 79-93
    Roasting is the most common way for pistachio nuts processing, and the purpose of that was to increase the products total acceptability. Purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature (90, 120 and 150°C), time (20, 35 and 50 min), and roasting air velocity (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m/s) on geometrical attributes of pistachio nuts and kernels including principle dimensions, shape factor, sphericity, surface area, shell splitting, and true volume. An experimental method and image processing were used in order to measure the geometrical properties. The Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) method was used for predicting the correlation between experimental and image properties. The results showed that the time, temperature, and roasting air velocity didn’t have significant effect on principle dimensions, shape factor, sphericity, surface area, shell splitting, and true volume. In all cases, the shape factor of pistachio nuts and kernels were more than 1.25. So, pistachio samples had ellipsoid shape. Pistachio kernels had more similarity to ellipsoid shape in comparison with pistachio nuts. The results revealed that ANN could predict the length, width, height, shape factor, sphericity, shell splitting, surface area, and true volume of roasted pistachio nuts and kernels.
    Keywords: ANN, Dimensions, Image processing, Roasting, Pistachio, Shape factor, Sphericity, Surface area