فهرست مطالب

Virology - Volume:12 Issue: 1, 2018
  • Volume:12 Issue: 1, 2018
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/02/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Reza Pourrahim*, Shirin Farzadfar Pages 1-5
    Background and Aims

    Although little cherry disease (LChD) is considered as one of the main virus diseases of cherry in several countries, however, to date, there is no data on the incidence of LChV-1 in Iran, the main region of commercial sweet cherry production in West Asia.

    Materials and Methods

    Sweet cherry orchards in north-west Iran including West Azarbaijan, East Azarbaijan Tehran and Qazvin provinces, were surveyed for Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1) infection. RT-PCR tests of symptomatic leaf samples, using specific primers for LChV-1 coat protein gene (CP). Using CP sequences the phylogenetic tree was constructed and molecular analysis and population differentiation was indicated by different approaches.

    Results

    Using specific primers a DNA fragment of the expected size about 500 bp in five out of 43 samples, were amplified. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the LChV-1 isolates clustered into five groups, which three Iranian isolates fell into GII without a host or geography-based correlation. High nucleotide diversity was determined between the different phylogenetic groups, whereas the within-group diversity of LChV-1 CP gene was evens less. The low nucleotide diversity and high haplotype diversity indicated that the LChV-1 population experienced a bottleneck effect and the population underwent growth after a period of low efficient population size. In addition, the dNS/dS ratios indicate that the GIII is probably under weak positive selection and the GI and GII under strong negative selection.

    Conclusions

    This study showed for the first time the incidence of LChV-1 in sweet cherry orchards in Iran, which is putatively associated with various plant disorders.

    Keywords: Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1), molecular detection, Iran
  • Alireza Mohebbi*, Mohammad Yasaghi, Zoleikha Mamizadeh, Ali Salehnia, Nazanin Lorestani, Alijan Tabarraei Pages 6-19
    Background and Aims

    The impact of Borna Disease virus (BDV) in Asian psychiatric patients remains to be clear. Epidemiological studies would help to understand the rate of BDV incidence among different groups of patients with psychiatric disorders.

    Objectives

    A systematic review and meta-analysis on risk of BDV among Asian psychiatric patients.

    Materials and Methods

    Literature review was performed on the BDV prevalence in Asia. Data, including both subjects' characteristics and the epidemiology of the virus have been extracted and used for further meta-analysis on genomic and serological data. Odd ratio (OR) has been estimated by using comprehensive meta-analysis software V2. In this regard, I2 and Cochran’s Q-value have been evaluated for heterogeneity. Odds ratio (OR) has been investigated by the confidence interval (CI) of 95%. The Funnel plot and Egger’s and Begg’s statistics were used for evaluating the publication bias. P-value less than 0.05 considered as significant.

    Results

    Data revealed higher incidence of BDV RNA (5.902 95% CI, 3.97-8.775) in psychiatric patients. Odd ratio was also higher in seropositive patients in comparison with control group (2.334 95% CI, 1.829-2.952). It was also found that ELISA and western-blot methods might over-estimate BDV existence in patients and cause heterogeneity.

    Conclusions

    High prevalence of BDV in psychiatric patients was found in Asia. Furthermore, the results obtained by ELISA and western blot are not reliable enough, which might be resulted from cross-reactive or closely related antibodies in human body fluids.

    Keywords: Borna Disease Virus, Systematic review, meta-analysis, Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, Psychiatric Disorders, Schizophrenia, Bipolar disorder
  • Leila Aghaiyan, Hossein Hosseini, Zahra Ziafatikafi, Hamideh Najafi, Mohammad Hossein Fallah Mehrabadi, Fatemehsadat Mousavi, Niusha Hajizamani, Arash Ghalyanchilangeroudi* Pages 20-24
    Background and Aims

    Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) associated with FAdV-I ( fowl adenovirus) occurs worldwide in the poultry industry. It is an acute disease mainly affecting young chickens between 3 and 7 weeks of age. The objective of this study was to detect and establish the molecular sequences of the hexon gene from the avian adenovirus strains of group I (FAdV-I) from birds to characterize the serotype of the virus affecting commercial flocks in Iran.

    Materials and Methods

    Samples were obtained from 2-week old broiler flocks of Ross from Golestan province of Iran on March 2018. DNA was extracted by Sina Pure DNA extraction kit. The 590 bp region of the hexon gene was amplified using a pair of specific primers. The PCR products were sequenced in the forward and reversed direction.

    Results

    The nucleotide sequences of the hexon gene showed the existence of FAdV-8b from species E among broilers of Golestan province.

    Conclusions

    This is the first report of FADV in broiler farms in Golestan province, Iran. The FAdV sequences obtained in this work shared 100% homology to those previously found in Iran(2013), Italy, Hungary, China, and Peru. Molecular characterization of viruses circulating in different regions of the country is essentially needed to develop effective vaccines

    Keywords: Inclusion Body Hepatitis, Adenovirus, Iran, Detection
  • Zahra Shayesteh, Shaghayegh Yazdani, Hossein Vazeh, Mohammad Farahmabd, Alireza Shokouhifar, Leila Beikzadeh* Pages 25-31
    Background and Aims

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of the most common viral causes of congenital infection in different areas, and a leading cause of hearing impairment and a contributor to neurodevelopmental disablement in children. Reactivations and reinfections may occur conventionally in the herpes virus family group with the capacity to establish perennial latency in the host.

    Materials and Methods

    Through a cross-sectional study design, we studied fertile women in a public primary health care center in Karaj city in 1396. In this study, 360 volunteers from women of childbearing age were selected randomly. Then, 5 ml of blood was taken and after serum separation through centrifugation, the serums were frozen at -20°C for further ELISA test. The serums  were  examined for anti-CMV IgG and IgM antibodies.

    Results

    The results showed that 77% of the subjects (280 out of 360) had CMV infection and none of the participants had CMV-IgM antibodies. There was no significant difference between the educational levels, the age group of 30 and under 30 years of age and the infection rate with CMV.

    Conclusions

    The results of the present study on the high prevalence of positive CMV IgG antibodies were compatible with the results of other studies performed in Iran and elsewhere in the world indicating the previous confrontation of the individuals with cytomegalovirus and the widespread dissemination of this infection in the community.

    Keywords: CMV, Cytomegalovirus, IgG antibodies, Childbearing age
  • Fariba Mohammadi Tahroodi, Nima Abdyazdani, Fatemeh Shakeri, Maryam Rahmani, Mahya Sadat Afrazian, Mojtaba Abbasi, Vahid Mogharabzadeh, Sadra Samavarchi Tehrani, Maryam Moradi, Haleh Barmaki* Pages 32-39
    Background and Aims

    One of the most important goals of blood transfusion organizations throughout the world is to provide healthy blood and prevent the transmission of various infectious diseases with blood. Viral hepatitis (HBV and HCV)ccc and HIV are the most important and dangerous threats to the blood transfusion system. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C, hepatitis B and AIDS in healthy blood donors in Ilam province, west of Iran.

    Materials and Methods

    In this retrospective cross-sectional study, the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV was evaluated in 145273 blood donors from 2007 to 2017 who referred to the blood transfusion center of Ilam province. Screening for HIV, HBV and HCV was done with ELISA.

    Results

    From 145,273 donors, 249 cases were HBV positive, 66 were HCV positive and 6 were HIV positive. Among the total number of people infected with these viruses, 202 were married and 119 were single. The prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV in men was significantly higher than in women (P <0.01). Meanwhile, the rate of disease was higher in individuals over the age of 40 compared to those aged 20 to 40 years old (P <0.01).

    Conclusions

    The results of this study revealed that blood-borne infections in blood donors in Ilam province have a lower prevalence regarding the results of other studies carried out in other regions of Iran as well as other countries. The exact screening of the blood of male donors over the age of 40 is essential. Therefore, the accurate selection of blood donors is recommended with a view to ensuring the safety of blood recipients, with the emphasis on the sensitivity and specificity of screening methods.

    Keywords: Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Blood Transfusion, Infectious Diseases with Blood
  • M Jabbarifakhar, MS Mousavi, Z Ziafati, H Rezaee, H Hosseini, MH Fallah, R Esmaeelzadeh Dizaji, A Ghalyanchilangeroudi* Pages 40-46

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a prototype member of avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1), which causes severe and contagious disease in the commercial poultry and wild birds. In this study, we report the results of phylogenetic analyses of recent NDVs isolated from Markazi province of Iran during a recent outbreak in the commercial broiler with respiratory signs and digestive system lesions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that isolate was clustered within class II NDV, in sub-genotype VII-g. This NDV isolates shared high homology with the prevalent genotype NDV strains that circulate in China and Taiwan (95.39%-84.89%).   Overall, our results confirmed the presence of genotype VII-g in Iran (The first report) and indicated that different genotypes of NDV could circulate simultaneously among poultry (VII-d & VII-i). The phylogenetic characterization of these isolates helps to characterize the evolution of NDV and may help with the development of vaccines specific to our regional necessities.

    Keywords: Newcastle disease, Iran, Phylogenetic analysis, Genotyping, Genotype VII-g
  • Vahid Zand, Mojtaba Meybodian, Mohammadhossein Baradaranfar, Sedighe Vaziribozorg, Fatemesadat Mirzade, Masoud Doosti, Mohammad Mandegari, Mojtaba Mirzade* Pages 47-51
    Background and Aims

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a common disorder diagnosed in otologic and audiologic practices. Its accompanying symptoms include tinnitus, dizziness, and permanent hearing loss affecting negatively the life quality of affected patients. Many viruses have been involved in the occurrence of SSNHL especially Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I and II. This study was attempted to explore the association between SSNHL and HSV infection using RT-PCR.
    In this case- control study, 56 patients with SSNHL occurring within a 72-hr period were selected as case group and 56 participants who had no recent history of this disease were assigned into control group. Applying real-time PCR, we tracked the genome of the HSV virus and measured its loading.
    Control group comprised of 31 (55.4%) male and 25 (46.6%) female and the case group included 26 (46.4%) male and 30 (53.6%) female. The genomic DNA of HSV was measured by Real-time PCR in both groups, and no viral genome was detected.
    The findings of the current investigation suggest no relation between HSV and SSNHL. Further research conducting on larger population is recommended to obtain more detailed results.

    Keywords: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss, Herpes simplex virus, PCR