فهرست مطالب

International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture - Volume:8 Issue:1, 2019
  • Volume:8 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/01/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Agro-environmental characterization of biochar issued from crop wastes in the humid forest zone of Cameroon
    Samuel Fru Billa *, Tsi Evaristus Angwafo, Ajebesone Francis Ngome Pages 1-13
    Purpose
    Crop wastes are underused organic resources due to low heating value and slow decomposition rates. However, conversion to biochar through pyrolysis could offer agronomic and environmental benefits. The study compared the pyrolysis of biochar from crop wastes, assessed their physicochemical properties for the purposeful use to improve soil fertility, crop productivity and their carbon sequestration potential.
    Methods
    Biochar was produced from crop wastes such as cassava residues, corncobs, rice husk, sawdust, coffee husk, and peanut using an Elsa barrel pyrolyser. Standard laboratory procedures were used to analyze pH, CEC, total carbon and nitrogen and exchangeable cations.
    Results
    The biochars were high in nutrients containing 4.17–18.15 g kg−1 N, 22.26–42.51 mg kg−1 P, 2.48–4.18 cmol kg−1 K and pH 7.78–10.81 units. It is evident that adding biochar to acidic soil containing 0.79 g kg−1 N, 7.41 mg kg−1 P, 1.42 cmol kg−1 K and pH of 5.68 could increase soil fertility and plant productivity. Carbon dioxide reduction potential ranged from 94.46 to 313.42 CO2 eq kg−1. This implies that the concept and technique of producing biochar could be a valuable way of reducing carbon emissions into the atmosphere thereby mitigating climate change.
    Conclusion
    Crop wastes and by-products which constitute a nuisance could be used to produce a very useful by-product, biochar whose quality depends on the substrate from which it is produced. Recycling crop wastes to biochar is strongly recommended to smallholder farmers for use in agriculture to improve fertility and crop productivity due to their high nutrient content and soil fertility attributes.
    Keywords: Biochar, Cassava, Carbon dioxide emissions, Coffee husk, Pyrolysis, Soil fertility
  • Humification of poultry waste and rice husk using additives and its application
    Maryam Mushtaq *, M. K. Iqbal, A. Khalid, R. A. Khan Pages 15-22
    Purpose
    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of inorganic additives during the humification of poultry waste and rice husk.
    Methods
    Poultry waste mixture was treated with aluminum sulfate 3% and rock phosphate 2% during co-composting of mixture in mechanical composter and evaluated the potential of humification and compost nitrogen mineralization in incubation and pot study.
    Results
    The mesophilic to thermophilic phase of composting mixture is prolonged due to the rise in temperature, pH and ammonia that steadily decrease near the maturation phase. The humification rate (HR), humification index (HI), degree of polymerization (DP) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) increased in enriched compost as compared to unenriched with the composting process. The germination index (GI) of enriched compost (C/N:10.8) was significantly greater than unenriched compost (C/N:23.43). These all maturity indices, i.e., C/N, CE, HI, DP, HR revealed the significant correlation with each other. In the incubation study, nitrogen mineralization was also evaluated and nitrogen was applied at the rate of 50 kg-N/ha using the enriched and unenriched compost and found high mineralization in enriched compost due to low C/N. A laboratory-scale pot experiment was also conducted, applied the compost at a rate of 100 kg-N/ha and recorded the encouraging results in growth and nutrition value of Abelmoschus esculentus plant.
    Conclusion
    It was concluded that use of additives have a significant impact on humification of poultry waste.
    Keywords: Compost, Enrichment, Experiment, Mixing, Humification
  • Vermicomposting of different organic materials using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida
    Yvonne Indrani Ramnarain, Abdullah Adil Ansari *, Lydia Ori Pages 23-36
    Purpose
    The present research was conducted with the objective of exploring the vermicomposting process, which involves different stages such as building of a vermicompost station; import of a compost earthworm (Eisenia foetida); and production of vermicompost using dry grass clippings, rice straw and cow manure. The vermicompost produced can be of significant value to the end users like farmers for replacement of chemical fertilizers and procuring better prices for the organic produce using such composting material locally available at much lower cost.
    Methods
    Vermicomposting was done using Eisenia foetida with three treatments [T1 (Rice straw), T2 (Rice straw + grass) and T3 (Grass)]. Temperature, humidity and pH were measured during the process. The population of earthworms, the production of vermicompost, and the chemical and microbial characteristics of the vermicompost were recorded after sixty (60) days and hundred twenty (120) days. The data were analyzed statistically using Sigma Plot 12.0.
    Results
    Results indicated that for all the three treatments the temperature was in the range of 0–35 °C, the humidity was between 80 and 100% and the pH fluctuated in the range of 5.5–7.0 and stabilized to near neutral on the 60th day. The combination of rice straw and grass had the highest rate of vermicompost production of 105 kg/m2 followed by grass and rice straw with 102.5 kg/m2 and 87 kg/m2, respectively, at the end of 120 days.
    Conclusion
    The harvested vermicompost had an excellent nutrient status, confirmed by the chemical analyses, and contained all the essential macro- and micronutrients.
    Keywords: Eisenia foetida, Dry grass clippings, Rice straw, Cow manure, Vermicompost
  • Potency of agricultural wastes in mushroom (Pleurotus sajor-caju) biotechnology for feeding broiler chicks (Arbor acre)
    Charles Oluwaseun Adetunji, Isaac Oluseun Adejumo * Pages 37-45
    Purpose
    Nigeria produces large quantities of wastes per year, which are underutilised and constitute environmental nuisance. The effect of dietary mycomeat produced from ogi production wastes based on yellow maize using wild and mutant strains of Pleurotus sajor-caju was assessed based on chickens’ growth, haematology and histology.
    Methods
    The wastes were air-dried for 72 h. The inoculum was developed by transferring loopful of inoculum into the prepared inoculum medium. Incubation was carried out at 37 ± 1 °C. 144 1-day-old chicks were used. The trial lasted for 21 days. The chicks were grouped into 4, each containing 36 1-day-old chicks. The animals were provided with fresh feed and water ad libitum. Feed intake and body weight were measured weekly, while the calculation of feed conversion ratio (FCR) and weight gain was based on the data obtained.
    Results
    Feed intake was lower for birds fed diets containing ogi production wastes and mycomeat produced from ogi production wastes using a mutant strain of P. sajor-caju. No significant differences were observed for body weight gain amongst the treatments. Mycomeat produced from ogi production wastes using a mutant strain of P. sajor-caju and ogi production wastes enhanced FCR, while those on wild strain of P. sajor-caju did not differ significantly from other treatments.
    Conclusion
    Inclusion of mycomeat in the diet of broiler chicks is considered safe and could promote growth.
    Keywords: Agricultural waste, Food biotechnology, Feed conversion ratio, Mycomeat, Pleurotus sajor-caju
  • Biochar production from poultry litter as management approach and effects on plant growth
    S. Sikder, J. C. Joardar * Pages 47-58
    Purpose
    A lots of poultry litter (PL) is being generated every day from poultry industries and improper management leads to different environmental problems. Production of biochar from PL is a new management strategy of PL which is a nutrient-rich organic amendment for improving soil nutritional status. The experiment was aimed for the production of poultry litter biochar (PLB) from fresh PL to assess the important properties of both PL and PLB, and to observe the effects on plant growth. It also appraised the change of soil properties after PL and PLB application.
    Methods
    Poultry litter biochar was produced from fresh PL heated at 300 °C temperature for 10 min in muffle furnace. Poultry litter was applied into the soil at 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 t ha−1 and PLB was applied at 1, 2, 3 and 4 t ha−1 along with control. Gima kalmi (Ipomoea aquatica) was grown as test plant. To assess the potentiality and residual effect, the same plant was grown consecutively after harvesting first crop. Post-harvest soil analysis was also carried out after harvesting the first crop.
    Results
    After pyrolysis pH, EC, organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, total phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron were increased in PLB. A significant (p < 0.001) increase in plant growth and biomass production was observed and it was higher in PLB-treated soil than that of the PL-treated soil for both first and second crop.
    Conclusion
    Poultry litter biochar might be a promising organic fertilizer with high nutrient composition than fresh PL. This also could be an ecofriendly management strategy for sustainable agriculture and long-term productivity.
    Keywords: Poultry litter, Biochar, Organic fertilizer, Pollution, Management
  • A field study on the effect of organic soil conditioners with different placements on dry matter and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)
    Ehsan Ebrahimi *, Ghorbanali Asadi, Peter von Fragstein und Niemsdorff Pages 59-66
    Purpose
    Four different types of composts were assessed in two methods of application for their potential to support organic tomato yield.
    Methods
    A 2-year experiment was conducted using four different soil conditioners: cow manure (CM), household compost (HC), spent mushroom compost (SMC), and vermicompost (VC). Three different application rates (10, 20, and 30 t ha−1 for all composts except VC and 3, 6, and 9 t ha−1 for VC) were included as a second factor. Two methods of fertilizer placement (as a row behind the root area and broadcast on the field) were considered as a third factor.
    Results
    The yield was influenced by different soil conditioners and placement method in the first year; in the second year, just interactions were significantly different. Treatments with CM showed significantly higher tomato yield in the first year (103 t ha−1) compared to other composts, but in the second year, SMC produced a higher yield (58 t ha−1). The experiment indicated that the treatment with CM in high level with broadcast application had higher dry matter (DM) production (3.1 t ha−1) in 2014, and treatment with CM in low rate and broadcast application had higher DM production (5.8 t ha−1) in 2015.
    Conclusion
    Compost broadcast on the plots showed a higher yield production in case of similar rates and compost type. The proper rate of compost application is dependent on the method of compost placement.
    Keywords: Household compost, Organic farming, Soil conditioners, Spent mushroom compost, Vermicompost, Waste management, Compost placement
  • Organic matter content in riparian areas of soil composed of woody vegetation and grass and its effects on pesticide adsorption
    Terencio Rebello de RebelloJr *, Fernando Rodrigo Bortolozo, Lucilia Maria Parron Pages 67-72
    Purpose
    Riparian zones are identified as mitigation areas of agricultural pollutants to river ecosystems. However, the mitigation mechanisms of these pollutants remain unclear mainly on the effects of different types of riparian vegetation and its organic matter content in the pollutants removal process. This study aims to assess the content of organic matter in soils composed of woody vegetation and grass and its effects on four pesticides adsorption. Adsorption studies were conducted in soil collected in riparian vegetation areas composed of grass and trees under the influence of an agricultural area.
    Methods
    The analyses were performed in 21 shakers containing 100 g soil and a L of water previously contaminated with pesticide that were stirred for 30, 60, 120, 240, 360, 720, and 1440 min. A study was made of maximum adsorption capacity using the time 360 min and the concentrations of 5, 20, 40, and 50 μg L−1.
    Results
    The soils of woody vegetation areas had a higher concentration of organic matter as compared with grass areas, and time 360 min achieved the highest adsorption capacity with minimum values of 84% adsorption for the area of land made up of trees and 67% for grass areas. The soils of woody vegetation areas had a higher concentration of organic matter as compared with grass areas, time 360 min.
    Conclusion
    The best adsorption capacity was obtained with minimal adsorption amounts of 84% to the area of soil composed of 67% for trees and grass areas.
    Keywords: Riparian zones, Pesticides, Organic matter, Water contamination, Adsorption
  • Soil nutrients, microbial biomass, and crop response to organic amendments in rice cropping system in the Shiwaliks of Indian Himalayas
    Richa Rajput, Priya Pokhriya, Pooja Panwar, A. Arunachalam, Kusum Arunachalam * Pages 73-85
    Purpose
    Intensive agriculture activities in small holder farming systems are declining over all soil nutrient status. The present study is conducted to compare the soil health and plant growth attributes under rice cultivation among different organic amendments. Recycled waste of rice–wheat agrosystem is utilized to determine optimal sustainable solution for hilly areas.
    Methods
    Randomly blocked design experiment was conducted with rice plants, each amended with organic inputs including rice straw residue (T1), rice biochar (T2), rice compost (T3), wheat straw residue (T4), wheat biochar (T5), wheat compost (T6), mix of wheat + rice compost (T7), green manure (T8) and control (no amendment). Soil samples were studied at each growth phase while plant growth attributes were measured at the harvesting stage of the crop.
    Results
    T6 and T7 have shown significantly higher magnitude of soil organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, microbial quotient, available nitrogen, and enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and urease) than biochar (T2 and T5) and crop residue amendments (T1, T4 and T8). An increase of up to 47% was obtained in cumulative growth attributes (plant height, total biomass, and a number of tillers, spikes, and spike length) of rice plant in T6 amendment. The principal component analysis revealed two components responsible for 54.17% of the variance in the organically treated soil.
    Conclusion
    The experimental results imply that composting of crop residues could be the most reliable practice to improve soil nutritional quality as well as crop growth for sustainable rice–wheat cropping system in the hilly area.
    Keywords: Crop residue, Compost, Biochar, Microbial biomass, Soil enzymes, Rice crop
  • Assessing microbial population dynamics, enzyme activities and phosphorus availability indices during phospho-compost production
    F. R. Kutu *, T. J. Mokase, O. A. Dada, O. H. J. Rhode Pages 87-97
    Purpose
    This study assessed changes in bio-quality indices and plant available P released during aerobic–thermophilic co-composting of different mix ratios of non-reactive ground phosphate rock (GPR) with poultry and cattle manures.
    Methods
    Aerobic–thermophilic co-composting of different mix ratios (5:5, 8:2, 7:3 and 9:1) of non-reactive GPR with poultry and cattle manures was carried out. Compost piles without GPR addition were included as control. Compost samples were taken at mesophilic, thermophilic, cooling–stabilization and maturing phases for microbial counts, enzyme activities and P assessment.
    Results
    Abundance of different microbial groups across the composting phases varied greatly (p < 0.001) mostly dominated by fungi that was generally more in the cattle than poultry manure-based phospho-composts. Fungi and actinomycetes counts in the composts were positively correlated with alkaline phosphatase and β-glucosidase. A strong inter-correlation between β-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase (r = 1.000, p < 0.001) was observed, suggesting that both enzymes possess same origin. Alkaline phosphatase and β-glucosidase contents in the phospho-composts showed negative correlation with water soluble P (r = − 0.65, p < 0.001), and Bray P1 and Fe–P contents (r = − 0.15, p > 0.05) indicating inhibition of the P forms. Quantitatively higher P was obtained from poultry manure-based phospho-compost and in the 8:2 mix ratio at compost maturity. Microbial diversity and enzyme activity exerted positive impact on P mineralization and availability from the non-reactive GPR signifying the beneficial effect of co-composting.
    Conclusions
    Co-composting of P-rich non-reactive GPR with organic wastes containing variable chemical composition promotes microbial diversity during composting and increases plant available P content and compost fertilizer value.
    Keywords: Phospho-compost, Compost bio-quality indices, Enzyme activities, Available P, Non-reactive phosphate rock
  • Adapting anaerobic consortium to pure and complex lignocellulose substrates at low temperature: kinetics evaluation
    Ammar Musbah Saleh Ahmed, Kovasky Alfonso Buezo, Noori M. Cata Saady * Pages 99-110
    Purposes
    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the kinetics of anaerobic microbial culture during adaptation to pure and complex lignocellulosic substrates at low temperature.
    Methods
    Six pairs of 1.0 L batch reactors maintained at 20 °C were fed pure (xylan and cellulose) and complex (cow manure and wheat straw) lignocellulosic substrate in three successive cycles of 35 days each. The biogas volume and composition, chemical oxygen demand, and volatile solids were monitored to evaluate the kinetics of the culture during the adaption.
    Results
    Anaerobic culture adapted to digest the pure and complex lignocellulosic substrates at 20 °C in relatively short period (105 days; 3 successive cycles of 35 days each) in batch reactor studies. The first-order model kinetics revealed that the average increase (day−1 cycle−1) in the reaction rate constant over the successive cycles was 0.0831 (xylan) > 0.0235 (cow manure) > 0.0207 (wheat straw) > 0.0123 (xylan:cellulose mixture) > 0.0041 (cellulose). The rates of the substrate degradation at 20 °C were: 0.085–0.093 day−1 (cellulose), 0.112–0.278 day−1 (xylan), 0.112–0.137 day−1 (xylan:cellulose mixture), 0.069–0.116 day−1 (cow manure), and 0.057–0.106 day−1 (wheat straw).
    Conclusions
    Anaerobic mixed culture can be adapted to pure and complex lignocellulosic substrates and convert them to methane at low temperature (20 °C) in relatively short time (105 days) using a sequential procedure. The culture adaptation to wheat straw proceeded at a slower rate than that for cow manure.
    Keywords: Adaptation, Low temperature, Anaerobic digestion, Lignocellulose, Cow manure, Kinetics