فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:14 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/28
  • تعداد عناوین: 23
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  • Fahimeh FIROUZJAIE, KARDER, Mehdi MOHEBALI, Farid AZMOUDEH ARDALAN, Abbas RAHIMI, FOROUSHANI, Fatemeh MESGARIAN, Homa HAJJARAN, Hossein MORTAZAVI, Yadollah SHAKIBA, Sorour CHAREHDAR, Samira ELIKAEE, Zahra KAKOOEI, Zahra SHAFEGHAT, Behnaz AKHOUNDI* Pages 190-196
    Background
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is described as a major health problem in many countries of the world. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are characterized as one of immunologic indexes. One of the best methods to determine of Tregs percentage is flow cytometry. The aim of this study was determination of the role of Tregs profile among acute and chronic forms of human CL using flow cytometry analysis.

    Methods
    This study was conducted on 24 patients referred to Laboratory of Leishmaniasis, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran with acute and 14 patients with chronic phases of CL as well as 15 healthy individuals as control group in 2015-2016. After microscopic examination, 2 ml of peripheral blood samples were collected for determining percentage of CD4+ CD25+ CD127 low Tregs by using flow cytometry method.

    Results
    Using flow cytometry analysis, the average percentage of Tregs were calculated 5.73, 6.71 and 6.61 for acute, chronic and healthy individuals, respectively. With SPSS software and Scheffe multiple comparison tests, the differences within in these groups are statistically significant (P=0.04) and between the acute and chronic group, there was marginally significant with approximately 91% of confidence level (P=0.088).

    Conclusion
    Marginally differences were found significantly among averages of Regulatory T cells, acute and chronic phases of CL. Further comprehensive studies can be needed to verify the role of Tregs in both phases of CL cases.
    Keywords: Cutaneous leishmania-sis, Regulatory T cells, Flow cytometry
  • Seyed Ebrahim ESKANDARI, Alireza FIROOZ, Mansour NASSIRI, KASHANI, Mahmoud Reza JAAFARI, Amir JAVADI, Akram MIRAMIN MOHAMMADI, Ali KHAMESIPOUR* Pages 197-203
    Background
    We aimed to evaluate the safety of SinaAmpholeish in a double-blind, randomized, phase 1 clinical trial in healthy human volunteers.

    Methods
    The study was carried out in DermaLab of Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran in 2012. A topical Nano-liposomal formulation of 0.4% Amphotericin B was developed against Leishmania under trade name of SinaAmpholeish. In this randomized, double-blind, right-left, comparative, phase I clinical trial, in 2 steps; 7 and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited and applied SinaAmpholeish on the right and its vehicle on the left volar side of forearm, twice a day for one week or 3 times a day for two weeks. Seven biophysical skin parameters were measured in standard conditions before and 2 wk after application.

    Results
    There was no adverse effect when SinaAmpholeish and its vehicle were used twice a day for seven days. However, when were used 3 times a day for two weeks, both SinaAmpholeish and its vehicle induced severe local skin reactions in 2 volunteers leading to discontinuation of application. Mild and temporary local reactions were observed in about half of the application sides and there was no significant difference between SinaAmpholeish and its vehicle.

    Conclusion
    The new formulation is safe and worth to be tested in further phase 2 clinical trial and since there was no adverse effect with twice a day application it was decided to use SinaAmpholeish twice a day in phase 2 clinical trial.
    Keywords: Safety, Topical formulation, Nano-liposomal amphoter-icin B, Cutaneous leishmaniasis
  • Seyed Ahmad KARAMATI, Hamed MIRJALALI, Tahereh REZAEI RIABI, Abbas YADEGAR, Hamid ASADZADEH AGHDAEI, Ali HAGHIGHI, Seyyed Javad SEYYED TABAEI, Mohammad Reza ZALI, Maryam NIYYATI* Pages 204-213
    Background
    The present study aimed to assess the grouping of subtypes 1-3 and 6 of Blastocystis according to the size and generation time of the parasite among the symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects.
    Methods
    Blastocystis subtypes1-3 and 6 isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects and were cultivated in DMEM medium. In order to assess inter- and intra-subtype variation in size, all the isolates were measured using morphometric criteria. Generation time was calculated using approximately 1×104 Blastocystis, which were cultivated in DMEM, every 24h for 4 days.
    Results
    All subtypes had 5 to 185 μm diameter range. The smallest size was attributed to ST1, followed by ST6 and ST2. ST3 showed the most variable size and phenotypes compared with the other three subtypes. Furthermore, amoeboid forms and parasite clumping were only seen in ST3-S (symptomatic subjects). Generation time analysis showed that the number of ST1 isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects peaked higher than the other subtypes.
    Conclusion
    This is the first study discussing inter-intra-size, phenotype and generation time variations among 4 common subtypes of Blastocystis. Accordingly, ST3 was largest subtype and showed most diversities in both size and phenotype, while ST1 was smallest subtype with lowest intra-subtype variation.
    Keywords: Blastocystis, Subtypes, Phenotypic variation, Generation time
  • Mohammad Jamal SAHARKHIZ, Amir Mootabi ALAVI, Mohammad MOAZENI* Pages 214-222
    Background
    New scolicidal agents and novel therapeutic drugs are essential for better management of the zoonotic infection, hydatid disease. This study evaluated the effect of a nanoemulsion (NE) of Satureja hortensis essential oil (SHEO) on protoscoleces and germinal layer of hydatid cysts.

    Methods
    This study was conducted from July to October 2016 in Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were performed to identify the main components of SHEO. To determine the scolicidal power of the NE of SHEO, live protoscoleces of hydatid cysts were exposed to two concentrations (1 and, 2 mg/mL) of the NE and incubated at 37 °C for 10 and 20 min. To evaluate the anti-hydatid effect of the NE of SHEO, the collected hydatid cysts from the abdominal cavities of the experimentally infected mice were immersed in the NE (0.5 mg/ml) and incubated at 22 °C for 24 h.

    Results
    Carvacrol and γ-terpinene were the major components of the SHEO. NE of SHEO at the concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/mL showed 100% scolicidal power after 20 and 10 min respectively. Exposure of the hydatid cysts to the NE of SHEO resulted in crumpling of their germinal layer and detachment of this layer from the laminated layer.

    Conclusion
    NE of SHEO showed a strong scolicidal activity as well as a profound lethal effect on the germinal layer of hydatid cysts. Accordingly, this product may be used as a natural scolicidal agent in hydatid cyst surgery. Furthermore, it may be used as a therapeutic tool for treatment of hydatid disease.
    Keywords: Hydatid disease, Treatment, Scolicidal, Satureja hortensis, Nano emulsion
  • Cheng, Cheng ZHAI, Zhao, Jin SUN, Ming, Yuan LIU, Xiao, Lei LIU, Xue BAI, Xue, Lin WANG, Xiu, Ping WU, Jia, Xu CHEN * Pages 223-230
    Background
    To assay the Trichinella-specific IgM and IgG antibody responses during the early stage of infection, serum was collected from mice infected with the muscle larvae (ML) of T. spiralis (ISS534) at different dpi (days post infection) up to 60 days.

    Methods
    The levels of IgM and IgG antibodies in serum were measured by ES antigens from different stage of T. spiralis using the ELISA method in Shanghai, China in 2017.

    Results
    The anti-Trichinella IgM and IgG could be detected by ES antigens from the adult three days worm (Ad3) as early as 5 dpi and 8 dpi, respectively. ES antigens from the mixture of adult six days worm & new born larvae (Ad6+NBL) was similar to Ad3. When antibodies were detected by these two antigens, the levels of IgM peaked at 14 dpi and then declined from 15 dpi to 60 dpi; the IgG peaked at 20 dpi, and gradually declined, however, higher detection levels were maintained until 60 dpi.

    Conclusion
    Ad3 ES antigens showed more antigenicity than Ad6+NBL ES on titer detection of IgM and IgG antibodies, and the production of Ad3 ES is easier. In terms of early diagnosis, these two antigens are better than the ML ES antigens of T. spiralis, which antibodies could not be detected before 20dpi. Ad3 ES antigens might be good candidate for the early diagnosis of trichinellosis or the mixture of Ad3 and Ad6+NBL ES might be used.
    Keywords: Trichinella spiralis, ES antigen, IgG, IgM, ELISA
  • Robert PUSCHENDORF, Mohamed S. ALYOUSIF, Mohamed S. Al, KHALIFA, Samir A. ALHARBI, Zafer S. AL, SHEHRI, Ashraf E. SAID, Ibrahim O. ALANAZI, Hamdan I. AL, MOHAMMED, Yasser A. ALRAEY, Abdullah D. ALANAZI* Pages 231-239
    Background
    Dogs can act as reservoirs of canine leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania species. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis using a PCR technique among stray dogs living in three provinces of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Al-Ahsa Oasis and Al-Qaseem, where the disease is endemic; and to identify and document different Leishmania to species levels

    Methods
    This cross-sectional investigation was conducted, from Mar 2016 to Apr 2018, in three parts of Saudi Arabia: Central province (Riyadh), Eastern province (Al-Ahsa Oasis) and Al-Qaseem province. Blood samples were collected from 526 dogs; 40 presented cutaneous nodules so were suspected clinically of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Biopsy tissue collections and parasite cultures were performed. A generic kDNA was performed using different primers for Leishmania differentiation.

    Results
    All blood samples were negative for Leishmania infantum infection by molecular analysis, though forty dogs had thick cutaneous lesions in different parts of their body. Four dogs’ skin lesions were associated with dermatitis, splenomegaly and lymphadenomegaly. Parasite culture was used to diagnose cutaneous leishmaniasis, identifying 31/40 (77.5%) positive samples. Overall, of 526 samples, the prevalence of L. major and L. tropica was found to be 4% and 1.9%, respectively. Gender and age had a significant effect on Leishmania prevalence: (P=0.0212 and 0.0357), respectively.

    Conclusion
    This was the first molecular study of dog leishmaniasis from Saudi Arabia of dogs confirmed to have cutaneous leishmaniasis. Further epidemiological and molecular investigations of domestic and wild canine infections with L. major, L. tropica and L. infantum in endemic and nonendemic areas of Saudi Arabia are required, for leishmaniasis control.
    Keywords: Leishmania, Dogs, kDNA, Saudi Arabia
  • Eman Magdy FAWZY, Said Mahmoud AHMED, Rabab Sayed ZALAT, Hayam Elsaid RASHED, Enas Fakhry ABDELHAMED* Pages 240-249
    Background Cryptosporidium parvum  is a dangerous intestinal pathogen due to its  devastating  effect in immunocompromised individuals. Considering low efficacy, high toxicity in addition to the development of resistance for the drugs used, this study aimed to find a new alternative treatment having the advantage of lower doses and minimal toxicity. As complementary for our previous research, we used a novel combination between artesunate loaded polymeric nanofiber and nanozoxide that had not been tried yet. Methods Our experiment was performed on 60 immunocompromised mice that divided into six groups of 10 mice each: G I: infected control, G II: infected and treated with nanozoxide, G III: infected and treated with combination of artesunate, G IV: infected and treated with combination of nanozoxide and artesunate loaded nanofiber, G V: infected and treated with artesunate-loaded nanofiber, Group VI: uninfected control. Group IV had the highest oocyst reduction rate. Results The novel combination between artesunate loaded polymeric nanofiber and nanozoxide  has a harmonizing effect in reducing oocyst shedding, increasing total antioxidants activity, decreasing oxidative stress in tissues in addition to the marked improvement of histopathological features. Conclusions This combination has a promising therapeutic effect against cryptosporidiosis particularly in immunocompromised individuals considering minor toxicity.
    Keywords: Cryptosporidium, Oxidative stress, Artesunate, Polymeric nanofiber
  • Fariba ORUJZADEH, Khadijeh KHANALIHA, Lame AKHLAGHI, Farah BOKHARAEI, SALIM, Soudabeh FALLAH, Abdoulreza ESTEGHAMATI, Hossein MASOUMI, ASL, Fatemeh TABATABAIE* Pages 250-257
    Background
    Trichomonas vaginalis is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection cause trichomoniasis. In this study prevalence and genotype of Iranian isolates of T. vaginalis infected (dsRNA) viruses were evaluated by PCR-RFLP and obtained patterns were then confirmed by sequence analysis and genotype of these Iranian isolates confirmed again.

    Methods
    Ten strains of T.vaginalis were collected from 1700 vaginal samples of women referred to hospitals associated with Iran University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran during Feb 2016 to Jul 2017, evaluated in points of infection to T. vaginalis Virus (TVV-1) were used in a PCR-RFLP. All of ten isolates of T. vaginalis were examined by designed nested PCR for actin gene and then digestion patterns of three endonuclease enzymes of HindII, MseI and RsaI were evaluated and genotype of these isolates was defined.

    Results
    By combination of fragments pattern of three enzymes of HindII, RsaI and MseI, three genotypes were found; six genotypes E, two genotypes G and two genotypes I. The most dominant genotypes were genotype E. Among four TVV infected isolates two genotype E, one genotype G and one genotype I were found, however among six uninfected T. vaginalis isolates to TVV-1, all of three genotypes were also found.

    Conclusion
    Three genotypes E, G and I in T. vaginalis infected with dsRNA isolates were found, however, these three genotypes in T. vaginalis without virus were also observed. Further study is needed to evaluate genotypes of T. vaginalis, which infected virus in more great T. vaginalis population.
    Keywords: Genotype, Actin, RFLP, Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Mohammad AHMADI, Ziba AKBARI, Mahbobeh ALIKHANI, Reza HAJHOSSIANI, Zahra ZAMANI, Mohammad ARJMAND* Pages 258-268
    Background
    Xanthium strumarium L. is extensively used as a traditional herb to treat many diseases and is also known as a source of phytochemicals. It has been used traditionally to treat trypanosomiasis, malaria fever, eczema, cancer, ulcer, fever, herpes headache, and skin lesion such as leishmaniasis. In this preliminary study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-metabolomics approaches was used to evaluate the inhibitory effects and metabolic alterations caused by leaf extract of X. strumarium on the stationary phases of promastigotes in Leishmania major.

    Methods
    The promastigotes were cultured in Biochemistry Laboratory at Pasteur Institute of Iran in 2017, stationary phases were obtained from 5 to 6 day-old cultures and treated with different concentrations of the plant’s extract. Antileishmanial activity was assayed by MTT method and cell metabolites were extracted. 1H NMR spectroscopy was applied, and outliers were separated using multivariate statistical analysis.

    Results
    The most affected metabolic pathways in the experimental groups were limited to amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, cyanoamino acid metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, butanoate metabolism, and galactose metabolism.

    Conclusion
    The ethanolic leaf extract of X. strumarium is a potent growth inhibitor of Leishmania major and can affect vital metabolic pathways of Leishmania promastigotes. The assay provided new perspectives on the development of novel treatment strategies for leishmanial activity derived from natural products.
    Keywords: Xanthium Strumarium, Leishmania major, NMR spectroscopy, Metabolomics
  • Safa ARYAMAND, Khosrow HAZRATI TAPPEH, Behnam HESHMATIAN, Ali JELODAR, Shahram KHADEMVATAN* Pages 269-279
    Background
    We aimed to investigate the scolicidal effects of Holothuria leucospilota extract and CeO2 nanoparticles against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts in-vitro and in-vivo.

    Methods
    Hydatid cysts were collected from, Urmia slaughterhouses between years 2016-2017 and the hydatid fluid aspirated from the fertile cysts. Various concentration of H. leucospilota extract, CeO2 NPs and combination of CeO2-NPs/H. leucospilota were used for 10-60 min to evaluate the viability of protoscoleces by 0.1% eosin method. CASPASE -3 activity measured for assessment of cell apoptosis in treated protoscoleces. BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally with 2000 viable protoscoleces and treated daily for 4 wk by intragastrical inoculation with H. leucospilota, CeO2 NPs, combination of CeO2 NPs/H. leucospilota and Albendazole. Cyst development was macroscopically analyzed.

    Results
    H. leucospilota extract and combination of CeO2 NPs/H. leucospilota have potent scolicidal activity at concentration of 20 mg/ml and 15 mg/ml after 60 min treatment. Maximum caspase-3 activity was observed when protoscoleces expose with H. leucospilota and combination H. leucospilota & CeO2 NPs. After treatment of cyst infected mice with extract and CeO2 NPs, combination of CeO2 NPs/H leucospilota and albendazole, a significant decrease in number of cysts, size and volume of cyst (P<0.05) was observed.

    Conclusion
    This result shows an antihydatic and scolicidal effects of H. leucospilota extract and CeO2 NPs.
    Keywords: Hydatid cyst, Holothuria leucospilota, CeO2 NPs, CASPASE -3 activity
  • Shohreh AZIMI, Azar SABOKBAR, Amir BAIRAMI, Mohammad Javad GHARAVI* Pages 280-287
    Background
    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) remains a leading cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients. The aim of study was to find out P. jirovecii in versatile group of HIV-positive patients prisoners.

    Methods
    Overall, 102 HIV positive patients from Ghezel Hesar Prison, Karaj, Iran from October 2016 to March 2017 without any respiratory symptoms were selected with different medication histories against HIV and PCP. Microscopic and molecular (qualitative real-time PCR) examination were applied on sputum specimens and serological investigation (β-D-glucan assay for fungal diseases) carried out on patient’s sera.

    Results
    Only 3 and 1 patients were positive for PCP by microscopic and molecular testing, respectively. Twenty-four (23.5%) and 78 (76.5%) out of 102 patients were seropositive and seronegative for fungi disease, respectively. Seropositive patients were older than seronegative subjects (P<0.001). Most of seropositive individuals showed less mean value of CD4 counts compared to seronegative group (P<0.001). Of 54 patients who were under HIV therapy, 13 were seropositive compared to 11 out of 24 seropositives who were no adhere to treatment (P<0.001). In terms of prophylactic antibiotic therapy against PCP, of 24 patients who received prophylaxis, 3 (12.5%) and 21 (87.5%) were seropositive and seronegative, respectively (P<0.001). On the contrary, among 78 patients who did not receive prophylaxis, 21 (27%) and 57 (73%) belonged to seropositive and seronegative patients, respectively (P<0.001).

    Conclusion
    There was no strong evidence for PCP infection/disease among symptomless, HIV positive patients. According to their mean CD4 counts, the hypothesis for being negative in a majority of applied tests would be the absence of severe immunosuppression in the patients.
    Keywords: Pneumocystis jirovecii, Pneumonia, β-D-glucan assay
  • Mohammad FALLAH, Amir Hossein MAGHSOOD, Massoud SAIDIJAM, Majid FASIHI HARANDI, Mohammad MATINI* Pages 288-296
    Background
    Cystic echinococcosis, a major public health and economic concern, is a zoonotic helminth infection with worldwide distribution. This study was conducted to investigate the genetic characteristics of hydatid cysts isolated from human and livestock in Hamadan region, western Iran during 2016-2017.

    Methods
    Ten human hydatid cysts and 40 animal hydatid cysts including 32 sheep, 5 cattle and 3 goats were genotyped by PCR amplification of two mitochondrial genes, cox1 and nad1. Genetic identification of the isolates was performed by using bioinformatics software and mtDNA nucleotide sequences of the parasite, available in GenBank database.

    Results
    The PCR amplification was successfully carried out on 50 hydatid cyst isolates and then the nucleotide sequencing was conducted. The sequence analysis of the samples found that the isolates belonged to E. granulosus sensu stricto including G1 (42/50, 84%), G2 (4/50, 8%) and G3 (4/50, 8%) genotype. The G1 genotype was detected in human (8/10, 80%), sheep (26/32, 81%), cattle (5/5, 100%) and goat (3/3, 100%) hydatid cysts. The G2 and G3 genotypes were found only in sheep and human isolates. Alignment analysis of the cox1 and nad1 gene sequences revealed thirteen and ten sequence types, respectively.

    Conclusion
    G1 was the prevailing genotype of E. granulosus in the area and dog-sheep transmission cycle should be considered when implementing hydatidosis control programs. In addition, high genetic diversity was detected among the hydatid cyst isolates.
    Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, Genotype, Humans, Livestock, Mitochondrial genes, Iran
  • Hossein HAMIDINEJAT, Bahman MOSALANEJAD, Sharareh PAHLAVAN, Somayeh BAHRAMI* Pages 297-302
    Background
    Anaplasmosis due to Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an important tick-borne zoonotic disease, which affects dogs, horses, cattle and human as well. This study aimed to probe the existence of this organism by means of molecular biology techniques for the first time in rural dogs of Khuzestan province, Southwestern Iran.

    Methods
    During Sep 2014 to Apr 2015 blood samples of 103 apparently healthy rural dogs (60 males) were collected for A. phagocytophilum detection by light microscopical examination of Giemsa stained slides and Nested PCR on a fragment of 16S rRNA gene.

    Results
    From the examined slides, 11.65% were positive for A. morulae while 57.28% of infection was revealed by Nested PCR method. There was no statistical difference between ages and sexes of dogs and infection in molecular survey of A. phagocytophilum.

    Conclusion
    Molecular prevalence of A. phagocytophilum was noticeably high. It may cause the incidence of disease in human population.
    Keywords: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Dog, Iran, Nested-PCR
  • Chutia Pawan JYOTI, Raj HIMANGSHU, Sonowal DHARITREE, Rajkhowa UTTAM, Goswami CHANDRANI, Gohain Barua ACHEENTA* Pages 303-309
    Background
    This study was carried out to evaluate the epidemiological studies of trichinellosis in five states of North East India from Apr 2016 to Dec 2017.

    Methods
    Overall, 865 different meat samples for detection of Trichinella larvae and 1580 sera samples for detection of anti-Trichinella antibody were collected. Intensity of infection with Trichinella larvae in meat was determined by HCL: Pepsin digestion procedure and anti-Trichinella IgG in serum were detected using excretory/secretory antigens, according to validated ELISA.

    Results
    No Trichinella larva was detected by HCL: Pepsin digestion method. However, four (0.25%) samples were seropositive for Trichinella IgG and four inconclusive results as per cut off value. The highest seroprevalence was observed in Meghalaya (0.41%) followed by Assam (0.27%) whereas no seropositive cases were recorded in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Tripura.

    Conclusion
    Trichinellosis is common in North East, India. However, it is suspected in communities where more than 75% of the population relish pork. Finally, there is a need for more research to establish the facts of trichinellosis in this region. Thus, public awareness, food hygiene, monitoring, and surveillance programme are suggested to implement for prevention of trichinellosis in this region.
    Keywords: Trichinellosis, Porcine, Sero-prevalence, India
  • Shamsi NOORPISHEH GHADIMI, Leila HOMAYOON, Reza SHAHRIARIRAD, Shakila FATEHPOUR, Mohammad RASTEGARIAN, Bahador SARKARI* Pages 310-317
    Background
    The current study aimed to investigate the possible cross-protective effects of attenuated L. major against L. infantum in BALB/c mice.

    Methods
    This experimental study was performed in 2017 in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The attenuated strain of L. major was prepared by continuous weekly subculturing of the parasite. Forty-eight female BALB/c mice were divided into eight groups. Group 1 injected (ID) with wild type of L. major; group 2 injected (IV) with L. infantum; group 3 injected (ID) with attenuated L. major; group 4 injected (ID) with attenuated L. major, and after three weeks challenged (IV) with L. infantum; group 5 injected (IP) with attenuated L. major; group 6 injected (IP) with attenuated L. major, and challenged (IV) with L. infantum (IV); group 7 injected (IV) with attenuated L. major; and finally group 8 injected (IV) with attenuated L. major and after three weeks challenged (IV) with L. infantum. Forty-five days post-infection, the parasite load in the spleen and liver of the mice was determined as Leishman-Donovan units (LDU).

    Results
    The differences in mean of LDU of spleen between different groups were statistically significant (P<0.048). In addition, the differences in percent of infection in liver between pairwise comparisons of groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). The highest intensity of infection was observed in group 2 while low intensity of infection was seen in groups 3, 4 and 5.

    Conclusion
    Live attenuated L. major can induce substantial protection against L. infantum, particularly when the parasites were injected intravenously.
    Keywords: Attenuated L. major, L. infantum, Cross-protection
  • Vahedeh MOHAMMADI, MESKIN, Yaghoob HAMEDI, Mehrgan HEYDARI, HENGAMI, Ebrahim EFTEKHAR, Jebreil SHAMSEDDIN, SARASIABI, Khojasteh SHARIFI* Pages 318-325
    Background
    The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among mentally retarded individuals and the staff of the center in Bandar Abbas, south of Iran.

    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was conducted in central institution for mentally retarded in Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan Province, from 2016 to 2017. A triple fecal specimen was collected from each one of the 163 participants and were evaluated using wet mount and formalin-ethyl acetate methods. Trichrome and Ziehl-Neelsen staining were used to confirm suspected cases of protozoa. As well as Baermann and Harada-Mori techniques and agar plate culture were implemented to diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis.

    Results
    Overall, 163 subjects were examined including 126 mentally retarded individuals and 37 personnel. Ninety (55.2%) cases of participants were infected with at least one of the intestinal parasites, 69 (54.7%) of mentally retarded and 21 (56.7%) of personnel. Twenty-six mentally retarded individuals were infected with S. stercoralis (20.6%), Blastocystis hominis 30.2%, Entamoeba coli 25.4%, Giardia lamblia 5.6%, Enterobius vermicularis 1.6%, Hymenolepis nana 0.8% and Iodamoeba butschlii 1.6%. Twelve staff (32.4%) harbored B. hominis, E. coli 27%, S. stercoralis 2.7%, G. lamblia 10.8%, H. nana 2.7% and Endolimax nana 2.7%.

    Conclusion
    High rate of intestinal parasites particularly, S. stercoralis compared to the most recent studies of general population. Therefore, regular screening and tracking the positive cases, disinfection of the living environment, training and financing of the staff, increasing the number of the workers, recruiting of professionals and trained personnel in these centers are suggested.
    Keywords: Mentally disabled, Strongyloides stercoralis, Intestinal parasites, Iran
  • Hossein KESHAVARZ, Ahmad MARDANI* Pages 326-333
    Background
    Malaria is one of the most important transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) worldwide. To prevent the occurrence of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM), potential blood donors with a history of malaria or travel to, or residence in, malarious areas are permanently or temporarily deferred from donating blood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the blood donor deferrals for malaria in Iran.

    Methods
    This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO) from 21 Mar 2011 to 19 Mar 2016 (5 yr). The data were collected and extracted from IBTO comprehensive database, namely Negareh, and then recorded in a structured template form. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS.

    Results
    Of the 12,790,859 blood donation volunteers, 23,084 (0.18%) were deferred due to the risk of malaria. More than 90% of malaria-deferrals were because of travel to and residence in malaria endemic areas. Among the malaria-deferred volunteers, 22,139 (95.91%) were male and 945 (4.09%) were female; 2,053 (8.89%) were permanently deferred, while 21,031 (91.11%) were temporarily deferred. The highest malaria-deferral rates were observed in South Khorasan (0.82%), Razavi Khorasan (0.79%) and Yazd (0.54%) provinces, respectively.

    Conclusion
    Given the prevalence of malaria in neighboring countries (Pakistan and Afghanistan) and several provinces of Iran and the increasing human migration and movement between malaria non-endemic and endemic areas, the malaria-deferral rate might be higher than 0.18% in Iran. Thus, the changing, as well as the precise and accurate implementation of donor selection process must be considered in all blood transfusion centers of Iran.
    Keywords: Malaria, Transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM), Blood donors, Donor deferral, Iran
  • Eui, Suk JEONG, Jong, Hyung PARK, Seung, Hyun RYU, Soo, Young CHOI, Kyoung, Sun LEE, Jong, Man KIM, Byung, Hwa HYUN, Yang, Kyu CHOI * Pages 334-339
    Background
    Recently, the use of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has increased in biomedical research as an animal model. This study aimed to test fecal samples to monitor bacterial and parasite infections in common marmoset at the Laboratory Animal Center of Osong Medical Innovation Foundation in Korea.

    Methods
    To monitor bacteria and parasites in common marmoset, we tested 43 fecal samples of 43 common marmosets by culture and parasitological test in 2014. Infection by Chilomastix mesnili was determined by PCR method.

    Results
    We identified nonpathogenic bacteria such as Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli in feces of normal common marmosets. Interestingly, C. mesnili was isolated from a healthy common marmoset by fecal centrifugation concentration and PCR. The monkey infected with C. mesnili was treated with metronidazole. After the treatment, C. mesnili were not found in feces using fecal centrifugation concentration and PCR.

    Conclusion
    This is the first case report of C. mesnili infection in common marmoset. Treatment with metronidazole is found to be highly effective in eradicating C. mesnili infection in common marmoset.
    Keywords: Chilomastix mesnili, Common marmoset, Escherichia coli, Metronidazole, Proteus mirabilis
  • Marzieh NOORI, Maryam GANJALI, Saeid Reza NOUROLLAHI FARD, Mehdi RASEKH* Pages 340-346
    Background
    Neospora caninum is protozoan parasitic disease now described as the major cause of abortion and other reproductive issues. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum in cattle breeds of the Sistan region, southeastern border area of Iran.

    Methods
    Using an ELISA kit (ID.VET, France), the antibodies against N. caninum in cattle of Sistan was evaluated in 2016. Overall, 184 blood samples from apparently healthy cattle in the eastern border area of Iran Sistan were collected for assessment of antibodies against N. caninum. The values greater than or equal to 50%, were considered positive based on manufacture’s manual for ELASA kit.

    Results
    3.8% of 184 cattle have antibody against N. caninum. Chi-square test showed that the seroprevalence among Holsteins, Sistan and cross-breed was 9.4%, 0%, and 4.3%, respectively. No significant difference was observed among the breeds (P>0.05). The seroprevalence was decreased as the age of cow increased and there is no significant difference between the prevalence of N. caninum and different city area. No statistically significant relationship between the seroprevalence of N. caninum and history of abortion, lactation number and infertility was observed. Although there was no significant difference between the cattle breeds of the Sistan region all the Sistani cows were negative for the antibody against N. caninum.

    Conclusion
    Infection rate with N. caninum in bovine population in Sistan region is very low. Environmental and management factors are the major causes, which influence the regional prevalence.
    Keywords: Cattle, ELISA, Neospora caninum, Iran
  • Aram SAADI, Bahram DALIR, NAGHADEH, Awat SAMIEI, Vahid MOHAMMADI, Ali PIRNEJAD, TALATAPEH, Shahin EHTESHAMFAR, Bijan ESMAEILNEJAD* Pages 347-351
    A 4-year-old male one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) was referred to Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Urmia University, Iran in 2017 with anorexia, weakness, depression and pale mucosa. Decreased red blood cell count, packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentration were detected by complete blood cell count. In Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears Trypanosoma spp. trypomastigotes scattered between erythrocytic spaces and Mycoplasma-like organisms were observed attached to the surface of erythrocytes. Species-specific PCR assay confirmed T. evansi and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae (CMhl) co-infection. Administration of diminazene aceturate, oxytetracycline 20%, flunixin meglumine and phosphorus-vitamin B12 were not effective in treatment. Hemoplasmosis should be considered as an important differential diagnosis of conditions associated with hemolytic anemia in camel.
    Keywords: Dromedary camel, Trypanosoma, Mycoplasma, PCR, Iran
  • Unal BAKAL, Mehmet SARAC, Ibrahim AKDENIZ, Ahmet KAZEZ, Tugay TARTAR* Pages 352-355
    The hydatid cyst (HC) is an endemic parasitic disease worldwide. Although the HC can locate in every part of a body, it rarely occurs over the abdominal wall. A 12-year-old female patient was brought to Department of Pediatric Surgery, Firat University School of Medicine, Elazig, Turkey in 2017. She had been suffering from abdominal pain for one week. A lump was determined underneath her skin in the suprapubic region. It was swollen, tense and movable. A cystic mass filling the midline was found in the radiological bladder superior. It was an anechoic cyst causing ondulation on the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. The sizes of the mass were measured approximately as 9x7 cm (mesentery cyst?). The cystic mass was occurred in the urachal area of the anterior abdominal wall, not in the abdomen. After the cyst was emptied with applying mini median incision below the umbilicus, we saw the germinative membrane inside the cyst. Diagnosis of the HC was confirmed with the pathologic evaluation. For the differential diagnosis of a pure cystic mass, which can locate in every part of a body, diagnosis of the HC should be considered.
    Keywords: Hydatid cyst, Anterior abdominal wall, Urachus, Child, Turkey
  • Narges KALANTARI, FIROUZJAEE, Mostafa JAVANIAN, Salman GHAFFARI, Tahmineh GORGANI* Pages 356-358
  • Naveed Iqbal KHAN, Sayed Nimra Faryal BUKHARI, Nishad BEGUM, Wali KHAN* Pages 359-361
    No Abstract