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مدیریت مدرسه - سال هفتم شماره 2 (تابستان 1398)
  • سال هفتم شماره 2 (تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • مجتبی طاهری، رضا هویدا* صفحه 1

    هدف پژوهش حاضر، معرفی سازه رهبری تاملی و نقش آن در بهبود باورهای خودکارآمدی معلمان بود. این پژوهش از نوع همبستگی با مشارکت 327 نفر از معلمان دبیرستان دوره اول شهر اصفهان انجام شد. داده های پژوهش با استفاده از پرسشنامه محقق ساخته رهبری تاملی مدیران مدارس بر اساس الگوی یکپارچه رهبری تاملی کستلی (2012، 2016) و پرسشنامه خودکارآمدی معلم شانن - موران و ولفوک هوی (2001) گردآوری شد. روایی سازه و محتوایی پرسشنامه ها تعیین گردید و پایایی پرسشنامه های رهبری تاملی مدیران و خودکارآمدی معلمان با استفاده از آلفای کرونباخ به ترتیب 96/0 و 92/0 بدست آمد. یافته های پژوهش نشان داد که بین رهبری تاملی مدیران مدارس با خودکارآمدی معلمان رابطه مستقیم و معناداری وجود دارد. همچنین از بین مولفه های رهبری تاملی مدیران، مولفه هدف و معناداری بهترین پیش بینی کننده خودکارآمدی معلمان بود. رهبری تاملی مدیران 77 درصد تغییرات مولفه ی کارآمدی در راهبردهای تدریس، 28 درصد تغییرات مولفه ی مدیریت کلاس و 71 درصد تغییرات مولفه ی ایجاد اشتیاق در دانش آموزان توسط معلمان را پیش بینی می کند. رهبری تاملی مدیران مدارس از مسیر پیوند دانش و تجربه می تواند باور به خودکارآمدی را در معلمان تقویت و پرورش دهد. واژه های کلیدی: رهبری تاملی، خودکارآمدی معلم، رویه های تاملی، مدارس متوسطه.

    کلیدواژگان: رهبری تاملی، خودکارآمدی معلم، رویه های تاملی، مدارس متوسطه
  • حمید رحیمی*، فائزه خیامی صفحه 2

    بی تفاوتی سازمانی به بی انگیزگی، کاهش تعهد سازمانی، کاهش عملکرد سازمانی، مشارکت بین افراد، کاهش مزیت رقابتی و خلاقیت کارکنان منجر می شود و سازمان را در رسیدن به اهدافش باز می دارد. لذا هدف تحقیق حاضر، بررسی پیشایندها و پسایندهای بی تفاوتی سازمانی در بین معلمان مدارس کاشان بود. نوع تحقیق از نظر هدف کاربردی و از نظر اجرا، توصیفی پیمایشی بود. جامعه آماری شامل معلمان شهر کاشان در سال تحصیلی 98-1397 به تعداد 3731 نفر بود که از میان آن ها با استفاده از فرمول کوکران و به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای، 245 نفر به عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. جهت گرداوری داده ها از سه پرسشنامه محقق ساخته پیشایندها در 15 گویه، پرسشنامه استاندارد بی تفاوتی سازمانی با 33 گویه و پرسشنامه پسایندها با 18 گویه بر حسب طیف پنج درجه ای لیکرت، استفاده شد. روایی پرسشنامه ها به صورت محتوایی و سازه تایید شد. پایایی پرسشنامه از طریق ضریب آلفای کرونباخ برای پیشایندها 85/، بی تفاوتی سازمانی 95/0 و پسایندها 87/0 برآورد گردید. تحلیل داده ها در سطح توصیفی و استنباطی انجام گرفت. یافته ها نشان داد میانگین کیفیت زندگی کاری و حمایت سازمانی، پایین تر از حد متوسط و میانگین استرس شغلی بالاتر از حد متوسط بود. میانگین همه مولفه های بی تفاوتی سازمانی، پایین تر از حد متوسط و میانگین پسایندهای بی تفاوتی سازمانی، بالاتر از حد متوسط بود. بین پیشایندها و بی تفاوتی سازمانی رابطه منفی و غیرمعنادار و بین بی تفاوتی سازمانی و پسایندها رابطه منفی و معنادار وجود دارد.

    کلیدواژگان: پیشایندها، بی تفاوتی سازمانی، پسایندها، معلمان
  • بهاره عزیزی نژاد*، ابراهیم ملکوتی صفحه 3

    روش پژوهش ازنظر هدف، کاربردی و به لحاظ شیوه تحلیل از نوع توصیفی- همبستگی است. جامعه آماری مشتمل بر مدیران مدارس آموزش وپرورش ناحیه 1 و 2  ارومیه به تعداد 143 نفر بود که از میان آن ها 104 نفر با فرمول کوکران و به شیوه تصادفی طبقه ای متناسب با حجم به عنوان نمونه آماری انتخاب شدند. ابزار تحقیق شامل دو پرسشنامه فرهنگ سازمانی و پذیرش طرح تعالی مدیریت بود که روایی آن ها به روش محتوایی مورد تائید قرار گرفت و پایایی آن ها به ترتیب، 91/0 و 88/0 تعیین گردید؛ داده ها در سطوح توصیفی و استنباطی (ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و رگرسیون گام به گام) تحلیل شدند. اهم نتایج حاصله نشان داد که بین فرهنگ سازمانی و مولفه های آن (توافقی، عقلایی، سلسله مراتبی و ایدئولوژیک) با پذیرش طرح تعالی مدیریت رابطه مثبت و معنی دار وجود دارد. متغیر فرهنگ سازمانی از توان پیش بینی واریانس متغیر پذیرش طرح تعالی مدیریت برخوردار است و از بین مولفه های فرهنگ سازمانی، فرهنگ ایدئولوژیک بیشترین سهم را بر عهده دارد. در پایان پیشنهادهای کاربردی در راستای نتایج به دست آمده ارائه شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ سازمانی، ابعاد فرهنگ سازمانی، پذیرش طرح تعالی مدیریت، مدارس دوره ابتدایی
  • فاطمه اسلامیه، معصومه اولادیان*، محمود صفری صفحه 4

    از نظر هدف،کاربردی و از نظر جمع آوری داده ها،دارای رویکرد آمیخته اکتشافی(کیفی-کمی)است. جامعه آماری در بخش کیفی،خبرگان آشنا و مسلط به مدارس سبز و در بخش کمی، مدیران زن و مرد مدارس دولتی و غیردولتی دوره ابتدایی مناطق 19گانه آموزش و پرورش شهر تهران بود(1862=N).حجم نمونه در بخش کیفی با اشباع نظری(12=n)و در بخش کمی بر اساس فرمول«کوکران»(350=n)برآورد شد.برای انتخاب نمونه در بخش کیفی از نمونه گیری هدفمند و در بخش کمی از نمونه گیری تلفیقی(تصادفی خوشه ای و طبقه ای)استفاده شد.ابزار گردآوری داده ها در بخش کیفی، مصاحبه به روش«گروه کانونی»و در بخش کمی، پرسشنامه بر مبنای مقیاس پنج درجه ای لیکرت بود.روایی مصاحبه با روش«مثلث سازی»و پایایی آن از طریق ضریب«کاپای کوهن»(714/0=K) مورد ارزیابی و تایید قرار گرفت.روایی پرسشنامه از لحاظ منطقی (صوری و محتوایی) از طریق نظرسنجی از چند نفر از خبرگان،روایی همگرا از طریق محاسبهAVE و روایی واگرا از طریق محاسبه جذرAVE به تایید رسید.پایایی پرسشنامه از طریق آلفای کرونباخ 846/0=α و از طریق بازآزمایی 849/0=α به دست آمد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها در بخش کیفی از ضریب کاپای کوهن و کدگذاری باز و محوری و در بخش کمی،از آزمون هایAVE، جذرAVE، آلفای کرونباخ، بازآزمایی و تحلیل عاملی تاییدی به واسطه نرم افزارهای آماری SPSS، Lisrel، Smart-PLS استفاده شد.نتایج در بخش کیفی به شناسایی 3بعد، 9مولفه و30 شاخص جهت«طراحی الگوی مفهومی مدارس سبز در ایران»انجامید. در بخش کمی،مشخص شد که مقادیر به دست آمده در شاخص های برازش مطابق با استانداردهای قابل قبول است و می توان با اطمینان اظهار نمود که الگوی پژوهش از برازش مناسبی برخوردار است.

    کلیدواژگان: مدارس، سبز، نظام آموزش، و پرورش ایران
  • محمد مکوندی صفحه 5

    پژوهش حاضر بصورت کیفی انجام شده است و روش جمع آوری داده ها میدانی مصاحبه ای غیر ساختارمند است، برای اینکه اطلاعات بدست آمده از یک مصاحبه غیر ساختارمند بر خلاف مصاحبه ساختارمند که احتمال مناسکی شدن در آن بیشتر است؛کاملا خودانگیخته است و انطباق بیشتری با واقعیت دارد.قصد بر آن است که جامعه مورد نمونه، مناسب اهداف تحقیق باشد.بنابراین از نمونه گیری قضاوتی و در دسترس که از طرح های نمونه گیری غیر تصادفی هدفمندتر است، استفاده شده است.روش تحلیل داده ها نیز به دلیل ماهیت پژوهش تجزیه و تحلیل کیفی خواهد بود.پژوهش حاضر با تکیه بر تئوری عقلانیت چهارگانه اسنلن(عقلانیت اقتصادی، سیاسی، حقوقی و حرفه ای) به عنوان سازه نظری، به طور موردی به مطالعه طرح انتخاب مدیران با رای دبیران پرداخته است..یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد که بجز عقلانیت قانونی که در حد متوسط بوده بقیه عقلانیت ها بسیار بالا بوده و این طرح، طرح بسیار خوبی بوده که نیاز هست دوباره اجرا شود و اشکالات آن برطرف گردد.

    کلیدواژگان: عقلانیت سیاسی، عقلانیت اقتصادی، عقلانیت قانونی، عقلانیت حرفه ای، انتخاب مدیران
  • خدیجه بزرگی نژاد*، رضا زارعی، پروین رزمجویی صفحه 6

    پژوهش حاضر باهدف ارائه ی الگوی مطلوب فرهنگ سازمانی آموزش وپرورش با رویکرد تبادلات اجتماعی انجام شد. این تحقیق یک راهبرد ترکیبی از نوع متوالی اکتشافی است که به صورت مطالعه موردی در شهر فیروزآباد انجام شد. جامعه آماری شامل معلمان رسمی آموزش وپرورش با بیش از 15 سال سابقه کار بود که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری موازی برای بخش های کیفی و کمی نمونه گیری صورت گرفت. نمونه گیری بخش کیفی به روش گلوله برفی انجام شد و با 9 نفر از معلمان تا رسیدن به اشباع نظری مصاحبه انجام گردید. تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها با استفاده از تحلیل مضمون انجام و از یافته های آن، چهار نوع فرهنگ سازمانی کمال گرایی، تعامل گرایی، توسعه گرایی و ماموریت گرایی استخراج گردید. نمونه گیری بخش کمی به روش تصادفی ساده انجام و 30 نفر از خبرگان آموزش وپرورش انتخاب شدند. ابزار مورداستفاده در این بخش، پرسشنامه محقق ساخته بود که بر اساس ویژگی ها و شاخص های فرهنگ سازمانی مطلوب آموزش وپرورش در بخش کیفی با 48 گویه و مقیاس هفت گانه لیکرت تنظیم گردید. تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها با استفاده از آمار توصیفی، آزمون t تک نمونه ای و آزمون فریدمن انجام شد. نتایج نشان می دهد که از نظر خبرگان، فرهنگ کمال گرایی و ماموریت گرایی در جایگاه بالاتری قرار دارد و از 24 شاخص فرهنگ ها، شاخص منزلت اجتماعی و تخصصی بالاترین میانگین و شاخص خطرپذیری از پایین ترین میانگین برخوردار هستند.

    کلیدواژگان: فرهنگ سازمانی، تبادلات اجتماعی، کمال گرایی، منزلت غیررسمی، آموزش وپرورش
  • کیومرث امجدیان*، علی تقی پور ظهیر، افسانه زمانی مقدم صفحه 7

    این پژوهش از نوع کاربردی و کمی بوده و به منظور ارائه مدلی برای بهبود و ارتقاء رهبری معنوی در مدیریت مدارس ابتدایی شهر تهران در میان 375 نفر از معلمان این مدارس(15103 نفر)  که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری ترکیبی(طبقه ای و خوشه ای چند مرحله ای) انتخاب شدند و تعداد 10 نفر از  صاحبنظران مدیریت و آموزش و پرورش با استفاده از روش هدفمند انتخاب گردیدند، به اجرا درآمد. برای گردآوری داده ها از پرسشنامه محقق ساخته بهره گرفته شد و روایی صوری آن از طریق اجرای آزمایشی و روایی محتوایی بر اساس قضاوت خبرگان و مرور جامع ادبیات انجام پذیرفت. پایایی پرسشنامه نیز از طریق ضریب آلفای کرانباخ (85/.) محاسبه شد. به منظور تجزیه و تحلیل داده ها در بخش کیفی ، از تکنیک دلفی و کدگذاری باز و در بخش کمی ، به صورت توصیفی از درصد، میانگین و انحراف معیار و برای نرمال بودن داده های از آزمون کولموگروف-اسمیرنوف بهره گرفته شد. اما در روش استنباطی از طریق تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی و تاییدی، آزمون تی زوجی و تک نمونه ای و مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری انجام شد. با توجه به نتایج پژوهش، به ترتیب اهمیت 4 مولفه ی ایمان(شامل 19 شاخص)، تعهد سازمانی(شامل 10 شاخص)، معناداری(شامل 6 شاخص) و تقوا(شامل 19 شاخص) شناسایی و مورد تایید قرار گرفته اند که دارای برازش مطلوبی بودند.

    کلیدواژگان: &quot، رهبری&quot، معنویت&quot، رهبری، معنوی&quot
  • حبیبه نجفی، علی خالق خواه* صفحه 8

    این پژوهش، مطالعه ای توصیفی- همبستگی  بود. جامعه  موردمطالعه، معلمان مدارس منطقه 4 تبریز به تعداد 110 نفر بودند که  به روش تصادفی انتخاب شدند. حجم نمونه به وسیله جدول کرجسی- مورگان به تعداد 86 نفر برآورد شد. جهت جمع آوری داده ها  از دو عدد پرسشنامه استاندارد، فرهنگ سازمانی (Denison, 2000) و عدالت سازمانی (Morman, 1995  & Nihoff) استفاده شد. تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها با استفاده از آزمون های ضریب همبستگی پیرسون، t  تک نمونه ای، آنوا و رگرسیون انجام گردیده است. نتایج همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد که بین مولفه های فرهنگ سازمانی و عدالت سازمانی به جز مولفه انطباق پذیری همبستگی مثبت و معناداری وجود دارد. تجزیه وتحلیل واریانس (آنوا) نشان داد که بین فرهنگ سازمانی و عدالت سازمانی ازنظر سابقه خدمت و سطح تحصیلات تفاوت معناداری وجود ندارد. رگرسیون نشان داد که  ابعاد : -  تعهد به مشارکت، سازگاری و رسالت-  قادر هستند به میزان 3/17 درصد از کل واریانس عدالت ادارک شده را تبیین نمایند که بالاترین آن مربوط به تعهد به مشارکت می باشد. وضعیت فرهنگ سازمانی و ادراک عدالت ازنظر معلمان پایین تر از حد متوسط  می باشد و مدیریت مدرسه باید در جهت تقویت ابعاد هر دو مولفه برای افزایش کارایی مدرسه تلاش نماید.

    کلیدواژگان: عدالت سازمانی، رسالت، تعهد به مشارکت، سازگاری، انطباق پذیری
  • حنیف حاج آقایی، علی خلخالی* صفحه 9
    هدف

    سازه مدارس کارآفرین با درک تغییرات پارادایمی گسترده در عرصه خلق ثروت ناشی از نوارزش آفرینی و بازیابی سهم سیستم های آموزشی در این تحول، مفهوم سازی شده است. البته محور طراحی و استقرار یک مدرسه کارآفرین، استقرار یک اکوسیستم کارآفرینی است، لذا مدارسی که قصد دارند تبدیل به مدارس کارآفرین شوند، لازم است مرتبا وضعیت اکوسیستم کارآفرینی خود را پایش نمایند.. از این جهت هدف مقاله حاضر توصیف فرایند ساخت و هنجاریابی مقیاسی بومی جهت پایش اکوسیستم کارآفرینی با محوریت مدارس ایران است.

    روش

    پژوهش گزارش شده در این مقاله توصیفی از نوع همبستگی بود. ابزار مورد استفاده در این پژوهش یک مقیاس اقتباس و بازسازی شده است. جامعه پژوهش کلیه صاحب نظران حوزه کارآفرینی کشور بودند. با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری هدفمند تعداد 100 تن بر اساس دامنه فعالیت و نظریه پردازی در عرصه های مختلف کارآفرینی به عنوان نمونه نهایی انتخاب شده بودند. بررسی پایایی این مقیاس به کمک روش بازآزمایی و آلفای کرونباخ و روایی آن با بهره گیری از تحلیل عاملی انجام شد.

    یافته ها

    یافته ها پنج عامل اصلی را به عنوان معرف اکوسیستم کارآفرینی در مدارس ایران بازنمایی کرد. همچنین ضریب پایایی همسانی درونی برای هر یک از عوامل و کل پرسشنامه در حد مناسب برآورد شدند.

    نتیجه گیری

    مقیاس طراحی و اعتباریابی شده در این پژوهش از قابلیت های لازم برای پایش اکوسیستم کارآفرینی در مدارس ایران برخوردار است. همچنین از مولفه های این مقیاس می توان در استقرار یک مدرسه کارآفرین بهره گیری کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: مدرسه کارآفرین، اکوسیستم کارآفرینی، آموزش کارآفرینی، اشتغال پذیری
  • برازش مدل عجین شدگی شغلی معلمان مبتنی بر ادراک از رفتار خادمانه مدیران مدارس و کیفیت زندگی کاری آنها
    علیرضا امینی* صفحه 10

    این مقاله مدلی را ارائه و آزمون می کند که از طریق آن درک بهتری نسبت به پیامدهای رفتارخادمانه مدیران مبتنی بر مسئولیت پذیری شخصی، وقف خود نسبت به اهداف سازمان و ترجیح منافع سازمان بر منافع فردی بر عجین شدگی شغلی معلمان یعنی میزان انرژی مندی، مجذوبیت و وقف شدگی آنها با میانجی گری کیفیت زندگی کاری در قالب نیازهای زیستی، تعلق و دانشی آنها ایجاد می شود. داده های این پژوهش با رویکرد روش شناسی تحلیلی- پیمایشی از طریق پرسشنامه در میان نمونه 197 نفری از معلمان ناحیه های 2، 3 و 4 سازمان آموزش و پرورش مشهد حاصل شده است. نتایج تحلیل فرضیه های تحقیق که با استفاده از روش مدل سازی معادلات ساختاری آزمون شده است، نشان می دهد که رفتار خادمانه مدیران بر کیفیت زندگی کاری و عجین شدگی شغلی معلمان به طور مستقیم اثرگذار بوده ضمن اینکه کیفیت زندگی کاری اثر رفتارخادمانه را بر عجین شدگی شغلی معلمان میانجی گری می کند. یافته های پژوهش به متولیان حوزه مدیریت رفتاری در سازمانهایی نظیر آموزش و پرورش کمک می کند تا ضمن در نظر گرفتن سایر حوزه های اثرگذار بر گسترش و تقویت اشتیاق و عجین شدگی شغلی همچون فرهنگ سازمانی و توانمند سازی روانشناختی، خود تعیین کنندگی و انگیزش شغلی، نیازهای روانی اساسی و محیط های حامی استقلال و غیره که کنترل آن در سازمان در اختیار آنان است، رویکرد خادمانه مدیریت با تاکید بر ارتقای کیفیت زندگی کاری کارکنان را نیز در نظر بگیرند

    کلیدواژگان: رفتار خادمانه، نظریه خادمیت، عجین شدگی شغلی، کیفیت زندگی کاری
  • ارائه مدل مفهومی بالندگی حرفه ای مدیران مدارس متوسطه: نظریه ای داده بنیاد
    اکبر جودکی*، کامران محمدخانی، امیرحسین محمد داودی صفحه 11

    چکیده هدف از انجام این پژوهش تدوین مدلی مفهومی برای بالندگی حرفه ای مدیران مدارس متوسطه استان لرستان بود. این پژوهش از نوع پژوهش های کیفی بود و روش نظریه داده بنیاد در این پژوهش ملاک عمل واقع شد. جامعه آماری شامل افراد متخصص و صاحب نظر در زمینه آموزش و پرورش، مسئولان و متولیان آموزش و پرورش و اعضای هیات علمی رشته مدیریت آموزشی بود که با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری هدفمند و بکارگیری معیار اشباع نظری، مصاحبه هایی نیمه ساختار یافته با 12 نفر به عنوان مشارکت کنندگان در پژوهش انجام شد. برای بدست آوردن اعتبار و روایی داده ها از دو روش بازبینی مشارکت کنندگان و مرور خبرگان غیر شرکت کننده در پژوهش استفاده شد. نتایج تحلیل داده ها در طی سه مرحله کد گذاری باز،کد گذاری نظری و کد گذاری انتخابی حاکی از 18 مقوله کلی است که در چارچوب مدلی پارادایمی شامل: شرایط علی(قوانین و مقررات، بودجه و منابع مالی، احساس نیاز مدیران)، پدیده محوری (مشارکت در تدوین برنامه های بالندگی حرفه ای)، راهبرد ها (ایجاد مراکز بالندگی حرفه ای در ادارات آموزش و پرورش، برگزاری کارگاه های آموزشی، بازدید از دیگر مدارس، مطالعه کتاب و مقالات، جلسات مربیگری، کمک گرفتن از همتایان با تجربه)، شرایط واسطه ای (خصوصیات شخصیتی مدیران، سیاست های آموزشی)، شرایط زمینه ای(حمایت مدیران ارشد ، استفاده از روش های مناسب بالندگی حرفه ای، دوره های آموزشی مخصوص مدیران) و پیامد-ها (بالندگی مدرسه، بالندگی معلمان و بالندگی دانش آموزان)، تحلیل شده است.

    کلیدواژگان: بالندگی حرفه ای، مدیران مدارس، نظریه داده بنیاد، مدل مفهومی
  • اولویت بندی نیازهای آموزشی مهارت های مدیریتی مدیران مدارس تبریز بر اساس رشته، مدرک و مقطع تحصیلی
    تقی زوار*، علیرضا ملک پور، صادق ملکی آوارسین صفحه 12

    هدف از این تحقیق، اولویت بندی مهارت های مدیریتی (فنی، انسانی و ادراکی) مدیران مدارس ابتدایی و متوسطه ناحیه 4 تبریز می باشد. روش تحقیق از نوع توصیفی - پیماشی می باشد. از جامعه آماری 112 نفری مدیران حجم نمونه آماری با استفاده از فرمول کوکران 95 نفر بدست آمد. برای نمونه گیری از روش تصادفی طبقه ای نسبتی استفاده شد. به منظور نیازسنجی نیازهای آموزشی مهارتهای مدیریتی پرسشنامه ای بر اساس مقیاس پنج درجه ای لیکرت تدوین گردید پس از جمع آوری داده ها به وسیله نرم افزار spss تجزیه و تحلیل و از آمار توصیفی، و آزمون آماریANOVA ،t مستقل استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که مدیران در هر یک از مهارتهای فنی، انسانی و ادراکی نیاز به آموزش دارند. اولویت اول در نیاز آموزشی مهارتهای فنی و پایین ترین اولویت مهارت انسانی بود. بین میانگین نیاز به مهارت های فنی، انسانی و ادراکی در رشته تحصیلی مختلف، تفاوت معنی داری وجود دارد(05/0>P=). در میانگین نیاز به مهارت های فنی، انسانی و ادراکی در مدرک تحصیلی لیسانس و فوق لیسانس، در مقاطع تحصیلی ابتدائی و متوسطه اول، و سوابق خدمت مختلف تفاوت معنی داری وجود ندارد(05/0 P>). کلید واژه ها: نیازسنجی آموزشی، مهارت‎های مدیریتی، مدیران مدرسه

    کلیدواژگان: نیازسنجی آموزشی، مهارت‎های مدیریتی، مدیران مدرسه، ویژگیهای جمعیت شناختی
  • پیش بینی تفکر مدیران مدارس بر پایه خلق، انتشار و کاربرد دانش
    محمود اکرامی*، سیده زهرا میرقادری صفحه 13

    چکیده مدیران در سازمان ها علاوه برمهارت های فنی باید دارای مهارتهای انسانی همچون مهارت تفکر و تصمیم گیری درست در زمینه های گوناگون ,از جمله چگونگی مدیریت دانش که از منبع استراتژیک سازمان هاست ,برخوردار باشد.جامعه ی آماری این تحقیق شامل کلیه ی مدیران مدارس و مدیران شاغل درادارات آموزش و پرورش استان البرزکه در سال تحصیلی 97-1396مشغول به کار هستند .تعداد آنها حدود 400 نفر است .از بین آنها, 167 نفر به صورت نمونه ی در دسترس به پرسشنامه ها پاسخ دادند.داده های پژوهش از طریق پرسشنامه ی محقق ساخته ی مدیریت دانش و پرسشنامه ی سبک تفکر هریسون و برامسون جمع آوری شده است و از طریق آزمون های t تک نمونه ای , فریدمن , مجذور کای , و همبستگی بنیادی مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت . نتایج پژوهش در جامعه ی آماری مورد مطالعه بیانگر این است که وضعیت خلق و کاربرد دانش در حد متوسط و انتشار دانش بالاتر از حد متوسط قرار دارد. در همه ی مولفه های سبک تفکر , نمره ی بین 49 تا 59 را کسب کرده اند. یعنی آنها در همه ی سطوح تفکر در حد متوسط قرار دارند و دارای توانایی انطباق با شرایط را دارا هستند. برای پاسخ به سوال (آیا تفکر مدیران را برپایه ی خلق , انتشار و کاربرد دانش می توان پیش بینی کرد؟) از مدل همبستگی بنیادی استفاده شد و براساس نتایج به دست آمده رابطه ای بین آنها رد شد.

    کلیدواژگان: سبک تفکر، خلق دانش، انتشار دانش، کاربرد دانش
  • تدوین و اعتباریابی الگوی مدیریت استعداد در مدارس سما
    عباس عباس پور*، فخرالسادات سیف هاشمی، علی خورسندی طاسکوه، سعید غیاثی ندوشن صفحه 14

    چکیده پژوهش حاضر با هدف طراحی الگوی مدیریت استعداد سازمان مدارس دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی (سما) انجام گردید. هدف پژوهش کاربردی و از لحاظ شیوه اجرا آمیخته (کیفی- کمی) بود. جامعه پژوهش در بخش کیفی 26 ودر بخش کمی 190 نفر از مدیران سازمان مدارس دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ومدیران مدارس کل کشور در سال 97- 96 بودند که به ترتیب با روش نمونه گیری هدفمند گلوله برفی انتخاب شدند. برای جمع آوری داده ها در بخش کیفی از مصاحبه و در بخش کمی از پرسشنامه محقق ساخته استفاده شد که روایی صوری وسازه آنها تایید وپایایی آنها با روش آلفای کرونباخ ٪87 محاسبه گردید. داده ها با روش تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی تحلیل شدند. یافته ها نشان داد الگوی مدیریت استعداد مدارس دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی (0سما) در قالب 6 بعد و16 متغیر اندازه پذیر ارائه گردید. که عبارتند از 1- شناسایی وجذب پست کلیدی(مدیران سازمان ومدیران مدارس) 2- عوامل شناخت فرد مستعد(قابلیت - مهارت تعهد) 3- عوامل انتخاب فرد مستعد(مصاحبه وآزمون -بررسی رزومه کاری) 4- بکارگماری (ابتکار مسئولیت پذیری وجدان کاری) 5 - توسعه (توانمندسازی پیشرفت مسیر شغلی آموزش ضمن خدمت ارزیابی) 6 - نگهداشت (سیستیم جبران خدمت- توجه به نیازهای مادی ومعنوی). برای اعتبار یابی الگوی پیشنهادی از روش معادلات ساختاری وتحلیل عامل تاییدی استفاده شد. نتایج تحلیل عاملی تاییدی نشان می دهد که 6 مولفه شناسایی شده دارای بار عاملی معنی دار ونشان از برارزش مطلوب ومناسب دارند. واژه های کلیدی: مدیریت استعداد . مدارس سازمان دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی(سما)

    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت استعداد، سما، جذب، &quot، توسعه ونگهداشت
  • بازنمایی ساختار سازمانی مدرسه در سند تحول بنیادین آموزش و پرورش جمهوری اسلامی ایران
    سیده بهاره ابوترابی، رضوان حسینقلی زاده*، بهروز مهرام صفحه 15

    هدف اصلی این پژوهش، شناسایی ویژگی های ساختار سازمانی مدرسه در سند تحول بنیادین می باشد. برای دستیابی به این هدف از روش پژوهش اسنادی بهره گرفته شد. در این پژوهش به منظور تحلیل محتوای اسناد موردمطالعه از تکنیک تحلیل محتوا استفاده شد و با تکیه بر دیدگاه هولستی (1380) واحد تحلیل مشتمل بر مبانی نظری سند تحول بنیادین (فلسفه تربیت در جمهوری اسلامی ایران، فلسفه تربیت رسمی و عمومی در جمهوری اسلامی ایران، رهنامه نظام تربیت رسمی و عمومی در جمهوری اسلامی ایران)، سند تحول راهبردی نظام تعلیم و تربیت رسمی، سند تحول بنیادین آموزش و پرورش جمهوری اسلامی ایران و برنامه اجرایی سند تحول بنیادین آموزش و پرورش جمهوری اسلامی ایران بودند همچنین، واحد زمینه را جملات و پاراگراف هایی که در قالب جملات کلیدی از محتوای اسناد مورد بررسی استخراج شدند و واحد ثبت را «کلمه» و «موضوع» و واحد زمینه «جمله» یا «پاراگراف» تشکیل دادند. براساس نتایج به دست آمده، مهم ترین ویژگی های ساختار سازمانی مدرسه با اتکا به مقوله های به دست آمده از سند عبارتند از: ساماندهی فرایندهای تربیت، تنوع فرصت های تربیتی، هدایت تربیتی، ارزشیابی فرایند تربیت، سلسله مراتب، تمرکززدایی، مدرسه محوری، شبکه سازی، قانون مداری، مسئولیت و اختیار، مشارکت اجتماعی، حرفه ای گرایی، عدالت سازمانی، کار گروهی، مناسبات انسانی سالم و متعامل و مدیریت سرمایه های انسانی با محوریت مقوله نظام ارزشی دینی.

    کلیدواژگان: ساختار سازمانی، مدرسه، سند تحول بنیادین آموزش و پرورش جمهوری اسلامی ایران، آموزش و پرورش
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  • Mojtaba Taheri, Reza Hoveida * Page 1

    The purpose of present research was to investigate the relationship between principals' reflective leadership with teachers' self-efficacy. The research method was descriptive – correlational. The population consisted of the whole high schools’ teachers nearly 2165 people in the academic year of 1395-96. 327 teachers were selected as a sample using Krejcie and Morgan table through proportionate Stratified random sampling method. The tools used in this research were researcher-made Reflective Leadership Questionnaire based on Castelli’s (2012, 2016) integrated model of RL and the Teachers’ Efficacy Questionnaire (Tschannen-Moran & Woolfolk Hoy,2001). Their face and content validity was confirmed by experts. The instruments’ reliability coefficients were estimated 0/96 and 0/92 respectively. The data, at the descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics level (Pearson correlation coefficient, regression analysis, t-Test, ANOVA and Tukey Test) were analyzed by SPSS 23. The findings showed a positive and significant relationship between principals' reflective leadership and teachers' self-efficacy (r = 0.81, p≤0.05). Moreover 77 percent of teaching strategies, 28 percent of classroom management and 71 percent of student engagement were predicted by principals' reflective leadership. And finally, education and work experience on principals' reflective leadership and teachers' self-efficacy were significant. The principals' reflective leadership can raise the teachers’ self-efficacy belief through the knowledge and experience connection.

    Keywords: reflective leadership, teacher’s efficacy, reflective practices, Secondary schools
  • Hamid Rahimi *, Faezeh Khayami Page 2

    Antecedents and consequences of organizational indifference (study case: teachers in Kashan City) Abstract Kaplan and Sadok refer to the organizational indifference as a condition of lacking inner sense and emotion, lack of interest and emotional involvement toward environment. Michael and Coniston define the organizational indifference as a subjective and objective feeling of detachment and separation between person and society (social institutes and structures such as politics, family, and religion) (Jahanshahi, 2009). Indifference is the outcome of person’s continuous unsuccessfulness in achieving goals in an especial condition and he/she avid from Unsuccessfulness resources (Rezaeian, 2006). The psychologists believe that indifference is the outcome of person’s continuous unsuccessfulness in achieving goals in an especial condition and he/she avid from unsuccessfulness resources (Danaeifard and Eslam, 2010: 450-460). In other words, organizational indifference refers to a condition that a person is completely indifference toward surrounding phenomenon and organizational successfulness or unsuccessfulness (Kramer, 2006: 14-24). Also indifference is a deviation from organizational equilibrium conditions. Organizational indifference is a destructive factor in the organizations and is considered as a continuous destruction, slow fall, and talent crisis (Raeichi, 2010). Organizational indifference occurs when employees no longer care about the entity’s success. They’re simply working for a paycheck, doing only what it takes to not get fired, and not looking for opportunities that will help the organization thrive. Unfortunately, organizational indifference exists in entities of all sizes and on all levels of government. How much organizational indifference is in your entity? What percent of your employees come to work just to get a paycheck or to add the organization to their resume? 10 percent? 25 percent? Maybe 75 percent? Realize that no matter what percent you perceive, the reality is usually much greater. When you consider all the labor costs involved in recruiting, hiring, training, and paying benefits, do you really want even one organization-ally indifferent person on your team? When you rid your team of organizational indifference, your employees are eager to express new ideas and genuinely want to help customers. They are excited to come to work because they know their contributions matter and they have a definite purpose in the organization. As a result, customers enjoy doing business with the department, thus increasing your success. The employees’ indifference toward organization can be observed in four areas. These include indifference toward manager, work, client, and coworkers. Each of these indifferences has been described in the following sections. Indifference toward Manager: this includes the employees’ avoidance from expressing their abilities for doing more activities and do not make their manager aware from work progress. They also postpone managers’ expectations or even lie for avoiding from their responsibilities s (Kramer, 2006: 14-24). Indifference toward client: this indifference refers to the conditions that the employees limit the client services to a specific time (Leander, 2009). Indifference toward coworkers: in this indifference, the employees do not participate in the group works and have not any friendly relationship with their coworkers (Willemsen and Keren, 2009: 42-59). Indifference toward work: this indifference refers to the conditions that the employees have not sufficient accuracy in their work, do not pursue their works seriously, have not any creativity and innovation to in the works, and consider the organizational functions as valueless Ones (Murphy and Davey, 2007: 17-30). The organizational indifference results in several problems for organizations. Some of these problems have been presented in the following section. The employees do their functions only for salary and have not sufficient motivation in their work (Jahanshahi, 2009). •Using any opportunity for escaping from work (Danaeifardand Eslami, 2010: 2010: 450-460). •Indifference toward organizational problems and even accelerating its process (Jahanshahi, 2009). •Indifference toward preserving organizational resources (Mirhoseyni Zavareh, 1995: 68-73). •Inattention to creativity and innovation (Leander, 2009). •Inattention toward taking responsibility in terms of problems (Jahanshahi, 2009). Organizational indifference leads to lack of motivation, reduction of organizational commitment, reduction of organizational performance, interpersonal participation, reduction of competitive advantage and creativity of employees and it prevents the organization achieving to goals. Thus purpose of this research was antecedents and consequences of organizational indifference in teachers in Kashan City. Research type in terms of objective was applied research and in terms of method was descriptive survey. The statistical population consisted all of teachers in Kashan city in academic year 2018-2019 (N=3731) that by Cochran Formula and stratified randomized sampling 245 ones were chosen as sample. To gathering data’s used from researcher-made questionnaire antecedents with 15 items, organizational indifference standard questionnaire with 33 items and consequences researcher-made questionnaires with 18 items on base scale five Likert. Questionnaires validity confirmed as content & construction. Questionnaires reliability through Cronbach alpha coefficient, were estimated equal to 0.85 for antecedents, 0.95 for organizational indifference and 0.87 for consequences. Data analyses done in two level descriptive & inferential by using Spss & Amos software’s. Finding showed mean of quality of work life and organizational support were lower than average and mean of job stress was upper than average. Mean organizational indifference components was lower than average and mean of consequences was upper than average. There are no significant & negative relation (r=0.05) between antecedents & organizational indifference and significant & negative relation (r=0.31) between organizational indifference & consequences. When your employees know what the organization is about, how to use their technology effectively, how to instill team motivation, and what their empowerment processes are, you lay the groundwork for eliminating organizational indifference. And when your employees care about the organization and are excited about their work, they’ll solve more problems, serve customers better, and contribute to the entity’s success significantly. It’s the combination of these four elements that moves the organization forward and unifies people with the entrepreneurial spirit that leads to long-lasting results. All in all, the result s of this study indicate that managers must pay attention to decreasing bureaucracy and selective approach, increasing salaries, and coordinating the employees’ performance for decreasing the employees’ organizational indifference. Also it is important that the managers help their employees to have sufficient information about their job. Keywords: Antecedents, Organizational Indifference, Consequences, Teachers

    Keywords: Antecedents, Organizational Indifference, Consequences, Teachers
  • Bahareh Azizi Nejad *, Ebrahim Malakoti Page 3

    The research’s method is applied and it has descriptive-correlational method. The statistical population comprises all of the schools’ principals in district 1 and 2 of Urmia City, counting 143 individuals that 104 pricipals were selected in accordance with Cochran Formula and using random stratified sampling proportional to volume. The required data were collected using 2 questionnaires of Organizational Culture and Management Excellence Plan. The validity of questionnaires were approved using content analysis. The reliability of questionnaires were determined as follow: 0.91 and 0.88. The data was analyzed in 2 levels which are descriptive and inferential (Pearson’s coefficient of correlation and step by step regression). The main results showed that there is a meaningful and positive relationship between organizational culture and its four components (Consensus, Rational, Hierachical, and Ideological culture) with Management Excellence Plan. The variable of organizational culture has the ability to predict the variance of the variable of acceptance of the Management Excellence Plan. Among the components of organizational culture, the ideological culture has the biggest share. Finally in line of resuts, applied suggestions have been presented.

    Keywords: organizational culture, elements of oranizational culture, Admission of Excellence in Management Plan, Primary schools
  • Fatemeh Eslamieh, Masoomeh Oladian *, Mahmood Safari Page 4

    Conceptual Design of Green Schools in Iran The Environment is a Set of Physical, Chemical and Vital Elements such as Water, Air, Soil and Living Organisms that Determine its Own Effects, Shape, Survival and Life Span of the Living Things of a Community. Protecting This Environment, which is a Huge Asset for Future Generations, is one of the Main Goals of Sustainable Development, which Requires the will and Determination of all Citizens of a Community. Participation in the Preservation of the Environment, the Need for Environmental Literacy Raised by Charles Roth. Because this Type of Literacy is a Prerequisite for Maintaining and Improving the Quality of the Environment. to Educate this Kind of Literacy, there are Schools Called "Green School", which are Also Titled Nature School, Forest School, Environmental School, Healthy School, Sustainable School. the Green School is an Energy Efficient and Popular School that Can be Useful for the Environment, and is Economical and Affordable, and Provides Improved Learning Environments. the Goal of the Green School is to Raise the Level of Knowledge, Attitudes and Understanding of Students about Environmental Issues, to have an Accurate Pattern of Culture and Environmental Behavior, and to Empower them to Learn Social Responsibility, Which Involves Engaging Students in School Events. According to Researchers, the Green School, by Virtue of the Commitment of Students and Officials Who, Through the Design of School Facilities Based on Architecture and Engineering Days, Creates the Practices and Training Provided for Students in the Curriculum, they are Intended to Become Global Citizens and Responsible People he does. One of the Main Goals of the Environmental Education System for Sustainable Consumption, in Accordance with Modern Educational Documents at the Global and National Levels, is that Schools Need to Change their Structure to Become Green Schools with an Environmental Approach. at the Same Time, the Recent Commitment by the Ministry of Education (in Collaboration with the Environmental Protection Agency) to Improve the Quality and Quantity of Environmental Education Materials in Various Textbooks of Different Levels of Education, the Development of a Chapter Called "Environmental Health in the Coricolumn which the Title is a Defined Educational Program (Comprehensive Health Education in Schools). "Since Designing and Editing such Schools Requires a Standard Framework, this Paper Examines the Question of what Kind of Model Can be Designed for Green Schools in Iran? Been Paid. for this Purpose, the Exploratory (Qualitative-Quantitative) Approach is Considered for this Study. the Statistical Community in the Qualitative Section, Knowledgeable and Fluent in Green Schools (at Least for More than 5 Years in the Field of Education, Management, Policy and Consulting in the Field of Environment and Green Schools, or in the Compilation, Translation and Writing of Books, Essays and Environmental Education and Green Schools), and in the Small Part, All Male and Female Managers of State and Nongovernmental Schools were Elementary Schools in the 19th Educational District of Tehran in the Academic Year of 2017-18 (N=1862). the Sample Size was Estimated in the Qualitative Section with Theoretical Saturation (N=12) and in the Quantitative Part Based on the Cochran Formula (N=350). a Qualitative and Quantitative Sampling Method was Used to Select the Sample in the Quantitative Section and in the Quantitative Section, a Combination of Cluster Random Sampling and Stratified Sampling was Used. the Data Collection Tool in the Qualitative Section was Interviewed by the "Focal Group" Method and in the Quantitative Section, the Questionnaire was Based On the Likert Scale of Five. the Validity of the Interview with the "Triangulation" Method and its Reliability was Evaluated and Confirmed by the Cohen Kapa Coefficient (K=0.714). Validity of the Questionnaire in a Logical (Formal and Contextual) Way Through a Survey of Several Experts, Convergent Validity was Confirmed by Calculating Ave and Divergent Validity Through the Calculation of Ave Root. the Reliability of the Questionnaire was Obtained Through Cronbach's Alpha (α=0.846) and α=0.849 Through Retest (After 2 Weeks). for Analyzing the Data in the Qualitative Part of the Cohen Kappa Coefficient and Coding and Coding in Axial and in the Quantitative Part, Ave, Cronbach's Alpha, Retest Tests and Confirmatory Factor Analysis Using SPSS, LISREL, SMART-PLS Became the Results in the Qualitative Section Led to the Identification of 3 Dimensions, 9 Components and 30 Indicators for "Conceptual Design of Green Schools in Iran". the Input Component then Includes the "Design and Architecture" Component with 3 Indicators and The "School Environment Quality" Component with 3 Indicators. the Process Later Includes the Component of "Sustainable Education" with 3 Indicators, the Component "School Partnership with the Environment" with 3 Components "Using Energy Management Technology" with 4 Indicators, The Component "Renewable Energy Utilization" with 3 Indicators. Then the Output Includes the Component of "Reform of Consumerism Model" with 5 Indicators, the Component of "Waste Management and Green Purchasing" with 3 Indicators and the Component "Environment Friendly Citizen" with 3 Indicators. in the Quantitative Part, it was Found that the Values Obtained in Fitting Indices are in Accordance with Acceptable Standards and it Can be Stated with Certainty that the Pattern of Research is Suitable for Fit and Can be Used to Design Green Schools in Iran. Finally, Some of the Suggested Suggestions were as Follows: 1. Consider the Location and Location of the School Building Before its Construction, and to Obtain the Desired Result, Instead of Using Traditional Methods, GIS should be Assisted. 2. Educational Sessions for Continuous Nutrition and Healthy Living for Parents and Students. 3. by Providing the Necessary Training on the Use of Cyberspace, Schools will Exploit the Potential of This Space to Reduce their Costs in the Field of Electricity, Telephone, Paper, and the Like. 4. Schools will Try to Use Intelligent Instrumentation Tools and Equipment to Control Their Electrical Devices by Providing Adequate Funding (Short-Term and Long-Term Loans) with One Time Expenditures. 5. in Education Policies, Funding for the Preparation of Solar Panels and Rainwater Collection with the Goal of Generating and Optimizing Energy Consumption will be Provided and Implemented with a One-Time Cost-Saving and Energy-Efficient Use in All Schools of the Country.

    Keywords: Green, schools, Iranian, education system
  • Mohammad Makvandi Page 5

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the rationality of public policy making in education. Because policy making in education has been successful in some areas, other fields are in crisis. Of all the types of management, management over education organizations is of particular importance and has a strategic role. Because all the goals and factors of these organizations are human. If other community organizations fail in fulfilling their mission and goals, The results are directly attributable to the group or organization they are dealing with. But if the education agency and its managers are ignorant of the nature of the work, their work will be addressed to society in ethical, social and economic terms, and Will have a significant impact on the growth and development of the community or its decline and decline. Is and must be familiar with the essential goals and tasks and management skills required, especially in building human relationships. In 2002, the Higher Education Council adopted a decree appointing school principals by teachers or teachers of each school. By implementing this instruction, decision-making was transferred from the highest levels of the system to the lower levels, and the teachers were able to choose. Managers participate. Given the importance of education managers in the country's education and development, and the discussion of the selection of principals who have been the focus of education in recent years, a new plan is needed. The selection of principals by teachers throughout the country and at all levels of study is reviewed; To this end, we aimed to identify the desirability, strengths and weaknesses and suggested solutions for managers to improve and redesign their plan and execution, and by summarizing information, strategies to improve and implement each. What is more, it is desirable for the authorities to use the results of this research to improve the quality of the project and address its weaknesses and to strive to improve the management of schools and the educational status of the country. The structure of the research is based on the views of Eugene Snellen; the research question will be answered. The model has four dimensions of economic, political, legal, and professional (scientific) rationality, each of which constitutes a kind of rationality. There is no clear understanding of the concept of rationality. Any commentator on the subject that is rationality is definitively presenting his argument. The type of rationality and reasoning are more important than the rationality and rationality principle. The sovereignty and the political elite in some way enjoy the principle of reasoning and thinking, in other words, a sovereignty that is not Chocolates and issues of their own society do not have rationality and thinking. But there is a considerable gap between sovereigns in terms of how they think and reason, which has led to different policies and then to the different strategic fates of different societies. The method of data collection is library-structured interviewing. Unstructured Because the information gained from an unstructured interview is completely spontaneous and more consistent with reality than the structured interview is more likely to be. The interview is a common research data collection technique or tool that Some scholars consider it to be the most important and best tool for gathering information. The statistical population of the research will be the elite of the four areas of rationality. Breeding and MPs will come. For three More volts to reach the elites, the community will be limited to Abadan education and MPs. The size of each elite group will be limited to six to maintain the quality and quantity of research. Experienced secretaries and directors and officials of the Islamic Consultative Assembly will be interviewed regarding the four areas of policy rationality. The sample population is intended to be suitable for the purpose of the research. Judicial and accessible sampling, which is more targeted than non-random sampling schemes, is therefore used. will be. The method of data analysis will also be due to the nature of the qualitative analysis research. The method of data collection has been field-interview and qualitative information analysis method. 1. Economic rationality: Analyzing data on economic rationality indicates that economic rationality has been very high in the selection of managers by the vote of secretaries. Students ranked the interviewees in three important respects, respectively, that reflect the education policy maker's attention to this area of ​​rationality. Economic rationality is the prelude to teachers' acceptance of education policies. , Meet the financial needs of the editors Browsing the mainstream loses motivation and leaves the organization. 2. Political rationality: Analyzing data on political rationality shows that the opinions of government officials and MPs have decreased but instead the sympathy and convergence of the secretaries has increased. This plan has been able to garner support and elite support. Increase the presence of teachers and students in the political scene. Therefore, the project has been subject to high political rationality. 3. Legal Rationality: The data analysis shows that compliance with legal rationality is not as much considered as economic rationality. Although correct execution with a score of 7 at the top of the statements indicates education for legal security, but the statements Next, the lack of consistency with other schemes and the exception, indicate that education has ignored some components of legal rationality at the implementation stage and has, to a certain extent, increased discrimination amongst teachers. It has been average. 4. Professional rationality: A review of the information obtained shows that professional rationality has been very high in the selection of managers by the votes of the secretaries. As you can see in Table 7, the propositions about meritocracy, increased motivation for teachers, the use of psychological theories, and attention to research on the project were the most rewarding indicators of high professional rationality. The results show that, except for the legal rationality that was moderate, the rest of the rationality was very high. In fact, the plan was one of the very successful ones that was implemented, but I don't know why it stopped suddenly and hoped that Implement this plan again.

    Keywords: public policy, political rationality, economic rationality, rationality, professional rationality, choice of managers
  • Khadijeh Bozorginezhad *, Reza Zarei, Parvin Razmjooei Page 6

    The purpose of this study was to provide an optimal model of organizational culture of education with a social exchange approach. The culmination of organizational culture studies is the end of the two decades of the twentieth century. But at that time, due to the emergence of new technologies and rapid developments, efforts to integrate culture, maintain a competitive advantage, and prepare people to accept the changes were considered by managers of organizations. In the cultural studies of the twenty-first century, the potential role of a variety of organizational culture in the performance of individuals and organizations is considered. Therefore, the mission of organizations is to exploit the experiences, talents and intellectual potential of individuals. The place of organizational culture in the educational institution is wider due to the scope of the operation, the variety of spectrum involved and the high volume of social exchanges from other organizations, So, if we put together the functions of the culture and functions of education, we find that education and training require a serious consideration for organizational culture to carry out its mission and the existence of a rich culture based on the genuine Islamic-national values, taking into account the interests and needs of all stakeholders, is a prerequisite for the missions of education and training. A rich Islamic culture is a culture that, along with finding possible solutions to improve the performance of the organization, can excel the organization and it’s members within a harmony between its genuine and global values. The present study seeks to explore the characteristics and indicators of the optimal model of education culture and provide an organizational culture model. This research was a method of exploratory sequencing of a hybrid strategy and was conducted as a case study in Firoozabad city. The statistical population consisted of formal education teachers with more than 15 years of work experience, using parallel sampling method for quantitative and qualitative sampling. In the qualitative section, snowball sampling was performed and interviews were conducted with 9 teachers to achieve theoretical saturation. To analyze the qualitative data, using the thematic analysis, teachers' opinions about the desirable situation of education in social exchanges were extracted. In a desirable situation, six factors, power base, manager role, decision making, performance criterion, acceptance condition, and focus of the organization  were attended by teachers. With a library study of organizational culture models, the existing definitions and frameworks, and its conformance to the conceptual model derived from the thematic network, four characteristics for the desired organizational culture were developed. Which are the culture of perfectionism, interactivity, developmental, and missionary and  the researcher's model was presented in the framework of competitive values. In the quantitative section, simple random sampling was performed and 30 experts were selected. The tool used in this section was a researcher-made questionnaire based on the characteristics and indicators of the desired organizational culture of education in the qualitative section with 48 items (24 indicators) and the seven-level scale. For example, for the index of “the pattern of managers”, (the adherence of managers to the rules and regulations and the model  of their behavior for other employees) or for “the consensus opinion” index (high trust, participation in decision making, and getting school councils from a stronger decision-making base). The experts confirmed the content validity of the questionnaire. Quantitative data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, single sample t-test and Friedman test. The results of t-test showed that the culture of perfectionism with a mean of 6.44 out of 7 Likert scale had the highest mean and lowest dispersion, and mission with the mean of 6.26 was on the next. Meanwhile, the average of four types of organizational culture was higher than the assumed sociological mean (4), and four types of organizational culture were desirable for high school education. Also, Friedman's test showed that among the 24 indexes of cultures, social status indexes had the highest mean and the risk index was the lowest. Among the 10 top priorities of the experts, the element of power base with a mean of 32/17 by the emphasis on informal status (social and specialized) was confirmed. The role of the director with the most variety and with three types of roles for managers is in the top priorities of the table. The law-fullness index with an average of 14.72, the contributing and supporting with the average of 14.22 and the risk taking with the average of 13.53 were seen. Also, the risk aversion was found with a mean of 7.82, the commitment to processes with an average of 48.8 and the change with an average of 7.7 of the weakest characteristics of the desired organizational culture of education. The most variability in the bottom indices of the table are the criterion for decision-making on consensus with an average of 9.75 and the central assignment with an average of 7.68, indicating the emphasis of the experts on the mission of the organization with an average of 88.81 as the highest decision criterion above the table. The combination of top ten indicators from the perspective of experts indicates that the most desirable culture organizational from the point view of experts is a culture in which employees, with emphasis on meritocracy and social status of teachers, having directors with some degree of discipline, risk taking, staff supporting, while enjoying moral virtues and respect for their rights of all stakeholders in order to excel in pursuing their education mission. The results of this research show that, although in terms of human resources approach, the existing culture of education is a rigorous culture in which the performance of teachers and their response to society's expectations and the demand for an ever-increasing effort to achieve better results and successful students are considered important and in contrast there is little attention to their welfare. However, teachers value realities, beliefs, interactions and practices, human responses and social exchanges in their organization. This research also helps to better understand the organizational culture, especially in educational systems, and can provide further research.

    Keywords: organizational culture, social exchange, perfectionism, Informal status, education
  • Kiumars Amjadian *, Ali Taghipoor Zahir, Afsane Zamani Moghadam Page 7
  • Habibeh Najafi, Ali Khaleghkhah * Page 8

    Perceived justice is a term used to describe the role of justice directly related to job positions. Organizations need effective and efficient staff to achieve their goals of comprehensive growth and development. In general, the efficiency and effectiveness of organizations depend on the efficiency and effectiveness of human resources. Schools are one of the most important institutions in the field of education and play an important role in maintaining the valuable knowledge and educational health of students. Inadequate utilization of school resources, especially human resources, will limit the quality and delivery of services. Lack of efficient and effective knowledge promotion services not only reduces quality of life but also prevents productivity gains in other economic sectors. Therefore, the importance of productivity and improvement of the quality of educational services in order to meet the needs of the people in society and meet their expectations is increasing day by day and as a priority is the basis of the decisions and activities of school principals. Research has shown that the realization of justice as a strategic variable plays an influential role in organizational productivity. Schools are no exception. Discussion and study of justice in organizational environments has a long history and originates in Adams' theory of equality in the 1960s. In other words, perceived organizational justice means the extent to which the organization's actions with respect to its employees are treated fairly. Organizational culture is a set of values, beliefs, and behavior patterns that shape the organisation's core identity and play an important role in shaping employees' behavior. Research by Ibrahim Pour et al. Has shown that an unfavorable organizational climate, such as a glass ceiling that results from an unfavorable organizational culture, can lead to perceptions of injustice by employees. Experimental studies show that organizational culture is a key factor for organizational effectiveness. Elmaz and Organ have studied the impact of the dimensions of Denison's organizational culture model on the performance of organizations. In this study, it was found that the highest score for adaptability and the lowest score for adaptability were obtained. Researchers believe that a culture that values ​​human dignity boosts morale and job performance. Gifford concluded in his research that there was a significant positive relationship between hospital culture and R&D. Research has shown that there is a positive correlation between hospital culture and the maintenance of human resources, and this correlation can lead to productivity. The purpose of this research is to predict the perceived organizational justice of teachers based on the components of organizational culture in 2016. This study was descriptive - correlation. The society of this study was  teachers of Tabriz 4th district selected random sampling. The sample size was estimated 86 people by the Krejsi-Morgan table. to collect data, have been used two of the standard questionnaire, organizational culture of Denison (2000) and organizational justice of  Morman and Nijhov (1995). data analysis was performed using Pearson Correlation Coefficient, single sample T-test, Anova and Regression Tests. The results of Pearson correlation showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between the components of organizational culture and organizational justice, except the component of adaptability; Analysis of variance (Anova) showed that there is no significant difference between organizational culture and employee justice perception in terms of level of education and years of service (F = 0/9, p < 0/05). Regression showed that  only three dimensions - commitment to participation, adaptability and mission-are able to explain and predict % 17/3 of the total variance of perceived justice that the most is the commitment to participation with Beta (β = 0/26). from teachers  point of view organizational culture and justice perception are lower than average. school management should strive for dimension reinforcement of both components to increase university efficiency. Despite the high level of interactive justice perceptions of Morgan's organizational justice perception and commitment to participating in Denison's organizational culture in schools, the overall mean of perceptions of organizational justice and organizational culture was below the conceptual and poor average. Therefore, organizational culture and organizational justice in these schools need to be revised. Given the importance of perceptions of organizational justice and organizational culture on other organizational dimensions such as motivation, satisfaction, productivity, performance, stress and so on, school management should take the necessary steps to enhance the dimensions of these two components, especially distributive justice. And the performance appraisal and promotion system is conducted to the required and fair standards. In line with the culture, the mission and vision of the schools should be clearly explained to its teachers, and organizational adaptation and learning should be streamlined. Despite the tremendous influence of each organization's atmosphere on its other dimensions, this study explored the organizational culture's insignificant amount of perceptions of organizational justice. It is therefore concluded that teachers view factors other than organizational culture that affect perceptions of organizational justice. It was also found that prioritizing the dimensions of organizational culture and organizational justice differs from one organization to another because of the different management systems governing organizations, with each organization prioritizing one dimension of culture. This study was conducted in Tabriz District 4 schools and the conditions of those schools and should be cautious when generalizing the results to schools and other organizations. The main limitations of this research are teachers' honesty in answering questionnaire questions and using questionnaire tools. In line with the results of this study, the following suggestions are offered: Investigating Factors Affecting Perceptions of Teachers' Organizational Justice Investigating the Effective Factors on Improving School Organizational Culture and Designing a Questionnaire by Exploratory Mixed Method. Due to the low level of average organizational culture, in-service classes for teachers to justify organizational culture and school-based culture. Given the low average level of organizational culture, the necessary solutions are provided by the Education Organization to improve school culture. Priority given to low levels of adaptability, collaboration, and empowering teachers to make school decisions a top priority. Given the low average level of distributive justice, teachers should be promoted and promoted according to the required standards, their level of activity and participation in education issues.

    Keywords: Organizational Justice, Mission, Commitment to Partnership, Adaptability, Conformity
  • Hanif Hajiaghaee, Ali Khalkhali * Page 9
    Purpose

    The employability of outcomes of education system was a huge challenge to engage the community. It was important that the huge number of people who are exposed to education annually can earn money from these trainings. But over time, the saturation of forces flooded the market and the overcrowded community of unemployed professionals. Different solutions were presented. However, this did not include such success because these solutions did not increase the number of existing businesses. This paradigm shift in the definition of the sources of production and the creation of wealth has spawned a new literature. In the meantime, educational systems, such as formal public education, higher education, and even informal education systems, are urgently needed to understand structural change and nature through understanding this paradigm shift. The structure of entrepreneurial schools has been conceptualized by understanding the widespread paradigmatic changes in the creation of wealth created by the creation of the film and the retrieval of the role and contribution of educational systems in this evolution. In general, it seems that, in the current context, transforming entrepreneurial theories into effective practice, it is inevitable to take advantage of these theories, especially in the establishment of school systems. The authors of this paper believe that the establishment of an entrepreneurship ecosystem in schools is the core of the development of entrepreneurial schools. By understanding this necessity, they have attempted to design a pragmatic scale to measure entrepreneurship ecosystems for Iranian schools. Considering the above mentioned points, the following questions are being examined: What are the components of the scale of monitoring of entrepreneurship ecosystems? What factors are saturated with? And how does the system of scoring and interpreting the scale of school ecosystem monitoring? The authors of this paper claim that the design and deployment of an entrepreneurial school is the establishment of an entrepreneurial ecosystem. At the same time, due to the vital importance of establishing an appropriate ecosystem for schools that are planning to become entrepreneurial schools, it is imperative that they regularly monitor the status of their entrepreneurial ecosystem. However, studies show that suitable tools for this work are not available to managers and decision makers. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to describe the process of constructing and native scale normalization for monitoring the Iranian-Iranian school of entrepreneurship ecosystem.

    Method

    The research reported in this article was a descriptive correlation. The present article seeks to standardize a scale for monitoring the specific entrepreneurship ecosystem of Iranian schools. The tool used in this study is a scale adapted and rebuilt. For this purpose, the tests were first translated into Persian and the necessary changes were made. Some words and phrases in Farsi were liquefied and corrected. The propositions of this scale range from one to three to measure the indices of entrepreneurship ecosystems in schools. The research community was all experts in the field of entrepreneurship in the country. Using a targeted sampling method, 100 tons were selected based on the range of activities and theorizing in various entrepreneurship fields as the final sample. The reliability of this scale was investigated using Cronbach's alpha test and its validity using factor analysis.

    Results

    The factor analysis model was used to analyze the data obtained from the participants' response to the school-based entrepreneurship ecosystem scale scorecard statements. The findings described five main factors as representing the entrepreneurship ecosystem in Iranian schools. Based on the matrix derived from the Varimax rotation, a set of propositions that were co-associated with a factor, formed a factor, and according to the theoretical foundations of the first factor, "Establishment of the leadership of the school committed to the development of entrepreneurship", the factor The second is titled "Establishment of Entrepreneurial Development Organizational Structure," a third factor entitled "The Comprehensive and Practical Commitment of All School Beneficiaries to Entrepreneurship Development", the fourth factor titled "Individualization of All Entrepreneurial School Programs" and the Fifth Part The title "The development of a network of culture for creating creative entrepreneurship at school" was named. Also, the internal consistency coefficient for each of the factors and the total questionnaire was estimated to be appropriate. The scale of school enrollment ecosystems that was designed and conducted in this research, in the initial scoring, only presents raw data, and without a doubt, paying attention only to the raw scores of the test, in terms of interpretation and comparison, is usually faced with a serious rationale of rationality. Therefore, normalization operations were performed.

    Conclusion

    The design and validation scale in this research has the capabilities needed to monitor the entrepreneurship ecosystem in Iranian schools. Also, the components of this scale can be used to establish an entrepreneurial school. These factors are theoretically and experimentally consistent with the findings of other researchers. The first component, "Establishment of the School Leadership Leader, committed to the development of entrepreneurship," explains the 859.24 percent of the changes in the monitoring of the entrepreneurship ecosystem. This factor shows managers' willingness to facilitate and promote entrepreneurial projects at school. The second component, "Establishment of the temporary organizational structure of entrepreneurship developer", explains 736.7 percent of the changes in the monitoring of entrepreneurship ecosystems. This factor explains that, when organizational structure has lower layers, intra-organizational entrepreneurship becomes more evident. The third component, "Developing the Comprehensive Commitment of All School Beneficiaries to Entrepreneurship Development", includes 936.5 percent of the changes in the monitoring of the Entrepreneurship Ecosystem. It is important that all school stakeholders, such as management, teachers, employees, parents and, of course, students, understand entrepreneurship and commit to developing it. The fourth component, "Integrated Individualization of All Entrepreneurship-based School Programs", includes 503.4 percent of its monitoring of the Entrepreneurship Ecosystem. New and innovative products need their own new programs. The fifth component is the component of the "Development of Network Culture for Creativity and Entrepreneurship at School", which explains 4 00/8 percent of the changes in the monitoring of the Entrepreneurship Ecosystem. Networking has a tremendous impact on the advancement of business creation and is of interest to all entrepreneurs and companies active in this field.

    Keywords: Entrepreneurial School, Entrepreneurship Ecosystem, Entrepreneurship Education, Employability
  • fitting a model of teachers' job engagement based on perceived stewardship behavior of managers and their QWL
    Alireza Amini * Page 10

    this research present and test a model to better understand of managers' stewardship behavior impacts based on individual responsibility, self- dedication to organizational goals and preferring organization profitability to individual profitability on teachers' job engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) by mediating role of quality of work life (QWL) in framework of survival, Belonging and knowledge needs. according to survey methodology, a questionnaire was designed and distributed. research data was gathered by 197 teachers sampling form regions of Mashhad Departments of Education District No. 2, 3 and 4 and finally, by using structural equation modeling, it was analyzed. the results of testing research hypothesizes show that managers' stewardship behavior directly affect on quality of work life and teachers' job engagement and quality of work life, moreover, mediate stewardship behavior effects on teachers' job engagement. according to survey methodology, a questionnaire was designed and distributed. research data was gathered by 197 teachers sampling form regions of Mashhad Departments of Education District No. 2, 3 and 4 and finally, by using structural equation modeling, it was analyzed. the results of testing research hypothesizes show that managers' stewardship behavior directly affect on quality of work life and teachers' job engagement and quality of work life, moreover, mediate stewardship behavior effects on teachers' job engagement.

    Keywords: Stewardship Behavior, Stewardship theory, Job engagement, quality of work life
  • Presenting a Conceptual Model for Professional Development of High School Principals: Grounded Theory
    Akbar Joodaki *, Kamran Mohammad Khani, Amir Hossein Mohammad Davoudi Page 11

    The purpose of this study was to design a conceptual model for the professional development of high school principals. This research was a type of qualitative research and the methodology of the grounded theory was the criterion of action in this study. The statistical population consisted of experts and educators in the field of education, education officials and trustees, and faculty members in the field of educational administration, utilize a purposive sampling method and using theoretical saturation criterion, that semi-structured interviews done with 12 people as participants in research. To obtain validity and validity of the data, two methods of reviewing the participants and reviewing non-participant experts were used in the research. With Using the results of studying theoretical fundamentals and the research background and analyzing the content of the interviews, the primary indicators of the development of school principals have been identified and in three stages of open coding, theoretical coding and selective coding significant 18 total categories including: causal Conditions (laws and regulations, budgets and financial resources, managers' need), pivotal phenomenon (participation in codify of professional development programs), strategies (creation of professional development centers in education offices, establish workshops, visiting other schools, studying books and articles, coaching sessions, getting help from Experienced peers), intermediate conditions (personality characteristics of managers, educational policies), background conditions (support of senior management of the organization, Utilize of professional development appropriate methods, establish of training courses for principals) and consequences (development of the school, development of teachers and development of students) has been analyzed.

    Keywords: Professional development, principals, Grounded Theory, Conceptual Model
  • Prioritizing educational needs of management skills of principals based on field of study, degree of education and educational grade (case study: principals of distinct 4 of Tabriz)
    Taghi Zavvar *, Alireza Malekpour, Sadegh Maleki Avarsin Page 12

    The purpose of this study was determine priority of training needs (technical, human and conceptual ) and effective factors on it (technical, human and conceptual ) in the primary and secondary school managers in the region of 4 in Tabriz city. This study was descriptive and surveying. The population size of 112 school managers , 95 samples obtained using Cochran equation using random stratified proportional sampling method. For assessment of training needs , Management skills , an questionnaire based on a five - point Likert scale was developed. After collection of questionnaire, data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software, descriptive statistics , ANOVA, Independent Samples test and ANOVA were used to analysis of data. Result sowed school managers in all skills of technical, human and conceptual need to education . Technical skills were first priority and human skills were the last. Skills of technical, human and conceptual in different Educational field were a significant (P<0/05). Skills of technical, human and conceptual among educational degree, years of employment different educational level were not significant correlation (P>0/05) . Key words: Management skills, Training needs assessment, School managers Key words: Management skills, Training needs assessment, School managers Key words: Management skills, Training needs assessment, School managers

    Keywords: Management skills, Training needs assessment, School managers
  • Predicting the principals' thouht based on knowledge creation, distribution & application
    Mahmood Ekrami *, Seyysdeh Zahra Mirghaderi Page 13

    If we want to observe the knowledge management in schools, we should operationalize it’s elements creation, release and application of knowledge, and increase the students motivations for sharing of knowledge and data exchange. The aim of sharing of knowledge is improvement of school community or raising the school knowledge base for more effective and efficient decision making in all aspects of educational organization. The revolution process in schools routinely, is up to down transfer in organization structure that is possible only by direct actions of school principals. Obviously, intellectual style of principal would be effective. A principal with one intellectual style could facilitate the process of creation, release and apply of knowledge, and the other principal with other intellectual style. Not only could be helpful. But as to could be a serious barrier in these steps. Sensitivity and importance of management and leadership in elementary schools is more than other courses due to the commencement of education and it’s effects on continuation of education process. Acquaintance with intellectual style could be helpful for people to identify their strengths and weakness and understand how developed their strategies in decision making and problem salving. This could decrease the wrong decisions. Recognition of thinking style and related variables in education is necessary. Because many differences in people performance could be related to thinking style instead of their ability (Zareei, 2001). On the other hand, understanding the thinking style help people to better understand why some activities are suitable for them and some others are not, indeed the thinking style is one reason for people different actions. The thinking style of one principal has a considerable effect on correct decision for knowledge creation in organization, the process of making availed and improving the created knowledge by people in organization and applying this knowledge among employees. Principal’s thought directly appear it’s influence on decisions, plans, behaviors, and how to dealing with different problems and conditions in organization, and by these results, establishing and tuning the principal’s thought could be traced. It seems that with improvement of thinking style of principals, the knowledge management in organization could be enhanced, and more attention to knowledge management lead the employees to work in growth and eloquence way by talent, motivation and latent and potential forces beside the wisdom strategy. In this research attempted to examine whether the thinking method of principals could be anticipated base on creation, release and application of knowledge? This study according to the application purpose and data collection method is descriptive, are variable and correlation. The studied statistical population in this research include all principals of schools and education organization in Alborz province in 2017-2018 in all courses and education bureaus. Normally, applying the questionnaire for principals is difficult, because they are busy and the questionnaire was given base on their agreement and verification. Therefore, the available sampling method was used. Among about you people, 167 people answered the questionnaire as on available sample. The measuring tool of questionnaire were made by knowledge management in 12 items, including three elements. Questions number 1 to 4, knowledge creation, number 5 to 8, knowledge application, 9 to 12, knowledge release. Principals inform about their ideas as four degree range (always, frequently, sometimes, rarely), and questionnaire of thinking method which was made by Harisun and Beramsun (2002), this section is a set of 18 questions with 5 options and everyone ranks it according to his preferences, that 5 has the most and 1 has the less similarity to him. The obtained total score of 18 questions of each option evaluate one intellectual style. The total scare of first question measure combined intellectual style, second question evaluate idealistic style, the third one pragmatic style, the fourth one analyst style, the fifth one realist style. The score 60 or more than it, is the peak of intellectual style, score between 49-59 could be adopted by intellectual style with various conditions, and score 48 or less in portial intellectual style which could be ignored. The final evaluation of credit of knowledge management questionnaire was evaluate a=0/9125 and credit of it’s elements are knowledge creation (F1)=0/7803, knowledge release (F2)=0/1118, knowledge application (F3)=0/8527, respectively. The credit of intellectual style questionnaire is evaluated as follow: combined thought (A)=0/873, idealistic thought (B)=0/6188, pragmatic thought (C0/1848, analyst thought (D)=0/8917, realist thought (E)=0/8017. In addition, the questionnaire of elements is one dementia and for it’s final evaluation, the Cronbach’s Alpha Formula could not be used, so the Ferguson Formula (1949) were used. The data were analyzed by one sample tests(t), Friedman Chi square and basic correlation. The results of analysis of data indicated that the stualied statistical population in all elements of thinking style have obtained the scores of 49-59. It means that they are intermediate in all thinking levels and can adapt with different conditions, and they haven’t reach to the peak of the intellectual style. In population from which the sample group have been extracted, the knowledge management variables were intermediate the knowledge creation variables were intermediate range, and knowledge release variables were upper than intermediate and knowledge application variable was evaluated in intermediate level. In this population, in thinking variables of principals set, pragmatic thinking has the upper grade and cornbined thought has the lower grade. Analysit thinking variable is in second grade, idealist thought is in third grade and realist thought if in fourth grade. And in the set of knowledge management variables, release variable is first, knowledge creation is second and knowledge application is third grade. So, in the studied population. Science application is in lower grade. In Chi square fit model, the relationship between sex and knowledge creation, type of school. With knowledge application and realist thought have been verified, and other personal properties have no relation with elements of knowledge management and thinking style. And for answer the last question (i.e. could it possible to anticipate principal thought base on creation, release and application of knowledge?) the correlation model were used, and according to the results, relation among them were verified. Therefore, the set of principals thoughts with knowledge management elements in the studied organizations were belonged to various fields and more and less are working independent of each other.

    Keywords: thinking style, knowledge creation, knowledge dispersion, knowledge applica
  • Design and validation talent management model of Islamic Azad University schools(sama) organization
    Abbas Abbaspour *, Fakhrossadat Seifhashemi, Ali Khorsandi, Saeed Ghiasi Page 14

    Abstract The purpose of study was to design and validation talent management model of Islamic Azad University schools(sama) organization. This research was applied of purpose and of the mixed method of implementation (qualitative-quantitative). The research population in the qualitative section was 26, and in the section of 190 managers and managers of schools in the whole country were selected in 1996-1997. They were selected using purposeful and cluster sampling, respectively. For collecting data in the qualitative section, interviews were conducted and in the quantitative part, a researcher-made questionnaire was used. Their formal and conservative validity was verified and their reliability was calculated by Cronbach's alpha method of 87%. Data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The findings showed that the talent management model Sama was presented in the form of 6 dimensions and 16 variables.: 1- Identification and reception of key posts (school administrators and managers) 2- Predictable person (ability-commitment skills) 3- Predictable person selection (interview and test-review of resume) 4- Employability (liability initiative Conscientiousness) 5. Development (empowerment of career progression in in-service training) 6. Maintenance (Compensation system - paying attention to material and technical needs).. The results of the second-order confirmatory factor analysis show that the six identified components have a meaningful load factor and have a desirable value. Keywords: Talent Management. Islamic Azad University (SAMA) schools Abstract

    Keywords: Talent Management, SAMA, &quot, attraction&quot, Maintenance Development
  • Realizing the characteristics of school organizational structure in the Fundamental Reform Document of Education (FRDE) in the Islamic Republic of Iran
    Seyedeh Bahareh Boutorabi, Rezvan Hosseingholizadeh *, Behrooz Mahram Page 15

    Abstract The main objective of the study is to determine the features of organizational structure of school in the Fundamental Reform Document of Education in Iran. To this end, the study was carried out as a documentary research; so that the Philosophy of Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Philosophy of formal and public Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran, doctrine of formal and public Education system in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Strategic evolution Document in the Islamic Republic of Iran and Fundamental Reform Document of Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran were examined and analyzed. To analyze the data, data coding method was used at open and axial phases and interviews with document formulators Including Dr eghbal ghasemi pooya, Dr majid ranai, Dr reza saki, Dr alireza sadeghzadeh ghamsari and Dra li zarafshan Were used to achieve reliability. Based on the categories, the main features of organizational structure of school were organizing education processes, diversity of educational opportunities, educational guidance, educational process evaluation, hierarchy, decentralization, school orientation, networking, rule of law, responsibility and authority, social participation, professionalism, organizational justice, teamwork, healthy and interactive human relationships, and human resource management based on the pivotal role of religious value system. Abstract The main objective of the study is to determine the features of organizational structure of school in the Fundamental Reform Document of Education in Iran. To this end, the study was carried out as a documentary research; so that the Philosophy of Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Philosophy of formal and public Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran, doctrine of formal and public Education system in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Strategic evolution Document in the Islamic Republic of Iran and Fundamental Reform Document of Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran were examined and analyzed. To analyze the data, data coding method was used at open and axial phases and interviews with document formulators Including Dr eghbal ghasemi pooya, Dr majid ranai, Dr reza saki, Dr alireza sadeghzadeh ghamsari and Dra li zarafshan Were used to achieve reliability. Based on the categories, the main features of organizational structure of school were organizing education processes, diversity of educational opportunities, educational guidance, educational process evaluation, hierarchy, decentralization, school orientation, networking, rule of law, responsibility and authority, social participation, professionalism, organizational justice, teamwork, healthy and interactive human relationships, and human resource management based on the pivotal role of religious value system. Abstract The main objective of the study is to determine the features of organizational structure of school in the Fundamental Reform Document of Education in Iran. To this end, the study was carried out as a documentary research; so that the Philosophy of Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Philosophy of formal and public Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran, doctrine of formal and public Education system in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Strategic evolution Document in the Islamic Republic of Iran and Fundamental Reform Document of Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran were examined and analyzed. To analyze the data, data coding method was used at open and axial phases and interviews with document formulators Including Dr eghbal ghasemi pooya, Dr majid ranai, Dr reza saki, Dr alireza sadeghzadeh ghamsari and Dra li zarafshan Were used to achieve reliability. Based on the categories, the main features of organizational structure of school were organizing education processes, diversity of educational opportunities, educational guidance, educational process evaluation, hierarchy, decentralization, school orientation, networking, rule of law, responsibility and authority, social participation, professionalism, organizational justice, teamwork, healthy and interactive human relationships, and human resource management based on the pivotal role of religious value system. The main objective of the study is to determine the features of organizational structure of school in the Fundamental Reform Document of Education in Iran. To this end, the study was carried out as a documentary research; so that the Philosophy of Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Philosophy of formal and public Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran, doctrine of formal and public Education system in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Strategic evolution Document in the Islamic Republic of Iran and Fundamental Reform Document of Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran were examined and analyzed. To analyze the data, data coding method was used at open and axial phases and interviews with document formulators Including Dr eghbal ghasemi pooya, Dr majid ranai, Dr reza saki, Dr alireza sadeghzadeh ghamsari and Dra li zarafshan Were used to achieve reliability. Based on the categories, the main features of organizational structure of school were organizing education processes, diversity of educational opportunities, educational guidance, educational process evaluation, hierarchy, decentralization, school orientation, networking, rule of law, responsibility and authority, social participation, professionalism, organizational justice, teamwork, healthy and interactive human relationships, and human resource management based on the pivotal role of religious value system. Abstract The main objective of the study is to determine the features of organizational structure of school in the Fundamental Reform Document of Education in Iran. To this end, the study was carried out as a documentary research; so that the Philosophy of Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Philosophy of formal and public Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran, doctrine of formal and public Education system in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Strategic evolution Document in the Islamic Republic of Iran and Fundamental Reform Document of Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran were examined and analyzed. To analyze the data, data coding method was used at open and axial phases and interviews with document formulators Including Dr eghbal ghasemi pooya, Dr majid ranai, Dr reza saki, Dr alireza sadeghzadeh ghamsari and Dra li zarafshan Were used to achieve reliability. Based on the categories, the main features of organizational structure of school were organizing education processes, diversity of educational opportunities, educational guidance, educational process evaluation, hierarchy, decentralization, school orientation, networking, rule of law, responsibility and authority, social participation, professionalism, organizational justice, teamwork, healthy and interactive human relationships, and human resource management based on the pivotal role of religious value system. Keywords: School organizational structure, Fundamental Reform Document of Education (FRDE) in the Islamic Republic of Iran

    Keywords: school, organizational structure, Fundamental Reform Document of Education (FRDE) in the Islamic Republic of Iran, education