فهرست مطالب

نیارش - پیاپی 9 (بهار 1394)
  • پیاپی 9 (بهار 1394)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Mahtab Maali Page 5
    With regards to the fact that women and children constitute as a major part of urban society, exact planning in order to provide the overall security especially security in pathways and pay attention to the urban furniture and private areas for women and proper architecture by urban managers and authorities seem to be necessary. This paper investigates the position and foothold of women in urbanism alongside focusing on the concepts of environmental psychology and its importance in relationships between human and skeletal environment, their effects on each other and regarding to the link between psychological areas and architecture. Consequently, the linkage between job and family for women is discussed as a necessity in urban design, so security is studied as a vital factor for women in urban space. Relationship between women and society areas, engagement, transportation and relocation was revised and finally strategies were offered for enjoying social cooperation of women as well as principles of architecture and urban development for generating proper urban spaces according to their needs. Descriptive, analytical and case study is used in recent research. Data collection has been carried out on the basis of documents and library study as well as global network (internet).
    Keywords: environmental psychology, improvement of urbanspaces, the role of womenin urban spaces
  • Tohid Ahmadi Page 17
    In the new age, city planning in order to flourish and achieve their aspirations, are required to follow principles of sustainable development. Until urban sustainable, economically, socially and environmentally offered to citizens. Achievement of sustainable urban development in sustainable urban planning, Requires the cities that from urban growth and economic development view, income and employment can provide the needs of citizens. In terms of social justice valued to equal opportunities for a better life, quality of life and citizen participation in all urban affairs. In terms of urban health and environmental problems consider that there is no various pollution. On the other hand pay attention to, spatial and physical aspects of the city as well as the optimal future development. This article with descriptiveanalytical method study the necessity of paying attention to the principles of sustainable development in urban planning And indicators of sustainable urban development in urban planning will be analyzed.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development, City, Urban Planning, Indicat
  • Leyla Kazemi, Nasibeh Badri Benam, Hanieh Badri Benam Page 26
    Art and architecture have always followed distinct principles and criteria which have unbreakable connection with culture, beliefs and values ruling the society. On the other hand, the human pays attention to symbol and symbolize to remark the religious concepts and overcome the gap between his conscious and unconscious mine. In architecture the application of symbol is the strongest and the most meaningful art among the arts and is considered as one of the most Fundamental concepts of meaning in semiotics .The religious monuments in the art Islamic Iranian architecture are contiguous collection and within a glance of the evolution various faces and their source become significant. Considering the point that the sacred space is a place in which the connection between the present world and the other (the inferior and superior worlds; sky and earth) becomes possible, at the present paper the concept of sacred threshold as an old pattern is considered through analytic descriptive method. And since such concept is taken away from the unconscious mind of human being, an identical language pattern in architecture can be achieved by discovering the other meaning and as a result the human’s interact with the architectural space can be promoted. The separation and change of space qualities which result from a view of the hierarchy of life stage and passing these stages lead to shaping of the concepts like bridge, threshold, gate, porch and the sacredness of various entrances. Therefore, in order to reflect the concepts of sacredness at the entrances of mosques in Safavi period and perceiving the effects of thoughts on the formation of hierarchy system, the thought procedures of Safavi period in architecture have been assumed as one of the reasons of emerging the semantic and physical difference. The goal of this research is to investigate the typology of entrance based on the concept of the sacred threshold. It has been concluded that the sacred threshold, for example, the threshold of mosques in Safavi period at the presence of exalted meaning has a close interaction with the other physical and architectural hierarchies.
    Keywords: Symbol, Archetype, Sacred Transition, SafaviMosques, Old Pattern
  • Faezeh Amiripouya, Khosrow Afzalian, Hooman Bahmanpour Page 37
    Increasing urbanization has led to urban sprawl in developing countries. There has been significant growth in replacing green areas with skyscrapers and thus pollution of the environment. One of the modern solutions to such urban problems is ‘green roofs’. A green roof is one with parts or all of surface covered with soil and vegetation. Green roof, is An Environmental technology, capable of functioning in a variety of different buildings. Among the benefits of green roofs in improving the environment mentioned in this study, improvement in air quality, decrement of heat island phenomenon, rainfall water management, reduction of carbon dioxide and noise pollution. Could be listed considering the growth in urbanization and the lack of green space, attending the positive effects of green roof in improving the environment is inevitable. This study tends to investigate the history of green roof, types of green roof, green roof plants used, the effects of green roofs in improving the environment. The methodology implied is Functional due to the purpose environmental improvement. Also since green roof is responsible improving. The current state of the environment it has been a survey, and the data is qualitative. Considering the subject methodology, is descriptive analytic and data gathering is documentary (library based). The result reveal three types of green roof systems: intensive system, extensive system and is a planter box system. Green roofs help reduce the amount of pollutants and heavy metal particles in in the air. The plants are capable of reducing carbon dioxide and providing oxygen. The Heat island effect could be reduced using green roof vegetation. This also can result in less use of air conditioning and ventilation systems. The combination of soil and vegetation in green roofs act as an acoustic insulation which absorbs reflects or deflects sound waves. Depending on the thickness of the bed. Green roofs are also effective in reducing the amount of superficial flow, improving its quality and reducing sewage overflow.
    Keywords: Green roof, Environment, Air pollution, Heat island, Noise pollution
  • Oldooz samarghandi Page 49
    Iran has the largest world’s architectural heritage. From Iran’s oldest architectural landmark Chogha Zanbil ziggurat, which was built about 1250 years before the birth of Christ to the contemporary era monuments, history encompasses more than 3 thousand years in shaping and advancing the architecture of the world. In this paper, the architecture of the tombs of the Medes period is analyzed, which due to lack of evidence is not an easy task, certainly Medes like their predecessors had been subject of architectural monuments which confirmed the office works from explorations of the recent archaeological Hegmataneh district and rock architecture that remains of them. Finally, after research done in this case, the results show that the real quality search and pure architectural space that comes from harmony with the demands of human and nature, in some approaches to visual perception and in some other deep conceptual reference architecture has changed. The perception of architectural space and identify the nature of its defining criteria for evaluation of the background to this approach. This study, answering and proving hypotheses as possible, and how to analyze the data based on ethnic relations and to explore the content of elements in the figures taking into account the context to conclude several more precise and in-depth is the population, material of shrines in Iran
    Keywords: Architecture, Tomb, Median Era
  • Rahim GholamHoseini, Shaahin Alizadeh Page 63
    After 1989 that sustainable development was proposed as a fundamental concept in Brandt Land report, this topic was the focus of planning at various levels. Since the city is as a livable and healthy place of citizens, And since the growth of cities in the Third World, usually is not based on the principles of sustainable development and urban planning is not correct and prospective, it is essential that effective steps should be taken towards sustainability. Spatial inequality in urban areas in less developed countries is rising dramatically, making the caste economic - social segregation in the urban areas. One of the main factors that cause segregation and inequality in the use of facilities and utilities is the uneven distribution of services in urban areas. This study aims to investigate inequalities in urban areas in terms of economic, social and physical development index at the Khorram- Dareh urban areas. Due to the efficiency of electric models (ELECTRE) 10 economic, social and physical indexes have been used. Type of research is applied and its method is descriptive- analytical. The results of the ELECTRE model indicate that the districts number 1 and 3 in terms of economic, social and physical development indexes are in good condition and district number 6 is in the most inappropriate situation, indicates that urban districts of Khorram-Dareh city in terms of economic, social and physical development indexes are quite different.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development, Inequality, ELECTRE Model, Khorram-Dareh city
  • Nastaran Ahmadi Marand, Lida Balilan Asl Page 73
    Human beings have intrinsic need to the establishment of social relationships, hence they provide conditions so they can be able analyze that social relationship at social & cultural relationships occur in the space. Therefore, the space included these relationships (cultural and social) between the special group and special place. Since the concept of space is an express of mutual relationships between human and the physical elements of environment and inside the each physical environment there is a performance environment comprised of various performance space that is the place of human`s actions& activities and it is created from the mutual actions between human and environment, consistency of these environments is so essential and access to it will be possible through the spatial organizing. In addition , imaginations are the intersection of human and environment and the origin of activities and behaviors, so design of each environment should began with having the ideas of people`s environmental quality imaginations. In this paper, as result of investigation of the mentioned issues, space readability and clear conception of the opportunities that the space provide for them, is being inspected and recognized as one of the effective element in usage of it and promotion of tendency to participation at social life and events experiences& informed& targeted social relationships of people.
    Keywords: Human, Space, SocialRelationships, Readability