فهرست مطالب

پژوهش های کاربردی زراعی - پیاپی 122 (بهار 1398)
  • پیاپی 122 (بهار 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/01/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • صادق باغبان خلیل آباد، حمیدرضا خزاعی*، محمد کافی صفحات 1-12

    به منظور بررسی اثرات کم آبیاری بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و صفات فیزیولوژیکی مرتبط با تنش خشکی، آزمایشی در سال زراعی سال 1390 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شد. آزمایش به صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا گردید. فاکتورهای موردبررسی شامل چهار سطح آبیاری (100، 75، 50 و 25 درصد نیاز آبی) در پلات های اصلی و ارقام شامل سه رقم گندم نان (پیشگام، الوند، اروم) و سه رقم گندم دوروم (بهرنگ، آریا، دنا) در پلات فرعی قرار گرفتند. صفات موردبررسی شامل صفات زراعی وابسته به عملکرد، شاخص محتوی کلروفیل، غلظت کلروفیل های a و b و محتوی آب نسبی برگ پرچم بود. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد دانه به ترتیب مربوط به ارقام پیشگام (723 گرم در مترمربع) و الوند (677 گرم در مترمربع) بود. تنش کم آبی سبب کاهش میزان عملکرد دانه همه ارقام شد. بین ارقام موردمطالعه بیشترین شاخص برداشت با میانگین 52 درصد مربوط به رقم دنا و کمترین آن با میانگین 32 درصد مربوط به رقم اروم بود. شاخص برداشت تحت تاثیر میزان آبیاری قرار نگرفت. محتوی آب نسبی برگ پرچمی در تنش شدید نسبت به شاهد 45 درصد کاهش یافت، ومحتوی کلروفیل های a وb با کاهش میزان آبیاری به ترتیب به میزان 08/40 و 78/65، کاهش یافت. در نهایت به نظر می رسدبا کاهش 25درصدی مصرف آب در بین ارقام گندم نان بهترین برای کاشت رقم پیشگام و در بین ارقام دروم بهترین بهرنگ باشد. کلمات کلیدی: صفات زراعی، کلروفیل، محتوای آب نسبی

    کلیدواژگان: آبیاری، کلروفیل، a وb، محتوی آب نسبی
  • علی اکبر مویدی، شجاعت زارع* صفحات 13-27
    این پروژه با هدف ارزیابی کارآیی انرژی سیستم کشاورزی حفاظتی دو سیستم تناوب زراعی در دو آزمایش جداگانه در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی طرق مشهد در 5 سال با استفاده از طرح کرت های خرد شده در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی و سه تکرار به اجرا در آمد. تیمارهای آزمایش شیوه های مختلف خاک ورزی در سه سطح شامل: شیوه متداول خاک ورزی (شخم + دیسک + تسطیح + کاشت با بذرکار)، شخم کاهش یافته (چیزل پکر یا دیسک سبک + کاشت با بذرکار) و بدون شخم (کاشت مستقیم با بذرکار) در کرت های اصلی و مدیریت بقایای گیاهی در سه سطح بدون بقایا، حفظ 30% بقایا و حفظ 60% بقایای محصولات مختلف درکرت های فرعی قرار گرفت. در اولین آزمایش سیستم تناوب زراعی رایج این منطقه شامل گندم-ذرت-گندم-خربزه-گندم و در آزمایش دوم سیستم تناوب زراعی پیشنهادی یا پایدار شامل گندم-کلزا-گندم-شبدر-گوجه فرنگی-گندم بررسی شد . نتایج نشان داد از نظر مصرف انرژی برای هر دو تناوب زراعی رایج و پایدار سهم نیروی انسانی بسیار کم بود و آب و کاه و کلش هر کدام با حدود 30 درصد بیشترین سهم را دارا بودند و ماشین آلات و کود در مرتبه بعد قرار گرفتند. در هر دو سیستم تناوب زراعی رایج و پایدار، تیمار بدون شخم و بدون بقایا بالاترین بهره وری انرژی را داشت. افزایش فعالیت های خاک ورزی از بدون شخم به متداول، در سیستم تناوب زراعی رایج کاهش بهره وری انرژی را در پی داشت، اما افزایش فعالیت های خاک ورزی از بدون شخم به حداقل شخم کمی بهره وری انرژی را افزایش داد.
    کلیدواژگان: خربزه، ذرت، شبدر، کلزا، گندم، گوجه فرنگی
  • نسرین فرهمندراد، سید غلام رضا موسوی*، محمد حسین صابری صفحات 28-49

    به منظور ارزیابی اثر تاریخ کاشت و تراکم بوته بر صفات مورفولوژیکی و عملکردی شاهدانه، آزمایشی در سال 1392 در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی بیرجند به صورت کرت های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. در این آزمایش سه تاریخ کاشت 23 اردیبهشت، 7 خرداد و 22 خرداد ماه به عنوان عامل اصلی و سه تراکم 22/22، 11/11 و 4/7 بوته در متر مربع به عنوان عامل فرعی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. نتااخیر در کاشت از 23 اردیبهشت به 22 خرداد قطر ساقه، تعداد انشعابات ساقه اصلی، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد دانه در بوته و واحد سطح، عملکردهای دانه و بیولوژیک در بوته و متر مربع و شاخص برداشت را به طور معنی داری و به ترتیب 2/20، 2/22، 3/20، 2/49، 2/43، 53، 9/36، 48، 9/36 و 6/17 درصد کاهش داد همچنین نتایج نشان داد با کاهش تراکم از 2/22 به 4/7 بوته در متر مربع، تعداد دانه، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک در مترمربع به ترتیب به میزان 2/37، 7/13 و 5/19 درصد کاهش و قطر ساقه، تعداد انشعابات ساقه اصلی، تعداد دانه، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیک در بوته و وزن هزار دانه به ترتیب به میزان 7/40، 7/22، 7/72، 3/112، 4/141 و 32 درصد به طور معنی داری افزایش یافت. به طور کلی به منظور رسیدن به عملکرد اقتصادی مطلوب در زراعت گیاه دارویی شاهدانه در منطقه بیرجند، کشت زودهنگام (ترجیحا دهه سوم اردیبهشت) و نسبتا متراکم (2/22 بوته در واحد سطح) آن را می توان توصیه کرد.

    کلیدواژگان: گیاه دارویی، زمان کاشت، تعداد بوته، شاخص برداشت، تعداد دانه، ارتفاع بوته
  • رحیم ناصری*، مهرشاد براری، محمدجواد زارع، کاظم خاوازی، زهرا طهماسبی صفحات 50-80
    به منظور بررسی اثر باکتری سودوموناس و قارچ میکوریزا بر میزان عناصر غذایی ریزمغذی اندام های هوایی گندم ، آزمایشی مزرعه ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دو مکان در مزرعه دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام و ایستگاه مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی سرابله در سال زراعی 93-1392 اجرا شد. رقم گندم (کراس سبلان و ساجی) و تیمار منابع کودی: 1- تیمار شاهد (Control)، 2- 50 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود شیمیایی فسفر (50 kg/ha P)، 3- باکتری سودوموناس پوتیدا (PSB)، 4- قارچ گلوموس موسه (GM)، 5- باکتری سودوموناس پوتیدا+ قارچ گلوموس موسه (PSB+GM)، 6- باکتری سودوموناس پوتیدا+ قارچ گلوموس موسه+25 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود شیمیایی فسفر (PSB+GM+25 kg/ha P)، 7- باکتری سودوموناس پوتیدا+25 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود شیمیایی فسفر (PSB+25 kg/ha P) و 8- قارچ گلوموس موسه+25 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود شیمیایی فسفر (GM+25 kg/ha P). بیشترین میزان روی در مرحله پنجه زنی (9/13 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم)، برگ (11 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم)، ساقه (6/15 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم) و سنبله (09/24 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم)، منگنز در مرحله پنجه زنی (5/238 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم) برگ (1/56 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم)، ساقه (2/6 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم) و سنبله(5/16 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم)، آهن در مرحله پنجه زنی (5/238 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم)، برگ (5/163 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم)، ساقه (7/35 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم) و سنبله (2/90 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم) و منیزیم در مرحله پنجه زنی (3/0 درصد) و ساقه (26/0 درصد) در رقم ساجی × GM+25 kg/ha P و کمترین میزان عناصر عذایی موجود در اندام های هوایی در رقم کراس سبلان و تیمار Control مشاهده شد.
    کلیدواژگان: روی، عناصر ریزمغذی، منابع کودی، منیزیم
  • مجید عاشوری* صفحات 81-100
    این تحقیق به صورت طرح اسپلیت پلات (کرت-های یک بار خرد شده) در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا گردید. عامل اصلی تراکم بوته در چهار سطح: 100 بوته در متر مربع (1010 سانتی متر)، 25 بوته در متر مربع (2020 سانتی متر)، 16 بوته در متر مربع (2525 سانتی متر) و 11 بوته در متر مربع (3030 سانتی متر) و عامل فرعی مقدار نیتروژن در چهار سطح، صفر، 40، 80، 120 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که تعداد پنجه بارور در متر مربع، تعداد دانه در پانیکول، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیکی و شاخص برداشت تحت تاثیر تراکم بوته، سطوح کود نیتروژن و بر همکنش معنی دار تراکم بوته و سطوح مختلف کود نیتروژن قرار گرفت. بیشترین شاخص سطح برگ و سرعت رشد محصول برنج در تیمار 100 بوته در متر مربع (فاصله کاشت 1010 سانتی متر) مشاهده شد. شاخص سطح برگ و سرعت رشد محصول، برنج در تیمارهای مقادیر بالای نیتروژن نسبت به تیمارهای نیتروژن پایین بیشتر بود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در تیمار 25 بوته در متر مربع (فاصله کاشت 2020 سانتی متر) و مصرف 80 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن با 6833 کیلوگرم و کمترین عملکرد دانه در تیمار 11 بوته در متر مربع (با فاصله کاشت 3030 سانتی متر) و عدم استفاده از کود نیتروژن به میزان 4780 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد که مصرف کود نیتروژن 80 کیلوگرم در هکتار در مقایسه با عدم مصرف کود نیتروژن به میزان 43 درصد عملکرد دانه را افزایش داد.
    کلیدواژگان: برنج، تراکم کاشت، عملکرد، نیتروژن
  • رحمان عرفانی، همت اله پیردشتی*، محمدزمان نوری، رحمت عباسی صفحات 101-122
    با توجه به اثر مخرب زیست محیطی کشاورزی متداول روز به روز بر اهمیت توجه به کشاورزی جایگزین افزوده می شود. بدین منظور جهت مقایسه سه سامانه متداول، کم نهاده و ارگانیک از نظر عملکرد و ویژگی های کیفی خاک شالیزار، آزمایشی طی سال‎های 1394و 1395 در سه منطقه مختلف استان مازندران (‎آمل، بابل و فریدونکنار) اجرا شد. در سامانه زراعی ارگانیک، از کود مرغی و کودهای زیستی و جهت مبارزه با آفات و بیماری از قارچ کش ها و حشره کش های زیستی استفاده شد. در سامانه زراعی کم نهاده، نهاده های خارجی تولید در مقایسه با سامانه متداول به حداقل رسانده شد. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد شلتوک و بیولوژیک در منطقه فریدون کنار و در کشت کم‏نهاده به دست آمد که در مقایسه با دو با سامانه متداول و ارگانیک به‏ترتیب 73/4 و 80/2 و 90/29 و 12/29 درصد بیشتر بود. میزان شاخص برداشت در کشت ارگانیک، کم نهاده و متداول به ترتیب 84/37، 69/38 و 85/36 درصد بود که اختلاف معنی داری بین ارگانیک و کم نهاده مشاهده نشد. همچنین سامانه های مختلف زراعی بر خصوصیات کیفی خاک تاثیر معنی داری داشتند به طوری که اسیدیته خاک در کشت ارگانیک با کاهش 57/2 درصدی از 39/7 در سال اول به 20/7 در سال دوم رسید اما در دو سامانه کم نهاده و متداول به ترتیب افزایش 92/0 و 15/1 درصدی را در سال دوم به همراه داشت.
    کلیدواژگان: ارگانیک، اسیدیته خاک، برنج، عملکرد شلتوک، متداول
  • خشنود علی زاده*، صادق شهبازی صفحات 123-134

    به منظور بررسی میزان تولید علوفه در نسبت های مختلف کشت مخلوط دو گونه ماشک پانونیکا (Vicia pannonica Crantz) و داسی کارپا (Vicia villosa subsp. varia (Host) Corb)، این تحقیق در قالب طرح بلوک های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار طی دو سال زراعی (96-1394) تحت شرایط دیم سردسیری مراغه انجام شد. تیمارها شامل کشت خالص ماشک رقم مراغه و رقم گل سفید به همراه نسبت های افزایشی از اختلاط بذر این دو رقم با نرخ 10% بصورت درهم بود. مقایسه میانگین ها و برآورد نسبت برابری زمین برای کشت های مخلوط با استفاده از مقدار علوفه خشک انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که متوسط عملکرد علوفه خشک در کشت خالص رقم گل سفید بعنوان یک رقم پاییزه، 1953 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. کرت های کشت خالص ماشک مراغه در سال دوم آزمایش (96-1395) در اثر خسارت سرما بطور کامل از بین رفت. در کشت مخلوط این دو رقم در سال دوم ، ماشک مراغه توانست از خسارت سرما عبور و در یک رقابت مثبت با ماشک گل سفید، مزرعه متراکم و درهم بافته ای ایجاد گردید. بیشترین عملکرد علوفه خشک (2889 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در اختلاط بذری 70% ماشک گل سفید و 30% ماشک مراغه بدست آمد و کشت مخلوط 60% ماشک گل سفید و 40% ماشک مراغه از بیشترین نسبت برابری زمین (1.34) برخوردار بود. در مجموع چنین نتیجه گیری شد که کشت مخلوط دو رقم ماشک گل سفید و مراغه برتر از کشت خالص آنها بود و اختلاط بذری ماشک گل سفید با ماشک مراغه در نسبت 3 به 2، برای شرایط دیم سردسیری مراغه و احیانا مناطق مشابه، قابل توصیه است.

    کلیدواژگان: علوفه دیم پاییزه، Vicia panonica، Vicia dasycarpa
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  • Sadegh Baghbankhalilabad, Hamid Reza Khazaee *, Mohammad Kafi Pages 1-12
    Introduction

    Currently, the most important selection criterion for drought tolerance in wheat breeding programs is to compare grain yields between wheat cultivars grown under normal and deficit irrigation conditions. Several reports indicate that wheat traits, such as grain yield, biomass and yield components are decreased when the crop encounters water stress (Mohseni and Akbari, 2012). Heritability for yield is low under drought conditions due to high interaction between genotype and environment or low genetic variation. For this reason, secondary characteristics such as physiological traits have been given particular attention for selection process by researchers. Leaf relative water content (LRWC), chlorophyll content, water use efficiency (WUE), proline and abscisic acid accumulation are of some physiological indices as a measure for selection of drought tolerant cultivars. LRWC is considered as a screening tool under drought condition. (Blum et al., 1981). LRWC is affected by osmotic pressure, water uptake and respiration rate and shows a high heritability under drought conditions. Crop chlorophyll (Chl) content decreases under drought conditions and plants with high Chl content are more tolerant to drought (Abdoli et al., 2013). In crops with high chlorophyll content, photosynthesis activity continues under drought conditions. Thus the experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of limited irrigation on some morphological and physiological traits of bread and durum wheat under Mashhad-Iran environmental conditions

    Material and Methods

    The study was conducted at experimental field of Ferdowsi university of Mashhad during 2011 and 2012 growing seasons in order to evaluate the effect of limited irrigation on yield and physiological characteristics of wheat. A split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was performed. The main plots were assigned to irrigation levels including (I1)100, (I2)75, (I3)50 and (I4) 25 percent of evaporation from evaporation pan class A and the sub-plots consisted of wheat cultivars (three hexaploid cultivars (Pishgam, Alvand, Erum) and three durum cultivars (Behrang, Arya, Dena). Land preparation was done on late October according to farmers practice in the area. There were six 3m long rows spaced 20cm apart in each plot. The studied characteristics were yield component traits, flag leaf chlorophyll content, chlorophyll (Chl) a, and b contents and flag leaf relative water content (LRWC).

    Results and Discussion

    The results of analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference between cultivars in terms of grain yield. Also, grain yield was significantly affected by irrigation levels but was not affected by interaction between the treatments. The highest (723 kg/m2) and lowest (677 kg/m2) grain yields were produced by Pishgam and Alvand cultivars respectively. The highest (52%) and lowest (32%) harvest index were observed for Dena and Erum cultivars, respectively. There was no significant difference between irrigation levels for harvest index. There was no significant difference between cultivars for chlorophyll content There was a significant difference between cultivars for chlorophyll a content. The highest chlorophyll a content (2.49 mg/g fresh weight) was observed for Dena cultivar. There was significant difference between irrigation levels for chlorophyll a and b contents. Chlorophyll content was significantly affected by irrigation level and chlorophyll a and b concentrations were decreased by water deficit. There was no significant difference under normal irrigation levels between chlorophyll content index and the Chl a, and b concentrations. LRWC was different with different cultivars and was affected by irrigation levels. The highest and lowest LRWC were obtained with Pishgam and Alvand cultivars, respectively. There was no significant difference between the other cultivars for LRWC .

    Conclusion

    The highest grain yield was obtained from Pishgam and Alvand cultivars. The former and the latter gave the highest yield because of higher 1000-grain weight and higher numbers of grain per spike, respectively. Harvest index of all the wheat cultivars remained stable and was not affected by water stress. Water stress reduced LRWC, chlorophyll index content and chlorophyll a and b concentrations. The reduced chlorophyll content led to diminished production of photosynthates, resulting in decreased grain yield and biomass in the all cultivars. Since selection based on grain yield is not useful because of its low heritability, LRWC can be used as the selection criterion for cultivars with high yield performance under water deficit conditions.

    Keywords: Irrigation, chlorophyll a, b, relative water content
  • Ali Akbar Moayedi, Shojaat Zareh * Pages 13-27
    Modern agriculture in the world had positive results for human by increasing of food and Prosperity, but had negative effects on nonrenewable resources. This system is based on more consumption of foreign inputs, chemical fertilizers, water and energy. Where traditional tillage and residue removal practices have been used over of Iran, soil has been lost through erosion while the soil resource has been degraded physically, chemically and biologically. As a result, improved or new varieties of crops (such as wheat) as well as use of other inputs are not able to deliver their potential contribution. The term conservation agriculture removes the emphasis from the tillage component and addresses an enhanced concept of the complete agricultural system; it involves major changes in many aspects of the farm cropping operation. Due to the increasing consumption of energy in the world and the decrease of energy resources, it is important to pay attention to the systems that wasting energy in them be at the least. The aim of project was to evaluate the energy efficiency of the protective system of agricultural under two separate systems of crop rotation in two separate experiment, in agricultural and natural resource research education center (station of Torogh, in Mashhad). The experiment was performance using a split-plot design based on randomized complete block with three replications for five years (during 2011-16 growing seasons). Experiment treatments were various tillage methods in main plots,Conventional Tillage (CT: Plowing + disc + leveling + planting with seeder), Reduced Tillage (RT: heavy disc + planting with seeder) and No Tillage (NT: planting with seed).Residue management in sub plots contain, no residue (R0), Maintaining 30 percent of the plant residue (R1) and Maintaining 60 percent of the plant residue (R2). The first crop rotation was conventional as the same of farmer rotations consist of wheat-corn-wheat-melon-wheat. The second crop rotation was more diverse and closed to sustainable rotation inclusive wheat-rapeseed-wheat-clover-tomato-wheat. Results showed that with energy efficiency for both crop rotations (conventional and sustainable) the contribution of human strength was very low and contribution of water and straw each with 30% had the highest level and machine and fertilizer were in the subsequent stage. In both crop rotations, NT + R0 had the highest level of energy efficiency. In conventional crop rotation, increasing of tillage from NT to CT had decreasing of energy efficiency but increasing of tillage from NT to RT treatments increasing energy efficiency slowly.
    Keywords: melon, Corn, clover, Rapeseed, Wheat, tomato
  • N Frahmand Rad, S. Gh. Moosavi *, M. H. Saberi Pages 28-49
    Introduction

    Cannabis has long been used for hemp fibre, hemp oils, medicinal purposes, and as a recreational drug. Given the importance of maximum utilization of environmental parameters during growth period, it is crucially important to choose an appropriate sowing date and plant density for crops cultivation. Hence, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sowing date and plant density on morphological and yield traits of canabis.

    Materials and Methods

    This experiment was carried out as a split-plot based on randomized compelate block design with three replications at the field of agricultural research center of Birjand, Iran in 2013. In this research the main plots were sowing date at three levels of May 12, May 27 and June 11 and the sub-plots were plant densities at four levels of 7.4, 11.1 and 22.2 plants m-2. Measuring traits included the plant height, stem diameter, branch number of main stem, seed number per plant and m2, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index and seed and biomass yields of single plant. The texture of the soil in research farm was loam with the pH of 8.28, electrical conductivity of 2.23 mmos/cm and organic carbon, total N, P, and K content was 0.18%, 0.035%, 6.04.4 ppm and 231 ppm at the depth of 0-30 cm, respectively. In the end, all data were analyzed by MSTAT-C statistical software and means were compared by Duncan Multiple Range Test at 5% level.

    Results and Discussion

    The results showed that all traits were significantly affected by sowing date and plant density. Also, interaction effects of planting date and plant density significantly affected plant height, seed number per m2 and seed yield of cannabis. The delay in sowing from May 12 to June 11 significantly decreased stem diameter, branch number in main stem, plant height, seed number per single plant and m2, seed and biological yields per single and m2 and harvest index by 20.2, 22.2,20.3, 49.2, 43.2, 53, 36.9, 48, 36.9 and 32%, respectively. It can be said that with delay of sowing date from May 12 to June 11, because increasing of temperature and shortened days, the plants did not have enough time for vegetative growth and production of branches (Shafaroodi et al., 2012), and so the number of seed per plant and m2 and finally seed and biological yields decreased. Also means comparison showed that with decrease in density from 22.2 to 7.4 plants/m2, seed number, seed yield and biological yield traits per m2 decreased by 37.2, 13.7 and 19.5%, respectively, and stem diameter, branch number in main stem, seed number, seed yield and biological yield traits per single plant and 1000-seed weight increased by 40.7, 22.7, 72.7, 112.3, 141.4 and 32%, respectively. It appears that the increasing trend of seed yield with the increase in plant density was caused by by more leaf area, effective utilization of solar radiation during growth period (Niroomand Tomaj et al., 2012، Delarami & Moosavi, 2016) and photosynthetic capacity and production of more pods per unit area.

    Conclusions

    As a result, longer growth period and production of more assimilates in earlier sowing dates can be mainly reason for better yield of cannabis. Moreover, higher plant density by maximum utilization of solar radiation, increasing in the photosynthetic capacity and source power was significantly increased seed yield of cannabis. Also, higher yield in first sowing date and 22.2 plants m-2 treatment related to effective utilization of solar radiation by more leaf area. In total, the treatment of sowing date of May 12 with the density of 22.2 plants m-2 had maximum of seed yield with an average of 356.60 g m-2.

    Keywords: medicinal plant, sowing time, plant number, harvest index, seed number, plant height
  • Rahim Naseri *, Mehrshad Bararyn, Mohammad Javad Zarea, Kazaem Khavazi, Zahra Tahmaseb Pages 50-80
    Introductions
    Bacteria are common inhabitants of the rhizosphere or as endophytes in internal plant tissues. The function of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in agriculture has been well documented, including enhancements in growth, yield and disease-resistance of crops (Young et al., 2013). The ability of a few soil microorganisms to convert insoluble forms of phosphorus to an accessible form is an important trait in plant growth-promoting bacteria for increasing plant yields. The use of phosphate solubilizing bacteria as inoculants increases the P uptake by plants (Chen et al., 2006). Mycorrhizal fungal symbiosis is widely believed that it protects host plants from detrimental effects of drought. Possible mechanisms for improving drought resistance of the mycorrhizal plants could be due to an increased in root hydraulic, enhanced water uptake at low soil moisture levels as a result of extraradical hyphae, osmotic adjustment which promotes turgor maintenance even at low tissue water potential, proline and carbohydrate accumulation, and increased nutritional status in mycorrhizal plants. The intra-radical mycelium of these soil fungi proliferates in root cortex of the host plant. Extraradical AM hyphae spread in the soil around the root and provide a surface area by which the AM fungus absorbs nutritional elements “such as P, N, Zn, Cu and transports and transfers them to the host plant (Asrar & Elhindi, 2011). The objective of the present study was to Effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi on accumulation of shoots micro nutrient elements wheat in dryland conditions. Materiala and
    methods
    In order to study the effect phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and Mycorrhiza fungi (GM) on accumulation of shoots nutrient elements wheat in dryland conditions, an experiment was carried out in factorial arrangement using randomized complete block design with three replications at Agricultural Research Station of Ilam University and Sarableh Agricultural and Research, Recources Center during 2013-2014 cropping season. Experiment factors consisted of two dry land wheat cultivars (Keras Sablan and Saji) and fertilizer sources treatment including of 1- without application of phosphorious chemical fertilizer, 2- 50 kg/ha phosphorous chemical fertilizer, 3- pseudomonas putida (PSB), 4- Glomus mosseae (GM), 5-PSB+GM, 6-PSB+GM+25 kg/ha phosphorous chemical fertilizer, 7- PSB+ 25 kg/ha phosphorous chemical fertilizer and 8- GM+25 kg/ha phosphorous chemical fertilizer. The data were analyzed statistically by SAS program and the data means were compared by LSD test.
    Results and Discussion
    Results indicated that interaction effect between cultivar× fertilizer sources had significant effect on accumulation of nutrients elements in shoots in dryland wheat. In two dryland wheat cultivars under dryland conditions using of PSB and GM caused incearsing Zn, Mn, Feand Mg, at tillering stage, leaf, stem and spike in wheat, so that the highest Zn at tillering stage (13.9 mg.kg-1), leaf (11mg.kg-1), stem (15.6 mg.kg-1) and spike (24.09 mg.kg-1), Mn at tillering stage (238.5 mg.kg-1), leaf (56.1 mg.kg-1), stem (6.2 mg.kg-1) and spike (16.5 mg.kg-1), Fe at tillering stage (2.5 mg.kg-1), leaf (163.5 mg.kg-1), stem (35.7 mg.kg-1) and spike (90.2 mg.kg-1) and Mg at tillering stage (0.3% .) and leaf (0.26%) obtained from Saji cultivar×GM+25 kg/ha phosphorous chemical fertilizer. The lowest accumulation of nutrients elements in shoots belonged to Keras Sabalan×check treatment. Therefore, results indicated PSB abd GM had positive effect on mcro elements in wheat under dryland conditions. There was significant different between cultivars to response of using of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, so that Sji cultivars had the best response to mycorrhizal fungi. Therefore with regard to cultivation of wheat is facing to drought and heat stress, indicated that Saji cultivar and using of mycorrhizal fungi can be the best result under dry land conditions.
    Conclusion
    In this study indicated PSB and GM had positive affect on accumulation of shoots micronutrient elements in wheat dryland conditions, so that root traits and grain yield had the better status in presence of inoculation with GM. In fact PSB and GM could alleviate the partial of grain yield in presence of dry land farming by increasing micronutrient elements.
    Keywords: Fertilizer sources, Mg, Microelements, Zn
  • Majid Ashouri * Pages 81-100
    In order to investigation of the effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer levels on yield and yield component of Hashemi rice, an experiment has been performed in Rudsar city (Gishakjan) in 2016. This study performed as split plot in complete randomized block design with three replication. Plant densities were as main factor in four levels of 100 plant in m2 (1010 cm), 25 plant in m2 (2020 cm), 16 plant in m2 (2525 cm), 11 plant (3030 cm) and nitrogen levels were sub factor were in four levels 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha. The results of variances analysis indicated that fertile tiller number in m2, grain number in panicle, grain yield, biologic yield and harvest index was in effect of plant density, nitrogen fertilizer levels and significant interaction of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer levels. The highest LAI and CGR were in treatments of 100 plant in m2 (1010 cm). LAI and CGR in treatments with higher nitrogen level were more than treatments with lower levels.The most grain yield observed in treatment of 25 plant in m2 (plant distance 20 × 20 cm) and consuming 80 kg/ ha with 6833 kg and the least grain yield was in treatment of 11 plant in m2 (plant distance 30 × 30 cm) and no consuming of nitrogen fertilizer with 4780 kg/ha. The results showed that consuming of 80 kg/ ha nitrogen fertilizer had increased 43 % the grain yield rather than no consuming nitrogen fertilizer. Inspite of consuming more Seedling in density of 100 plant in m2 (plant density 10 × 10 cm) the grain yield was reduced by the reason of competition among plants. In order to investigation of the effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer levels on yield and yield component of Hashemi rice, an experiment has been performed in Rudsar city (Gishakjan) in 2016. This study performed as split plot in complete randomized block design with three replication. Plant densities were as main factor in four levels of 100 plant in m2 (1010 cm), 25 plant in m2 (2020 cm), 16 plant in m2 (2525 cm), 11 plant (3030 cm) and nitrogen levels were sub factor were in four levels 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha. The results of variances analysis indicated that fertile tiller number in m2, grain number in panicle, grain yield, biologic yield and harvest index was in effect of plant density, nitrogen fertilizer levels and significant interaction of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer levels. The highest LAI and CGR were in treatments of 100 plant in m2 (1010 cm). LAI and CGR in treatments with higher nitrogen level were more than treatments with lower levels.The most grain yield observed in treatment of 25 plant in m2 (plant distance 20 × 20 cm) and consuming 80 kg/ ha with 6833 kg and the least grain yield was in treatment of 11 plant in m2 (plant distance 30 × 30 cm) and no consuming of nitrogen fertilizer with 4780 kg/ha. The results showed that consuming of 80 kg/ ha nitrogen fertilizer had increased 43 % the grain yield rather than no consuming nitrogen fertilizer. Inspite of consuming more Seedling in density of 100 plant in m2 (plant density 10 × 10 cm) the grain yield was reduced by the reason of competition among plants.
    Keywords: nitrogen, plant density, rice, yield
  • Rahman Erfani, Hemmatollah Pirdashti *, Mohammadzaman Nouri, Rahmat Abbasi Pages 101-122
    Organic cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa) has been carried out in some parts of the world. Despite a lot of research, policy and public attention, only a small portion of the total agricultural land is cultivated as organic farming. Due to the adverse effect of conventional agriculture on environment throughout the excessive use of chemical inputs, the importance of considering to alternative agriculture is increasing day by day. One of the pillars of sustainable agriculture is the use of organic fertilizers in agro-ecosystems with the aim of eliminating the use of chemical fertilizers. Since the emergence of organic rice cultivation in Mazandaran province and the existence of numerous potential for transition from conventional to organic agriculture, the present study was designed to evaluate the paddy yield and qualitative characteristics of paddy soil in three cropping systems of conventional, low-input and organic farming. In order to study the effect of different agricultural systems on paddy yield and qualitative characteristics of paddy soil, an experiment was conducted during 2015 and 2016 in three different regions of Mazandaran province including Amol, Babol and Fereydounkenar. For organic, low-input and conventional agricultural systems, three, four and six fields were selected in these cities, respectively. Selected fields have been used the same agricultural system for at least three last years. In organic agricultural systems, poultry manure and biofertilizers including: Azotobacter and Barvar2 were used and pests and diseases controlled using Trichogramma bee, sex pheromones, fungicides and biological insecticides. Also, the weed in organic system weeded manually. In low-input system, external inputs such as chemical fertilizers and pesticides were minimized as compared to the conventional system. At the beginning of the growing season, the necessary justification was done with farmers. In each agricultural system and region, grain yield, biological and harvest index were determined in three replications. Also, in order to measure the quality of soil in each system, 10 separate samples were taken from depths of 0 to 30 cm. Nitrogen was calculated by kjeldahl method, phosphorus by Olson-Summers method and potassium by ammonium replacement method. Data was processed by excel software and after analysis of Bartlett test for uniformity of variances, mixed analysis was done using SAS statistical software ver. 9.1. Also, the mean comparison was done by Duncan's multiple range test at 5% probability level. the results showed that the highest paddy and biological yields was obtained in Fereydounkenar region and in low-input agricultural system which differed 4.73 and 2.80 percent and 29.9 and 29.12 percent as compared to the conventional and organic systems, respectively. The amounts of harvest index in organic, low-input and conventional systems were 37.48, 38.69 and 36.85 percent, respectively. However, there was no significant difference between organic and low- input systems. Also, agronomic systems positively affect the soil quality characteristics. Soil pH in organic farming system ranged from 7.39 in the first year to 7.20 in the second year which showed a decrease 2.57 percent. In low-input and conventional systems, the increase in pH was 0.92 and 1.15 percent in the second year, respectively. The maximum organic carbon content with 2.25 percent was belonged to organic system and the lowest amount (1.67 percent) was recorded in conventional system in the second year. The total nitrogen content in the conventional system decreased from 0.21 percent in the first year to 0.18 percent in the second year which showed a decrease of 14.28 percent. Also, this rate was reduced by 5 percent in low-input system in the second-year and increased by 5 percent from 0.19 to 2.0 percent in organic system in the second year. The maximum available phosphorus i.e. 14.98 mg/kg was obtained in organic system which showed a significant difference with the low-input and conventional systems with 8.34 and 13.75 percent, respectively. The amount of available potassium in organic system in first year was lower than conventional and low-input systems with 17.67 and 56.68 percent and this difference was 21.25 and 4.6 percent in the second year, respectively.
    Keywords: Organic Culture, pH, Paddy Yield, Conventional
  • Khoshnood Alizadeh *, Sadegh Shahbazi Pages 123-134

     

    Introduction

    Drylands occupy about 6.2 million ha of the area of Iran. They are mainly used for wheat and food legume production. However, the rainfed cultivation of forage crops is carried out on only 120 thousand ha of dryland farms, which comprise less than 2 % of the total arable drylands in Iran. Considerable variation has been reported in herbage and grain yields of the improved cultivars of vetches (Vicia spp.) under rainfed conditions. Mixed cropping of cereals with forage legumes can improve the quantity and quality of fodder compared to sole cropping of cereal plants (Alizadeh & da Silva, 2013). There is no published research to evaluate the agronomic performance of different vetch cultivars in the mixed cropping under cold dryland conditions. This research was conducted to compare different mixing ratios of two vetch species (Vicia pannonica Crantz and Vicia villosa subsp. varia (Host) Corb.) under cold dryland condition of Maragheh. Materials and

    Methods

    This research was conducted as randomized complete blocks design with three replications during two growing seasons (2015-2017) at the main station of dryland agricultural research institute of Maragheh. The treatments included pure stands of smooth vetch (cv. Maragheh) and Hungarian vetch (cv. Golsefid) along with additive series of their mixed cropping at seed rate of 10 % Comparison of means and estimation of land equivalent ratios were conducted using dry forage yield.

    Results and Discussion

    Golsefid as a winter type vetch produced 1953 (kg/ha) dry biomass over two years. Pure stands of cv. Maragheh were completely damaged from cold and freezing during the second year. This was expected for Maragheh as Vicia dasycarpa is not a cold tolerant vetch and may sustain damage during winter and under severe cold conditions (Alizadeh et al., 2013). However, Maragheh at different mixtures was able to successfully pass winter in both years of the experiment . The highest dry biomass (2889 kg/ha) was obtained from the mixture of 70% Golsefid and 30% Maragheh in the first year. However, the highest land equivalent ratio (1.34) was obtained from 60% Golsefid and 40% Maragheh in their mixed cropping.

    Conclusion

    It was concluded that the mixed cropping of Golsefid and Maragheh cultivars were superior than their pure stands in terms of forage yield production. According to our results, the mixture of 60% Golsefid and 40% Maragheh can be advisable for Maragheh cold drylands and other similar growing conditions.

    Keywords: Rainfed, Autumn planting, Vicia panonica, Vicia dasycarpa