فهرست مطالب

Applied Animal Science - Volume:9 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:9 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
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  • Situations Leading to Oxidative Stress in Dairy Cattle
    J. Gonz?lez Maldonado *, R. Rangel Santos, R. Rodr?guez de Lara, G. Ram?rez Valverde Pages 189-195
    Free radicals are normally produced by living organism, at controlled production rate they perform physiological functions as signal transduction molecules. However, situations leading to an overproduction that surpasses antioxidant capacity creates oxidative stress. Consequently, damage to the cell membrane, protein, DNA and cell death are observed. Dairy cattle are susceptible to oxidative stress. Situations such as infections, metabolic disorders and heat stress are known to cause oxidative stress in cattle by depleting body antioxidants concentrations or by increasing endogenous free radical production. The organism response to oxidative stress by activating cell factors that after evaluating the damage to cell, a repair or death signal will be programmed. The objective of this review is to empower the reader with knowledge related to oxidative stress and to provide information on the situations leading to this type of stress and the cellular response to it in dairy cattle.
    Keywords: Antioxidants, bovine, cellular response, oxidants
  • Effects of Weaning Age on Growth and Blood Parameters of Replacing Holstein Calves Fed on a Restricted Step Up and Down Milk Feeding Program
    s. Seifzadeh, M. Ramezani, J. Seifdavati, H. Abdi, Benemar *, V. Razmazar Pages 197-204
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different early weaning programs on growth performance and blood parameters of dairy calves. To meet this objective, thirty Holstein calves with initial body weight of 36 ± 5 kg were randomly assigned at birth to one of the three weaning programs. Experimental groups were: 1) starter diet and whole milk from birth to 6 weeks and weaning at 42 d old (6WW)), 2) starter diet and whole milk from birth to 9 weeks and weaning at 63 d old (9WW) and 3) starter diet and whole milk from birth to 12 weeks and weaning at 84 d old (12WW). Starter diet and water were available ad libitum throughout the experiment. Daily starter intake and growth performance of calves were measured until d 90 of life for all groups. Body weight (BW) and starter intake in all measured periods (on d 28, 56 and 84) did not differ between experimental groups. Calves weaned at 42 d (6WW) had higher average daily gain (ADG) in second month than 9WWand 12WWgroups (P<0.05). Calves reared in 6WW group had significantly greater total ADG values than calves weaned on 63 and 84 d (P<0.05). Total feed conversation ratio affected by experimental treatments and was lowest in 6WWcalves (P<0.05). Body length, heart girth and withers height of calves did not differ among treatments at 28, 56 and 84. Plasma cholesterol concentration of calves weaned in 6WWgroup was lower (P<0.05) than calves weaned in 9WW and 12WW. Under the conditions of this study, the results suggest that calves weaned at 42 d were more efficient at utilizing dry matter intake for body weight (BW) gain and growth.
    Keywords: blood parameters, calves, growth performance, weaning programs
  • Evaluation of Potential New Opportunities for Herbal Plants as Natural Products on Rumen Fermentation Patterns in vitro
    M. Mehrabadi, A. Vakili *, M. Danesh Mesgaran, R. Valizadeh Pages 205-216
    Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the effects of dietary addition of five herbal plants (HP) alone or as herbal plant mixture (HPM) on in vitro gas production and ruminal fermentation patterns. In Exp. 1, five varieties of HP (garlic, eucalyptus, cinnamon, thyme, and peppermint) were added to the diet at 3 different concentrations (5, 10 and 15% of concentrate dry matter). In Exp. 2, the HPM was used at the concentration of 2, 4 and 6%. The results show that most ruminal fermentation parameters were affected by HP and HPM. The addition of HP and HPM to the diet significantly increased total in vitro gas production (b) and the fractional rate constant of gas production (c, P<0.01). Concentrations of NH3 (Exp. 1), CH4 (Exp. 1 and 2), total volatile fatty acids (Exp. 1 and 2), acetate (Exp. 1), propionate (Exp. 1 and 2) and acetate/propionate ratio (Exp. 1) were affected by HP and HPM. Ruminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA, Pin vivo conditions.
    Keywords: digestibility, herbal plant, in vitro gas production, rumen fermentation, rumen modifier
  • The Relationship between Different Body Types of Kalmyk Steers and Their Raw Meat Production and Quality
    I.F. Gorlov *, M.I. Slozhenkina, A.V. Randelin, A.A. Mosolov, B.K. Bolaev, A.I. Belyaev, E.Y. Zlobina, D.A. Mosolova Pages 217-223
    The article presents the data on a comparative research study of the beef production of Kalmyk steers of compact (Group I), medium (Group II) and tall (Group III) body types. It has been found that the steers of a tall body type had higher pre-slaughter weight at the age of 16 months than steers of compact and medium types by 24.7 and 12.1 kg, respectively; the weight of hot carcasses by 15.9 and 7.6 kg; and the carcass yield was higher by 0.5 and 0.2%. The slaughter yield of steers varied from 58.50 (Group I) to 58.69% (Group III). Boning showed that tall youngsters had higher flesh weight in carcasses by 7.05 and 3.61% compared to their analogs of compact and medium types. The average flesh sample from animals of a tall type contained more protein than their analogs by 0.91 and 0.86%, respectively. The fat content in carcass flesh from steers of compact type was higher than from medium and tall steers by 1.05 and 2.56%, respectively. The longissimus dorsimuscle of tall steers contained more essential amino acid of tryptophan and less non-essential amino acid of hydroxyproline. Furthermore, a tendency of higher values of moisture-retaining ability of meat from steers of a compact type has been revealed. Organoleptic characteristics of meat from all experimental steers differed insignificantly.
    Keywords: body type, carcass composition, cattle breeding, meat quality, slaughter traits
  • Prospective Effects of Regrouping, Number of Animals in Each Group and Concentrate Specificity on Profitability of Lactating Dairy Cows
    A. Darzi Lemraski, S.H. Ebrahimi * Pages 225-228
    Profitability of different grouping criteria was simulated in a dairy farm with 153 lactating cows that were divided into three groups of high (79), medium (40) and low (34) cows based on the milk records. Animals were reassigned to the new groups based on the following criteria using a decision support tool and the same three groups scenario: fat corrected milk 4%, days in milk (DIM), dairy merit (fat-corrected milk (FCM)/body weight (BW)0.75), and cluster (cow’s energy and protein requirements). Four total mixed ration (TMR) were formulated for feeding three simulated groups in which group 2 (medium producing animals) could consume either concentrate type I or concentrate type II, whereas groups 1 and 3 always had their specific concentrate mixture. The number of animals in the high, medium and low producing groups altered following the re-grouping and the highest number of cows fell in either the new medium (FCM and dairy merit) or low (DIM and cluster) producing groups. Cluster and dairy merit grouping criteria resulted the most income over feed costs (IOFC) and maximum profitability compared to the milk records and other simulated scenarios. In all of the grouping criteria, when the second group consumed concentrate type II, the amount of IOFC was higher than situations where this group utilized concentrate type I. Overall, profitability and economic efficiency of the herd increased when a more precise grouping method was used. Furthermore, cluster method provided a liberty for choosing the type of concentrate for medium producing animals with a negligible effect on the calculated IOFC from the simulated data.
    Keywords: cluster, grouping criteria, IOFC, Profitability
  • Factors Affecting the Dry Period Length and Its Effect on Milk Production and Composition in Subsequent Lactation of Holstein Cows
    I. Boujenane * Pages 229-234
    The study aimed to determine factors affecting the dry period length and effect of dry days on milk yield, milk composition and lactation length in the next lactation of dairy cows. Data used for analysis included 7264 lactation records collected from 2012 to 2016 on 4737 Holstein cows raised in 152 herds. The statistical model used to determine the factors influencing the dry period length showed that multiparous cows had a dry period 3.7 days longer than primiparous cows, and cows that calved from October to February had a dry period 2.5 days shorter than that of cows calved from March to September. The mixed model used to evaluate the influence of dry period on milk yield, milk composition and lactation length showed that the dry period influenced significantly milk yield and composition in the next 305 d lactation, but not the lactation length (P>0.05). Milk, fat and protein yields in the subsequent lactation were maximized with a 41 to 60-d dry period, whereas dry periods less than 20 d result in very pronounced losses in subsequent lactation yield. Fat and protein percentages were highest with the dry period classes greater than 80-d and less or equal than 20 d, respectively. The interaction between parity and dry length period was not significant (P>0.05) for any studied trait, indicating that dry days effects on milk yield and composition were consistent across lactations. It was concluded that dry period of 40 to 80 dry days does provide maximal performance in Holstein cows.
    Keywords: dairy cows, dry period, milk composition, milk yield, parity by dry period length interaction
  • The Impact of Optimizing the Detoxification of Argane (Argania spinosa) Press Cake on Nutritional Quality and Saponin Levels
    N. Lakram *, Y. En, Nahli, F.Z. Zouhair, S. Moutik, R. Kabbour, E.H. El Maadoudi, M. Bendaou, A. El Housni, M. Naciri Pages 235-246
    The use of Argania spinosa press cake for livestock feed is limited due to the presence of saponins, which give it a very bitter flavor and make it unpalatable to livestock. The present study aims to evaluate whether a detoxification method reduces saponin levels of press cake and how that affects its nutrient contents. The response surface methodology was used in this study involved grinding the argane press cake and subjecting it to soaking and boiling in three media: distilled water, sodium bicarbonate solution at different concentrations (0.02, 1.01, and 2%), and citric acid solution at various concentration (0.10, 1.05, and 2%); the respective ratios of argane press cake to the soaking and boiling media were fixed at 1:5, 1:12.5 and 1:20 (w/v, g/mL); the respective soaking times chosen were 1, 24, and 48 h; the boiling temperatures selected were 40, 80, and 120 ˚C, respectively; and the boiling times were, respectively, 10, 25, and 40 min. Experiments showed that soaking in acidic and alkaline media more effectively reduced saponin with averages 93% and 86% respectively, than soaking in distilled water (36%), while we observed significant average reductions amongst boiling solutions. The nutritional contents of argane press cake treated by different treatments decreased slightly than untreated; the crude protein of argane press cake non-detoxified was 48% compared to the detoxified that ranged between 40 to 47%. Therefore, decreasing the levels of saponins will make argane press cake more appetizing for livestock and might ameliorate protein malnutrition, a major animal feed problem in Morocco.
    Keywords: argane press cake, citric acid, detoxification method, distilled water, saponins, sodium bicarbonate
  • Evaluation of Nano and Microcapsules of Silymarin in Simulated Gastrointestinal Conditions for Animal Target Delivery
    S. Yousefdoost, F. Samadi *, S.M. Jafari, S.S. Ramezanpour, F. Ganji, S. Hassani Pages 247-255
    The main goal of this research was to compare the in vitro release rates of nano- and microcapsules of Silybum marianum extract (SME) in animal simulated gastric and intestinal medium conditions. The extract was encapsulated within sodium alginate carriers using emulsification/internal gelation method. Particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI) and morphology of nanocapsules were analysed via dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, the effect of ultrasonication on nanocapsule properties and the release profiles of SME-loaded nano/microcapsules were evaluated. Results showed that ultrasonication reduced the size of capsules from 657.5 nm to 169.1 nm which resulted in uniform particles with a low PDI. Encapsulation efficiency for nanocapsules was 61%. Alginate nano/microcapsules protected polyphenols in simulated gastric medium as observed by 10% and 12% release, respectively. Nanocapsules released their contents higher and faster than microcapsules in simulated intestinal fluid (P<0.05). In conclusion, alginate nanocapsules containing SME were made successfully with a release rate of over 90% of extract within simulated intestinal medium which can be used for animal target delivery purposes.
    Keywords: nano-microcapsule, Silybum marianum, simulated gastrointestinal conditions, ultrasonication
  • Growth Intensity of Lambs during Artificial Milk Rearing Depending on Chosen Non Genetic Factors
    P. Makovick? *, M. G?lisov? ?op?kov?, M. Marget?n, P. Makovick?, M. Nagy Pages 257-263
    The aim of the research was to evaluate the influence of sex, breeding group, litter size and age of lambs when placed in lambing pens for their growth rate during rearing. The average daily gain of lambs was evaluated based on their weighing data each week after their placement into lambing pens. Lambs of Improved Valachian, Tsigai and Lacaune breed (n=26) had been gradually integrated to the experiment. Artificial rearing was carried out using a feed slot machine. All lambs were weighted on a digital scale with an accuracy of 0.1 kg at birth, when placed in the lambing pens and then every week until weaning. The breeding group factor had no statistically significant effect on the average daily gain during milk rearing. The average daily gains of lambs at the end of milk rearing were the same for all experimental grups. The ewe lambs at the end of milk rearing reached a higher average daily gain than ram lambs; but we did not detect statistically significant influence of sex on the average daily gain. The litter size factor had a highly significant effect (P<0.01) only on the growth rate of lambs during the first week after beieng placed in the lambing pens. At the end of milk rearing, the average daily gain was the same for single-litter-lambs and twin-litter-lambs too. The difference of the age of their placement into lambing pens had no statistically significant effect on the weight of the lambs at the end of milk rearing. Statistically significant effect (P<0.05) was found in lambs of different age at their placement in the lambing pens on the average daily gain from placing in to the end of milk rearing. The lambs involved in rearing had a lower weight gains when placed into the lambing pens at an older age.
    Keywords: age, average daily gain, breeding group, improved Valachian, Lacaune, lambs, litter size, sex, Tsigai
  • Effect of Antioxidant D-Aspartic Acid and Thawing Rate on the Freeze-Thawing Process of Ram Semen
    H. Daghigh Kia *, S. Vatankhah Pages 265-273
    The study was conducted to determine the influence of D-aspartic acid (D-Asp) as antioxidant supplement and thawing rates on ram sperm motility, membrane integrity, abnormality, viability, mitochondria activity, malondialdehyde and antioxidant activities, and total antioxidant capacity after freezing-thawing process. Semen samples from five mature rams (3-4 years old) were diluted with extenders (1.5% soybean lecithin, 7% glycerol) containing no supplements (control) and D-Asp (5, 10, and 15 mg/L) and cryopreserved. Frozen straws were thawed at water bath temperatures at 37 ˚C for 30s and at 60 ˚C for 6s. Addition of 10 mg/L of D-Asp improved significantly progressive motility, average path velocity, and straight-line velocity percentages after freeze-thaw (P<0.05). Plasma membrane integrity, mitochondria activity, viability, total antioxidant capacity, and glutathione peroxidase were higher in group receiving 10 mg/L in comparison to other treatments (P<0.05). Meanwhile, total abnormality significantly decreased at this concentration (10 mg/L) in comparison to the level of 15 mg/L and control group (P<0.05). Our results revealed that malondialdehyde level was lower in group receiving 10 mg/L D-Asp compared to other treatments (P<0.05). There were no significant interactions between concentrations of D-Asp and thawing protocols for any semen samples. Also, significant improvement in sperm viability and mitochondria activity were observed at 37 ˚C to 30 s thawing method (P<0.05). In overall, results of the present study demonstrate that addition of D-Asp at level of 10 mg/L have beneficial effect on quality of post-thawed ram semen cryopreserved in an extender. Therefore, this antioxidant in the suitable dose can be recommended as an additional component of ram freezing extender. The 60 ˚C to 6s thawing procedure is not an appropriate replacement for 37 ˚C to 30 s.
    Keywords: Antioxidants, cryopreservation, D-aspartic acid, ram, thawing rate
  • Genetic Evaluation of Growth Rate and Efficiency Related Traits in Raeini Cashmere Goat
    M.S. Mokhtari *, M. Razmkabir, H. Ghiasi, Y. Mohammadi Pages 275-282
    Growth efficiency-related traits are of economic importance for genetically improving of small ruminants especially in tropics with pastures of low quality and quantity. Data on body weights of Raeini Cashmere goat collected from 1979 to 2012 in Raeini breeding station, Kerman province, south-eastern part of Iran were used for estimating the genetic parameters of average daily gain from birth to weaning (ADG1), average daily gain from weaning to six months of age (ADG2), average daily gain from birth to six months of age (ADG3), Kleiber ratio from birth to weaning (KR1), Kleiber ratio from weaning to six months of age (KR2), Kleiber ratio from birth to six months of age (KR3), growth efficiency from birth to weaning (GE1), growth efficiency from weaning to six months of age (GE2) and growth efficiency from birth to six months of age (GE3). The numbers of final edited records were related to 2817, 2541 and 2701 kids for the traits considered from birth to weaning, from weaning to six months of age and from birth to six months of ages periods, respectively. Direct heritability estimates for ADG1, ADG2, ADG3, KR1, KR2, KR3, GE1, GE2 and GE3 were 0.08, 0.03, 0.06, 0.19, 0.03, 0.07, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.08, respectively. Maternal heritability estimates for ADG1, KR1 and GE1 were 0.09, 0.11 and 0.10, respectively. Genetic correlations between traits were ranged from -0.95 for ADG3-KR1 to 0.99 for ADG1-KR1, ADG2-KR2, ADG3-KR3 and KR1-GE1. Phenotypic correlations were positive and high for traits measured in the same period i.e. among ADG1, KR1 and GE1, among ADG2, KR2 and GE2 and among ADG3, KR3 and GE3; ranged from 0.77 for ADG2-GE2 to 0.96 for ADG3-KR3. The obtained results revealed little additive genetic variation in growth rate or efficiency related traits of Raeini Cashmere goat, implying little opportunity for genetic improvement of these traits in this breed through selection.
    Keywords: goat, growth efficiency, growth rate, Kleiber ratio, maternal effects
  • Molecular and Bioinformatics Analysis of Allelic Diversity in IGFBP2 Gene Promoter in Indigenous Makuee and Lori-Bakhtiari Sheep Breeds
    O. Valipour, Koutanaee, A. Farhadi *, S.H. Hafezian, M. Gholizadeh Pages 283-289
    The aim of this study was to perform molecular and bioinformatics analysis of IGFBP2 gene promoter in association with some economic traits in indigenous Makuee (MS) and Lori-Bakhtiari (LB) breeds. DNA was extracted from blood samples of 120 MS and 200 LB and a 297 bp fragment from the upstream sequences of studied gene was amplified and genotyped by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique. Two genotypes of AB and BB were seen in MS and LB breeds. Then one sample from each genotype was send to sequencing. After obtaining the sequencing result, the sequences homology was performed on the National Center for Biological Information NCBI server by basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) program. The alignment of the obtained sequences and their comparison with reference sequences from the Gene Bank were done using CLUSTALW multiple alignment tool of BioEdit software. In addition, the DNASIS MAX software was used to identify DNA motifs. The bioinformatics analysis revealed differences in sequences of IGFBP2 between observed genotypes. Ten motifs in promoter sequence of IGFBP2 genes were seen, so that the CAP_site motif was most abundant in both fragments motif. Statistical analysis using general linear method model (GLM) procedure of SAS software showed significant (P<0.05) association of IGFBP2 with thigh round (TR) trait in Makuee sheep. Further studies in other indigenous sheep breeds and investigation of other genetic regions along with regulatory sites seem to be necessary.
    Keywords: IGFBP gene, Lori-Bakhtiari sheep, Makuee sheep, promoter, sequencing
  • Productive Performance and Hatchability of Alabio Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos Borneo) under Rural Feeding Management: Comparison of Different Dietary Protein Levels and Sex Ratios
    B. Indarsih *, D. Kisworo, I.N. Sukartha Jaya Pages 291-298
    An experiment was conducted to assess the optimum nutrient requirement and ideal mating ratios for Alabio ducks for production of fertile eggs and hatchability under rural feeding management. A total of 135 forty weeks old females and 27 males were used in the study. They were fed on low (17.5%), medium (19.5%) and high (21.5%) crude protein (CP) in diets containing approximately 3050 kcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg and maintained for 18 weeks in three mating ratios, each replicated three times. The ratios of natural mating were: 1:4, 1:5 and 1:6. A total of 450 selected hatching eggs per treatment were collected and stored for 4 to 6 days, then were incubated for hatching performance. Egg production (EP), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and egg weight (EW) were determined and it was found that feeding regimens influenced these parameters. Feeding 19.5% CP diet showed the highest values of egg production (EP), feed conversion ratio FCR, egg weight (EW) and egg mass production (EM) during 40 to 58 wks. The values of feed intake (FI), EP, FCR and EM were affected by sex ratios. The ratio of 1:4 was the best mating ratio for local ducks with higher productive performance. The 19.5% crude protein diet was adequate for hatching performance at sex ratio of 1:5.
    Keywords: egg production, egg weight, fertility, natural mating
  • Application of Sinusoidal Equations to Partitioning Crude Protein and Metabolizable Energy Intake between Maintenance and Growth in Parent Stock of Broiler Chickens
    H. Darmani Kuhi, S. L?pez, A. Shabanpour, A. Mohit *, S. Falahi, J. France Pages 299-308
    Most models developed for poultry are linear to the point where genetic potential is reached. Models reliant on the premise that growth rate determines requirements based on some fixed rate of nutrient utilization do not adequately represent the biological phenomena involved. Therefore, a dichotomy between the accepted theories of nutrient utilization in animals and the assumptions of mathematical models to predict and analyze those requirements is evident. Since, responses of animals to dietary energy, protein and amino acids are curvilinear phenomena, they should be evaluated as such to estimate optimum economic levels, rather than as biological maxima. The objective of this study was to apply two sinusoidal functions exhibiting curvilinear behaviour to estimate metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) requirements for maintenance and growth in parent stock of boiler chickens. The functions were fitted by non-linear regression to estimate the parameters, from which other biological indicators were calculated. The results of fitting the functions to data sets and their statistical performance and the biological interpretability of the parameter estimates showed the models’ capability in describing the relationship between body weight (BW) gain and ME (or CP) intake in parent stock of broiler chickens. The estimated maintenance requirements and the determined values of ME and CP requirements for BW gain were consistent with values reported previously by other researchers.
    Keywords: broiler parent stock, metabolizable energy, modeling growth, nutritional require-ments, protein, sinusoidal functions
  • Effects of Different Levels of Guar Meal and β-Mannanase on Performance, Yolk Cholesterol Concentration and Blood Lipid Parameters of Laying Hens in Second-Cycle of Production
    M. Hasani, M. Rezaei, Z. Ansari Pirsaraei, K. Yussefi Kelarikolaei * Pages 309-313
    A 3 × 2 factorial arrangements with completely randomized design, with a total of 72 Leghorn Hy-line (W-36) laying hens in the second cycle (98 wk old) of production were randomly assigned to 24 wire cages (45.7×30×30 cm3) and fed with diets containing three levels of guar meal (GM; 0, 4 and 8%) and two levels of β-mannanase (Hemicell®) enzyme (0.00 and 0.05%) for 12 wk period. There were four replicates per treatment with three hens in each replicate. Egg yolk cholesterol and serum lipids (triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)) concentrations were measured at 110 wk of age. No significant differences were observed when feeding GM on egg production (EP), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Supplementation of enzyme significantly reduced FI and improved FCR (P<0.05). Significant interaction was observed between enzyme and GM on egg weight (EW) and egg mass (EM) (P<0.05). Adding enzyme, decreased EW and EM in 4% GM diet but had diverse effect in control diet. The results of this study indicated that GM can be used in laying hens diets in the second-cycle of production up to 8% without any adverse effects on performance. The GM diets reduced serum triglyceride (P<0.05) and slightly egg yolk cholesterol concentrations. Supplementation of beta-mannanase enzyme significantly improved FCR by decreasing FI and also has significantly effect on decreasing egg yolk cholesterol and serum triglyceride (P<0.05).
    Keywords: cholesterol, enzyme, guar meal, laying hen, Performance
  • Effects of Different Levels of Resistant Starch on Growth Performance and Ileum Morphology in Broilers: A Comparison to Fructooligosaccharide and Zinc Bacitracin
    K. Lotfi, A. Mahdavi *, A. Jebelli Javan, H. Staji, B. Darabighane Pages 315-322
    This study was conducted to examine effects of resistant starch compared to fructooligosaccharide (FOS) and zinc bacitracin (ZnB), on performance and ileum morphology in broilers. The experiment groups included a control (basal diet with no additive; CON), four groups receiving different levels of resistant starch type 2 (1, 2, 3, and 4% added to basal diet; RS), a group receiving fructooligosaccharide (0.4% in basal diet; FOS), and a group receiving Zinc bacitracin (50 mg/kg basal diet; ZnB). The findings on the day 35 indicated that the groups that received 2% and 3% RS were not significantly different from the FOS group and the ZnB group in terms of feed intake. The largest body weight and the smallest feed conversion ratio was found in the ZnB group (P<0.05). Body weights in the groups treated with 3% and 4% RS were not significantly different from the FOS group. The 3% and 4% RS groups had a greater villus height (P<0.05) and a smaller crypt depth compared to the FOS group. These results demonstrated that while the ZnB group had a better performance than other groups, it seems that adding 3% and 4% RS resulted in a performance similar to adding FOS.
    Keywords: antibiotic, broiler, prebiotic, resistant starch
  • Relationship in Broiler Breast Meat Quality and some Blood Parameters: Implications of Different Colours Clothes and Visual Human Contact
    E. Dereli Fidan * Pages 323-328
    The goals of this research were to estimate the phenotypic relationship among various breat meat quality traits, blood parameters and tonic immobility from a broiler and to describe the relation among these variables. Broiler chicks were devided into different groups: (1) colour clothing groups represented four different colours as red, blue, green, and gray and (2) the chicks that were subjected to visual human contact for 60 and 300 sec. A total of 192 chicks, one day-old, were randomly assigned to eight treatment groups according to the colour clothing and visual human contact. Hatching weights for red, blue, green and gray clothing colour groups were found as 47.10, 48.35, 46.67, and 47.05 g, and for 60 and 300 sec visual human contact groups were determined as 47.34 and 47.24 g, respectively. Cooking loss had a significant negative relationship with pH at 15 minutes after slaughter (pH15) in the red clothes group. Water holding capacity had a negative correlations (r=-0.355 and -0.489) with pH at 24 hours after slaughter (pHu) in the 60 and 300 sec groups, respectively. Total protein level had a high degree and positive correlation (r=0.675) with cholesterol level in the red clothes group. Tonic immobility (TI) duration had significant relationship with TI induction in the green clothes group. The a* colour value of breast meat showed a moderate negative and significant correlation with the variables L* value of breast meat (-0.574 (P<0.01) and -0.373 (P<0.05), respectively) in gray clothing and 300 sec visual contact group. These finding have a lot of implications on the use of gray colour clothing and 300 s visual contact to improve meat quality for welfare in broilers.
    Keywords: blood parameters, meat quality, relationship, tonic immobility, visual contact
  • Iron Loaded Chitooligosaccharide Nanoparticles Reduces Incidence of Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis in Broiler Chickens
    A. Yousefi, A.A. Saki * Pages 329-336
    The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary iron-loaded chitooligosacharide nanoparticles (Fe-CNP) on occurrence of bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis (BCO) in broiler chickens. Four hundred eighty day-old chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to four treatments with six replicates of 20 birds. All chicks were reared on wire flooring system up to 42 days of age. The control diet was formulated to meet the Aviagen recommendations except for iron supplement. The experimental groups were contain: 10 mg/kg Fe from Fe-CNP (group Fe-CNP), 20 mg/kg Fe from FeSO4 (group FeSO4) and 20 mg/kg Fe from FeSO4 + CNP (group FeSO4+CNP). Results showed a significant increase in production efficiency factor, weight gain and FCR in all Fe supplemented groups (P<0.05) compared to the control. Feed intake was not differed significantly between groups (P>0.05). Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level decreased significantly by Fe-CNP, whereas serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) level increased significantly in this group (P<0.05). The prevalence of impaired gait scores (GS≥3) in live birds in day 42 did not show a significant difference between dietary treatments (P>0.05). Lame broilers evaluation showed that lower control and Fe-CNP had lower impaired gaits (P<0.05). Supplementation of FeSO4 significantly increased the percentage of femur and tibia lesions (P<0.05). Leg evaluation of live broilers showed that Fe-CNP and control groups exhibited a higher incidence of normal femur (NF) and a lower percentage of transitional femur necrosis (FHT) and total femur lesions (All F; P<0.05). Femoral head necrosis (FHN) and FHS were not affected significantly by dietary treatments (P>0.05). Totally, Fe-CNP supplement, by improving immune system, reduced the prevalence of BCO lesions in broiler chickens.
    Keywords: bacterial chondronecrosis, broiler chicken, chitooligisaccharide, iron, lameness
  • Dietary Garlic Powder Supplementation Could Ameliorate Unfavorable Effects of Choline Deficiency on the Liver Health and Immune System of Broiler Chickens
    B. Navidshad *, Z. Maghsoodi, S. Nikbin, A. Kalantari Hesari Pages 337-346
    Effects of different levels of choline and garlic powder on performance, liver health and immune response in broiler chickens were evaluated in this study. A factorial experiment with 2 dietary choline levels (the recommended level in Ross 308 broiler guidelines and 25 % less than the recommendation) and 3 dietary garlic powder levels (0, 5 or 10 g/kg diet) was conducted using Ross 308 broiler chickens. Four hundred eighty 1-d-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly divided into 6 dietary treatments, each containing 4 replicate pens, with 20 birds each. During the finisher phase (d 25 to 42), dietary supplementation with 5 and 10 g/kg of garlic powder increased feed intake. At finisher phase and the whole experimental period, dietary supplementation with 10 g/kg of garlic powder improved the daily weight gain. During the finisher phase and the whole experimental period, the daily weight gain of birds fed low choline diets was less than that of birds fed recommended choline level. During the finisher phase and the whole experimental period, dietary choline deficiency increased feed conversion ratio. Choline deficiency decreased serum IgM level, and IgM concentration was higher in chicks fed diet with 5 g/kg garlic powder. However, dietary garlic powder at 10 g/kg level increased the total white blood cells and reduced the heterophyles numbers. Diets deficient in choline and also 10 g/kg dietary garlic powder increased the liver fat deposits. The liver Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) enzyme levels in the serum of chicks fed the choline-deficient diets were higher compared to birds fed the diets with recommended choline level. Consumption of garlic powder at 10 g/kg level, lowered serum CPK enzyme levels compared with the diets containing zero or 5 g/kg garlic powder. Choline deficiency and also dietary garlic regardless of its dosage were reduced the levels of serum triglycerides and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). However, serum HDL were decreased in chickens fed 5 g/kg garlic powder compared with those fed garlic free diets. The findings of this study suggest that the effect of garlic powder in addressing the adverse effects caused by deficiency of choline are not through lipid metabolism improvement and more likely are due to the beneficial effects of garlic on increased feed intake , which increased choline intake and improved immune system function.
    Keywords: broilers, choline, garlic powder, immune system, Performance
  • Effects of Spirulina platensis on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Egg Traits and Immunity Response of Japanese Quails
    H. Hajati *, M. Zaghari Pages 347-357
    In present study, two trials had been conducted to evaluate the effects of Spirulina platensis (SP) on growth performance, carcass characteristics, egg quantity and quality traits, and immunity response of Japanese quails. In trial 1, a total number of 180 one-day-old Japanese quails were randomly assigned into 6 groups, 3 replicates with 10 quail chicks per replicate. Experimental diets including basal diet (with no additive), diet contained probiotic, and diets contained 4 levels of SP (2.5, 5, 10, 20 g/kg diet). In trial 2, a total number of 250 Japanese laying quails were randomly assigned into 5 groups, 5 replicates with 10 laying quails per replicate. Experimental diets included of basal diet (no additive) and diets supplemented with three levels of SP (1, 3 or 5 g/kg diet). In experiment 1, using 5 g SP/kg diet caused higher body weight gain and European production efficiency factor during 1-35 d of age (P<0.05). Using SP at the levels of 2.5 or 5 g/kg diet increased breast percentage (P<0.05). In experiment 2, using different levels of SP decreased shell thickness, albumen height, haugh unit and yolk height in laying quails (P<0.05). However, Feeding different levels of SP increased (P< 0.05) egg yolk color compared to control group linearly. Dietary supplementation of SP at levels of 3 and 5 g/kg diet decreased cholesterol level per g yolk (P<0.05). Different levels of SP caused higher levels of total antibody against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and IgG titers (P<0.05). Laying quails fed with 3 or 5 g SP/kg showed higher cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity after 12 or 24 h of phytohemagglutinin injection (P<0.05). In conclusion, we recommend using SP at the levels of 5 and 3 g/kg diet during growth and laying period of Japanese quails, respectively.
    Keywords: egg quality, immunity, quail, Spirulina platensis