فهرست مطالب

مطالعات شبه قاره - سال یازدهم شماره 36 (بهار و تابستان 1398)
  • سال یازدهم شماره 36 (بهار و تابستان 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/01/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • سید میرعبدالرضا حسینی، حمید حاجیان پور* صفحات 9-32
    از سده 19م. سیاست انگلستان در ایالت فارس، ایجاد امنیت در راه های ارتباطی با هدف توسعه تجارت بود. در این راستا دولت بریتانیا اقدام به تاسیس یکی از سازمان های هماهنگ کننده به نام «کنسولگری» کرد. این پژوهش برآنست با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی درپی پاسخ به این سوال باشد که کنسولگری بریتانیا در شیراز، درصدد دست یابی به چه اهداف و کارکردهایی بود و نحوه تعامل آن با کمپانی هند شرقی چگونه بود؟ یافته های پژوهش بیانگر آن است که قصور دولت مرکزی و فقدان قدرت محلی در فارس، باعث ایجاد ناامنی در راه ها شد که درنتیجه به تجارت بریتانیا زیان هایی وارد کرد. این مساله کنسول ها را بر آن داشت تا برای حفظ منافع خود و برقراری امنیت، دست به اقداماتی بزنند؛ ازجمله، دخالت در امور داخلی حکومت فارس، تصمیم به تجزیه آن، برقراری روابط مستقیم با سران قبائل و عشایر، اعزام قشون هندی، دادن اولتیماتوم به دولت مرکزی و اخطار به حکام محلی مبنی بر دخالت نظامی و تشکیل نیروی مستقلی به نام «پلیس جنوب». کنسولگری بریتانیا در شیراز در ماموریت خود از ظرفیت های نظامی، مالی و اداری کمپانی هند شرقی بهره می برد و تحت اداره کل سیاسی هند بود و سخنگوی کمپانی، در دستگاه اداری فارس استقرار داشت. صادرات به بمبئی و دیگر بنادر مهم هند، از طرف فارس صورت می گرفت.
    کلیدواژگان: کمپانی هند شرقی، بریتانیا، کنسولگری، شیراز، تجارت
  • خلیل حکیمی فر* صفحات 33-52
    قانون «وابستگی متقابل پدیده ها» به عنوان آموزه ای بنیادین در آیین بودا، هم با رویکرد وجودشناختی قابل بررسی است و هم با رویکرد معرفت شناختی. به لحاظ وجود شناسی، نظریه ای است برای توضیح ماهیت و روابط وجود، صیرورت، هستی و واقعیت غایی؛ بدین معنا که تمامی وضعیت ها متوقف بر حالات و وضعیت های پیشین هستند و خود این حالات و وضعیت ها نیز به نوبه خود ایجادگر دیگر امور هستند؛ اما به لحاظ معرفت شناسی، نظریه ای است درباره چگونگی کسب معرفت در رابطه با وجود، صیرورت، هستی و واقعیت. این قانون می تواند دارای ارتباط وثیقی با صلح و همزیستی باشد؛ با این توضیح که اگر انسان ها به واقعیت ارتباط متقابل تمام اجزای جهان آگاهی داشته باشند، خواهند دریافت که کنش هایشان نسبت به دیگران درواقع در ارتباط با خودشان است. این مطالعه به روش توصیفی و تبیینی در پی بررسی اضلاع و ابعاد این اصل است.
    کلیدواژگان: بودا، وابستگی متقابل پدیده، صلح
  • علی رضا حیدری نسب* صفحات 53-76
    مقاتل بن سلیمان بلخی در تفسیر قرآن، فردی گران قدر ولی در روایت مجروح خوانده شده است. پژوهش حاضر که به شیوه تحلیلی-توصیفی انجام شده است، ضمن بررسی و تحلیل اقوال مختلف درباره شخصیت مقاتل و ملاحظه روایات و کارنامه حدیثی وی و قیاس آن با کارنامه دیگر راویان و روایات آنان نشان می دهد که اگرچه او در صدر مفسران قرار داشته و در چارچوب مذاهب اهل سنت اندیشه و عمل کرده است، از برخی ایرادها چون عدم پایبندی کامل به روش محدثان در نقل و داشتن غرور علمی مبرا نیست؛ ولی این ایرادها سبب بی اعتباری روایاتش نمی شود. داشتن مشایخی طراز اول چون صادقین(ع) و ضحاک، راویانی چون عبدالرزاق و حسن بن محبوب و وجود عین روایات یا متابعات و شواهد آن در جوامع حدیثی و منابع برتر فریقین در کنار زهد، عرفان و صراحتش با حاکمان، او را حداقل در سطح عموم راویان حدیث قرار می دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: مقاتل بن سلیمان، شخصیت مقاتل، حدیث مقاتل
  • مهدی دهمرده پهلوان، روح الله شیرازی*، حسن باصفا صفحات 77-102
    با وجود کاوش ها و بررسی های باستان شناختی پراکنده در منطقه شمال شرق ایران، تاکنون در این منطقه مطالعه تخصص گرایی فن و میزان و مقیاس پیچیدگی های اقتصادی صورت نپذیرفته است. شمال شرق ایران به دلیل منابع معدنی فراوان و قرار گرفتن در مسیر ارتباطی بزرگ خراسان، همواره در طول تاریخ دارای اهمیت مکانی و اقتصادی ویژه ای بوده است. با آگاهی از این اهمیت در این مقاله تلاش شده است که فرایند تخصصی شدن محصولات و پیچیدگی های اقتصادی و مبادلات تجاری موجود در این منطقه بر اساس یافته های به دست آمده از محوطه باستانی قاراچشمه نیشابور مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. هدف این پژوهش، مشخص کردن روند ظهور جوامع با ساختار پیچیده اقتصادی، شروع تخصص گرایی و شناسایی ارتباطات و تعاملات فرهنگی درون منطقه ای و برون منطقه ای این حوزه جغرافیایی در خلال پیچیده شدن جوامع است. در این پژوهش تحلیل برپایه یافته های میدانی و مطالعه تطبیقی داده های حاصل از کاوش بوده است و نتایج این پژوهش حکایت از آن دارد که محوطه باستانی قاراچشمه در طول هزاره سوم پیش از میلاد دارای تخصص پذیری بوده و کالاهای انبوهی تولید می کرده که از طریق راه های ارتباطی، فرهنگ های شمال شرق ایران را به جنوب ترکمنستان، دره سند در شبه قاره هند و جنوب شرق ایران متصل می کرده است. این ویژگی ها نشان از توسعه و تحول جوامع پیچیده اقتصادی و سیاسی در شمال شرق ایران دارد که توسط گروهی از نخبگان اقتصادی و اجتماعی اداره می شده است و بر تولید کالا و در مدیریت راه های ارتباطی نقش بسیاری داشته است.
    کلیدواژگان: تخصص گرایی، پیچیدگی اقتصادی، مبادلات تجاری، محوطه قاراچشمه
  • مهدی ذوالفقاری* صفحات 103-124
    پاکستان از مهم ترین همسایگان شرقی ایران و از بازیگران مهم منطقه ای و اثرگذار بر ژئوپلیتیک شبه قاره است. تنوع قومی و مذهبی در این کشور و همسایگی آن با هندوستان و مناقشه کشمیر بر عمق استراتژیک این کشور افزوده و منجر به ایجاد حساسیت در روابط خارجی این کشور با همسایگان شرقی و غربی خود شده است. اگرچه ژئوپلیتیک موجب اهمیت پاکستان می شود، اما زمینه ساز پیدایش افراط گرایی فرقه ای و بی ثباتی سیاسی در سطح ملی و منطقه ای در قبال همسایگان شده است. دراین پژوهش ریشه افراطی گری پاکستان در سطوح ملی و سیستمی مورد بررسی قرار می گیرد تا به این پرسش اساسی پاسخ داده شود که فرقه گرایی و افراطی گری تحت چه عواملی شکل گرفته و چه تاثیراتی بر امنیت ملی جمهوری اسلامی ایران می گذارد؟ در پاسخ به پرسش، این فرضیه مطرح می شود که افراط گرایی فرقه ای در پاکستان به دلیل تنوع و بسترهای پیچیده داخلی و تحریک و تشویق قدرت های مداخله گر منجر به ایجاد تهدیدات امنیتی برای جمهوری اسلامی ایران می شود. روش تحقیق پژوهش حاضر تحلیلی-تبیینی و شیوه گردآوری اطلاعات، استفاده از اسناد و متون کتابخانه ای است.
    کلیدواژگان: پاکستان، امنیت، افراطی گری فرقه ای، ایران، آمریکا
  • احمد سنچولی* صفحات 125-140
    گوینده یا نویسنده هنگام تولید یک متن، با توجه به معرفت زمینه ای و اطلاعاتی که ظاهرا بین او و خواننده مشترک است، از قالب خاصی برای ارائه مطلب استفاده می کند. علامه اقبال لاهوری (1938-1877م) در مجموعه شعر ارمغان حجاز برای بیان دیدگاه های سیاسی و اجتماعی و دینی خویش از قالب دوبیتی بهره برده که جلوه گاهی از اندیشه و احساس لطیف شاعر است؛ بنابراین در این نوشتار به منظور دست یابی به برخی از ویژگی های زبان شناختی و تجزیه و تحلیل گفتمانی ادبی، دوبیتی های وی به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته تا به این سوالات اساسی پاسخ داده شود که ساخت کلان دوبیتی های اقبال چگونه است و هر دوبیتی از چه سازه ‎هایی تشکیل شده است؟ نتایج به دست آمده حاکی از آن است که ساخت و بافت دوبیتی های وی به سه دسته تک سازه ای، دو سازه ای و سه سازه ای قابل تقسیم است که دوبیتی های تک سازه ای بیش از نیمی از کل دوبیتی ها را به خود اختصاص داده است. در دوبیتی های تک سازه ای، سازه توصیف بیشترین بسامد را دارد و در آن توصیف انسان و شرح حال خویشتن و احوال دل محوری ترین عنصر به حساب می آید. از آنجا که در این دوبیتی ها جزء فرستنده و گیرنده و نیز خود پیام در مرکزیت و کانون توجه قرار دارد، گفتمان دوبیتی های اقبال از نوع عاطفی، ترغیبی و ادبی است.
    کلیدواژگان: ساخت کلان، ساخت گفتمانی و متنی، اقبال لاهوری، ارمغان حجاز
  • نادر شوهانی، برهان ویسی ناب*، سهراب امیریان، محمدحسن یزدانی صفحات 141-156
    امروزه این واقعیت پذیرفته شده است که اگر زنان از حقوق ابتدایی خود در جامعه محروم باشند، آن جامعه قادر به دستیابی به توسعه پایدار نخواهد بود؛ بنابراین پژوهش حاضر با رویکردی توصیفی- تحلیلی در پی آن است تا وضعیت نابرابری جنسیتی را در کشورهای شبه قاره هند در طول سه دوره (2011، 2012 و 2013) مورد تحلیل و ارزیابی قرار دهد. اطلاعات موردنیاز پژوهش ازطریق روش اسنادی و استفاده از گزارش جهانی توسعه انسانی و نابرابری جنسیتی سازمان ملل گردآوری شده است. نتایج پژوهش از دو جنبه قابل بررسی است: جنبه اول در سطح جهانی بیانگر آن است که در میان کشورهای شبه قاره در طول این سه دوره، هیچ کشوری وضعیت مناسبی ندارد که این نشان دهنده فاصله این کشور و کشورهای دیگر با استاندارد های جهانی است. جنبه دوم در سطح منطقه ای بیانگر آن است که در طول این سه دوره با وجود آنکه همواره کشورهای شبه قاره پیشرفت نسبی به لحاظ GII داشته اند؛ اما همواره رتبه آن ها در سطح منطقه تغییری نکرده است و کشور میانمار در رتبه اول و هند در رتبه آخر قرار گرفته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: شبه قاره هند، شاخص نابرابری جنسیتی، توسعه انسانی
  • لیلا عبداللهی*، مجتبی زروانی صفحات 157-174
    یکی از مهم ترین آموزه های دین بودا، مساله رنج در زندگی انسان است. بودیزم اساسا به دنبال نجات انسان از رنج است. تعالیم اولیه بودا راه رهایی از رنج را آگاهی صرف از وجود رنج می دانست؛ اما با گسترش بودیزم در میان فرهنگ های مختلف و بسط اجتماعی آن، مکاتب مختلفی از بودیزم شکل گرفت که مساله رنج و راه رهایی از آن را به گونه دیگری نسبت به تعالیم اولیه بودا تبیین می کردند. این مقاله در پی پاسخ به این پرسش است که راه نجات انسان از چرخه رنج چیست؟ پاسخ این پرسش در دو مکتب مهم بودایی مادیمیکه و شین شو جودو بررسی شده است. در این پژوهش مفهوم نجات و نحوه دست یابی به آن و همچنین عوامل موثر در کسب آن در این دو مکتب بررسی شده است. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش که به روش توصیفی و مقایسه ای انجام شده است نشان می دهد که در مکتب مادیمیکه، نیروانه بدون وصول به معرفت برتر محقق نمی شود. این نوع از معرفت را ناگارجونا «شونیاته» می نامد که انسان با نفی معرفت نسبی آن را کسب می کند؛ اما در مکتب شین شو راه نجات انسان تکرار خالصانه ذکر نام «آمیدا»ست و نه هیچ عمل دیگری. در مکتب شین، انسان باید تنها با تکرار ذکر آمیدا خود را شایسته لطف او کند.
    کلیدواژگان: مادیمیکه، معرفت، شین شو، آمیدا، ذکر
  • محمدرضا عبدی، محمدامیر مشهدی*، عبدالله واثق عباسی صفحات 175-194
    از آغاز قرن دهم هجری با توجه به تغییر مراکز ادبی و تاثیر حاکمیت سیاسی بر ادبیات فارسی، در کنار معما سازی و ماده تاریخ ، جواب گویی و تقلید از منظومه های فاخر فارسی چون «مخزن الاسرار»، «حدیقه الحقیقه»، «بوستان» و «مثنوی معنوی» در کارنامه شاعران ایرانی-هندی فراوان به چشم می خورد. مثنوی «گل افشان» اثر «کاهی کابلی» از شاعران سرآمد دربار همایون و اکبرشاه گورکانی در قرن دهم، یکی از ارزشمندترین نمونه های فن «جواب گویی» در ادب پارسی است. نسخه خطی این اثر که توسط نگارندگان مقاله درحال تصحیح است، قافیه به قافیه در جواب بوستان سعدی شامل یک دیباچه و ده باب به نام های «عدل و انصاف و تدبیر جهانداری»، «احسان»، «عشق و طریقت اولیاء»، «تواضع»، «رضا»، «قناعت»، «تربیت»، «شکر»، «توبه»، «مناجات و ختم کتاب»، در (3683) بیت در قرن دهم به نام «اکبرشاه» سروده شده است. با توجه به اینکه اکثر نویسندگان کتب تذکره و تاریخ ادبیات و پژوهشگران معاصر، این کتاب را جزو آثارمعدوم شده «کاهی» قلمداد کرده اند؛ معرفی و تصحیح این اثر ارزشمند، ضروری به نظر می رسد. این مقاله درپی آن است که با معرفی این نسخه خطی و سراینده آن، ضمن بررسی ساختار و ویژگی های سبکی «گل افشان» به روش تحلیلی-توصیفی و ارائه اطلاعاتی نو از تنها نسخه خطی موجود آن، به این پرسش پاسخ دهد که چگونه می توان اثبات کرد که این اثر متعلق به کاهی کابلی است
    کلیدواژگان: گل افشان، کاهی کابلی، استقبال و جواب گویی، بوستان سعدی
  • فتحیه فتاحی زاده، حسین افسردیر* صفحات 195-214
    اشغال هندوستان توسط انگلیسی ها و شکست مسلمانان در انقلاب 1875م، شرایط نامطلوبی را بر مسلمانان هند تحمیل کرد. همین امر، جنبش های اصلاحی ازجمله حرکت اصلاح گرایانه سید احمدخان را در پی داشت. احمدخان در جهت آشتی علم و دین، با رویکردی نوگرایانه «تفسیر القرآن هو الهدی و الفرقان» را نگاشت. وی نسبت به هم عصران خود دارای مبانی فکری متفاوتی بود که منجر به تفسیر متفاوت قرآن شد؛ از این رو واکاوی مبانی فکری وی و زمینه های شکل گیری آن، مهم ترین مساله این پژوهش است که با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی سعی در پاسخ به آن دارد. قرآن بسندگی، تجربه گرایی در تفسیر قرآن و عرفی دانستن زبان قرآن، به عنوان مهم ترین مبانی فکری احمدخان از دستاوردهای پژوهش حاضر است. این نوع نگرش تحت تاثیر شرایط اجتماعی- سیاسی آن روزگار شکل گرفته و بر آرای تفسیری احمدخان اثر گذاشته است. بر این اساس، معجزه، وحی، نبوت، ملائک و سایر مفاهیم غیرمادی به کار رفته در قرآن کریم را تاویل کرده و تاویل ها را بر مبنای مطابقت نظام تشریع با نظام تکوین توجیه کرده است.
    کلیدواژگان: سید احمدخان هندی، قرآن بسندگی، تجربه گرایی، تاویل گرایی، زبان قرآن
  • عبدالطیف کاروانی*، مجید موحدمجد صفحات 215-236
    ناسیونالیسم، ایده ای جدید است که از انقلاب آمریکا و فرانسه در قرن هجدهم الهام گرفته است. وقتی که از ناسیونالیسم در عصر مدرن بحث به میان می آید، منظور نهضتی است که به دنبال ایجاد یا تقویت احساس ملی در بین مردم است. احساسات ناسیونالیستی در کشورهای مسلمان اغلب ریشه در مواجهه با قدرت های اروپایی در قرن نوزدهم و پس از آن دارد و در این رابطه هواداران اسلام سیاسی اغلب اعلام کرده اند که «ملیت یک مسلمان، ایمان اوست». بسیاری از این مسلمانان، ناسیونالیسم را به خاطر تفکیک جامعه اسلامی یا امت به واحدهای جدا از هم تقبیح کرده و کاستی های آن را در مواجه با رقبای دینی و تمدنی اش برشمرده اند. مقاله حاضر در همین راستا و با هدف بررسی اندیشه های صاحب نظران اهل سنت درباره ناسیونالیسم انجام شده است. پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از روش کتابخانه ای و اسنادی به بررسی اندیشه های صاحب نظرانی مثل اقبال لاهوری، ابولاعلی مودودی، عبدالرحمن کواکبی، ساطع الحصری و مصطفی کامل پرداخته است. متفکرانی مثل کواکبی، الحصری و کامل، علی رغم اعتقادات دینی شان، احساسات ناسیونالیستی را برجسته کرده اند و بر ویژگی های ناسیونالیستی مثل قوم و زبان تاکید بیشتری دارند؛ ولی برعکس، متفکرانی مثل اقبال لاهوری و مودودی بیشتر بر ویژگی های دینی تاکید می کنند و مخالف بحث های ناسیونالیستی هستند و بحث های ناسیونالیستی را علت اصلی افول تمدن اسلامی می دانند.
    کلیدواژگان: ناسیونالیسم، ناسیونالیسم اسلامی، ناسیونالیسم عربی
  • عبدالحسین لطیفی* صفحات 237-252
    در میان ابعاد مختلف ادیان، می توان گفت بعد عرفان از بیشترین ظرفیت همدلی پیروان ادیان برخوردار است و بیشترین همانندی ها از این رهگذر حاصل می شود؛ ازاین رو این نوشتار متکفل بررسی همانندی برخی آموزه های مهم عرفانی در مثنوی به عنوان نمونه برجسته ای از ادبیات اسلامی و اوپانیشادهای اولیه به مثابه یکی از کتاب های مهم دین هندویی است. موضوعات مهم این پژوهش عبارت اند از: وحدت وجود، اتحاد برهمن و آتمن و فنا ءفی الله ، و رستگاری مبتنی بر معرفت. این مقاله درصدد آن است که اولا همدلی این دو اثر را از رهگذر همانندی آموزه های عرفانی نشان دهد. ثانیا به مدد مثنوی، توجه جمهور مطالعه گران را به آثار مهم عرفانی هندویی معطوف کند. درنتیجه می توان گفت، علاوه بر همانندی هایی که حاصل فطرت معنویت گرای بشر است و در آثار مورد بحث در این نوشتار به نیکوی دریافته می شود، همانندی های مثنوی با اوپانیشادهای اولیه قابل تامل است. این پژوهش با رویکرد متن محورانه و روش تحلیلی-مقایسه ای و بر مبنای منابع کتابخانه ای انجام پذیرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: اتحاد برهمن و آتمن، اوپانیشادهای اولیه، مثنوی معنوی، طریق رستگاری، وحدت
  • حسن یعقوبی*، عصمت اسماعیلی صفحات 253-268
    آنندرام (Anand Ram)، متخلص به «مخلص»، شاعر و نویسنده پارسی گوی قرن دوازدهم هجری، در سیالکوت لاهور به دنیا آمد. مخلص در شاعری ، از استاد خود بیدل دهلوی پیروی می کرد و از بهترین شاگردان او بود. علاوه بر قریحه آنندرام در شاعری ، ذوق نکته یابی و نقادی وی نیز شایسته توجه است و سبک نگارش او در نثر هم به متانت و روانی مشهور بوده است؛ به گونه ای که مخلص را یکی از بهترین نویسندگان آن روزگار خوانده اند. «چمنستان» یکی از آثار منثور آنندرام، مجموعه ای است از لطیفه ها، کنایات و نکات ظریف ، اشاراتی بر احوال بعضی از معاصران و توصیفاتی از درختان ، گل ها و میوه ها که در چهار «چمن» و هر چمن در دو «گل دسته» ترتیب یافته و در سال 1159ه.ق نگاشته شده است. این مقاله که به روش توصیفی نوشته شده، به دنبال پاسخ به این سوال خواهد بود که چمنستان شامل چه مطالب، موضوعات و نکات برجسته ای بوده و نثر مخلص در این اثر چگونه است. در چمنستان با نکات و اشارات ارزشمند تاریخی، ادبی، اجتماعی و زبانی روبه رو می شویم که مطالعه و بررسی آن می تواند به شناخت بیشتر ویژگی های نثر نویسندگان هندی پارسی گوی آن دوره و نیز آگاهی از برخی اصطلاحات، آداب و رسوم و نکات تاریخی و ادبی کمک کند.
    کلیدواژگان: شبه قاره، آنندرام مخلص، نثر، چمنستان
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  • Seyed Mirabdolrezahosseiny, Hamid Hajiyan Pour * Pages 9-32
    Introduction
    This study investigated the British Consulate in Shiraz (in Fars Province) in the interval 1903-1925/1321-1344 AH. Iran is located in an area where European states had colonial objectives in the early nineteenth century. The strong economic-political rivalries between these European countries in that period caused them to expand their spheres of influence using tools including establishment of consulates. Therefore, it is important to demonstrate the role and the position of these consulates in changing the political attitude of Britain toward Iran and to show the guiding role of the Consulates in this relation. Study of practical measures taken and reports sent by the Consulates to the British government in London and to the British Raj reveals the important political-commercial objectives they followed and reported. The main purpose and question in the present research is to investigate the objectives and functions of the British Consulate in Shiraz. Although it is obvious that the British government established the Consulate in Shiraz, as one of its most important centers of influence, to promote its colonial objectives in this city, one of the main purposes of this research is to identify the colonial methods and the strategy the British government adopted for expanding its policy in the Fars region. 
    Methodology
    This research addressed the rivalries between colonial states, especially Britain, and the establishment of the British Consulate in Shiraz in Iran in the framework of the theory of colonization. Therefore, the study was fundamental in purpose and analytical and descriptive in methodology. Obviously, it mainly employed a library- and document-based method to collect information and used first-hand historical sources, travelogues, the works of chroniclers, published correspondence of secret agents of foreign countries, and the Fars Weekly as its sources.   
    Findings
    The Consulate in Shiraz was inaugurated by General George Graham and supervised by European officers (Lorimer, 2009:270; Rabino (1984:139). Up to the year 1925 /1344 AH, it had nine Consuls or Vice-consuls with the ranks of general, colonel, and captain and some with the titles of Major and Lieutenant (Rabino, ibid; The Discovery of English Tricks or Duplicity and Falsehood, based on British Secret Documents on Iran, Kianfar, Einollah and Estakhri, Parvin, 1984:133).      When the British came to power in Fars Province, one of the publications with a high circulation named the Fars Weekly was published from 1916-1919/ 1335-1338 AH under the management of Mirza Fazlollah Banan, the secretary and translator of the Consulate. On the front page of the weekly was printed “This newspaper publishes the official news of the South Persia Rifles.” All official notifications of the civil and military representatives of the British Government and of the East India Company in Fars were printed in this weekly (the Fars weekly, 1916-1919/1335-1338 AH). During this period, trade was as important for the British government as the establishment of consulates and the appointment of consuls (Watson, 1961:99). The most important objective of the British government was to create order and security along the trade routes with the purpose of expanding trade. This policy inevitably influenced the situation in Fars. There were important trade routes in Fars that connected the trade areas of central Iran to India and to the southern margins of the Persian Gulf. The most famous one of these was the Bushehr-Shiraz road (Safiri, 1985:30). Shiraz also benefited greatly from this increase in trade activity both in terms of the connecting roads and with respect to consumer goods (Curzon, 2008:2/122-123).              According to the report by Knox D’Arcy, the Vice-Consul in Shiraz Consulate from 1908 to 1912, there were 14 British Companies that engaged in trade in Fars (The Blue Book, 1984:1622-6/7). Moreover, trade documents of the British Consulate in Shiraz during 1913-1014 regarding trade benefits led to a substantial amount of correspondence between the Consulates in Shiraz and Bushehr and the governments in Delhi and London. In general, one basic issue was followed in all this correspondence: to drive out non-British trade from Iran (Kianfar, Einollah and Estakhri, Parvin, ibid, 1984:165).      The Consuls also had general oversight of the financial affairs of Fars Province. From 1911/1329 AH onward, the provincial government in Fars became more dependent on yearly British financial aid to run its foreign affairs, and the British Consul became the honorary person in charge of supplies in Fars Province (Wright, 1979: 121-122). The Europeans in Shiraz were the heads of government offices in Shiraz and dictated without consulting with the Governor of Fars. Daryabeigi, the military commander, obeyed the Consul in the hope of becoming the ruler of the Southern Ports in the Persian Gulf. The telegraph offices, also supervised by the Consul, reported the daily events (Mokhber-ol-saltaneh, 1984:318-324).  
    Results
    Consulates were one of the organizations that the British established in line with colonial rivalries to gain political-economic benefits. Therefore, as a vast Province in southern Iran with sensitive geographical position and an important position in world trade, Fars was the focus of attention for European Powers and became an arena of colonial rivalries. Shiraz attracted Britain’s attention because it was the trading center of southern Iran and played an active role in domestic and foreign trade. There were many British nationals in Shiraz. They took control of purchase and sale of various commodities with the establishment of the Consulate, trading houses and trading companies and extended their influence in this region. This consulate had extensive functions because of the weak central government, tactless local rulers, rivalries between the clans and tribes, and lack of suitable administrative organizations in the Province. The Consuls had general oversight of the telegraph offices, the Imperial Bank of Persia, the financial offices, the representatives of trading companies, the military and law and order affairs, and the communication of warnings issued by the British government regarding their interests. The Consulates also built infirmaries, collected manuscripts and antiques, carried out geographical, political, and economic mapping, became familiarized with the cultural-social affairs and cultures, and acquired information regarding military and financial resources. The Consuls gave consular support to those who took sanctuary and to religious minorities and provided medical services to the public to win people over on the one hand and followed the policy of sowing discord among the nomadic and tribal leaders on the other hand. They acted as kings without crowns, took measures and engaged in undiplomatic behavior (not only to appoint or dismiss rulers but also to meddle in all general and specific affairs in Fars Province), and dictated their wishes. The measures taken by Britain in Fars were mostly based on economic and commercial considerations, and their social-cultural and service provision activities were aimed at acquiring popularity, prestige, and influence.      The value of this research lies in its functional aspects that can be useful for scientific-academic circles, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the National Security Commission, the Strategic, Security, and Economic Centers and, finally, for public enlightenment.     
    References (in Persian)
     Amin, Abdul Amir, British interests in the Persian Gulf, translation by Ali Rajabi, Tehran: Amir Kabir, 1988. Anvari, Amirushang, Gulf, Tehran: House of History, 2011. Obun, Eugene, Iran Today, 1906-1907, translated by Ali Asghar Saeedi, Zwar, 1983 O’Connor, Frederick, Memories of Frederick O’Connor, translated by Hassan Zanganeh, Tehran: Shiraz Publishing House, 1997 Boroumand, Safoura, British Consulate General in Bushehr 1763-1914/1177-1332 AH, Tehran, Journal of the Center for Documentation and Diplomatic History of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2002 ..........British Consulate General in Bushehr, Foreign Relations History Quarterly, year 1, No. 1, winter 1999. pp.31-48.       .......... British Consulate General and Arms Trade in the Persian Gulf (1890-1914), Foreign Relations History Quarterly (year 3, No. 1, spring 2002, pp. 75-86) Banan, Mirza Fazollah, the Fars Weekly. Year 2, No. 21, 1917/1336 AH.p.10. ......................................Year3, No. 22, 1918/1337AH.pp.11-12,No.20,pp.4-5,No,21.p.3,NO.23.p.12,No.25,p.8,No.26,p.12,No.32,p.12 ..................................... Year 4, No. 20, 1919/1338 AH.p.6. Hosseini Fasaei, Mirza Hassan, Farsnameh Naseri, corrected and annotated by Mansour Rastegar Fasaei, 2 volumes, Amirkabir Publications, 1997 Khalesi, Abbas, the History of Sanctuary and Taking Sanctuary, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Publishers, 1987 Gustavo Domorini, Nomads of Fars province, translated by Jalaluddin Rafi Far, Tehran University Publications, 1996 Robino, Louis, Diplomats and Representatives of Iranian and British Consulates, translated by Gholam Hossein Mirza Saleh, Tehran: History of Iran, 1984 Wright, Dennis, the British among the Persians, translated by Manuchehr Tahernia, Tehran: Ashtiani Publications, 1985 .......... the British among the Persians, translated by Eskandar Deldam, Tehran: Nahal Publications, 2000 Raine, Esmaeil, Iranians on British Payroll, Tehran: Javidan Publications, 1977 Razi, Monireh, Southern Police, Tehran: Islamic Revolutionary Guards Documentation Center, 2002. -Roknzadeh Adamitat, Mohammad Hossein, Fars and the International War, two volumes, Tehran: Iqbal Publications, 1978 -Sykes, Sir Percy Mellsworth, History of Iran, translated by Mohammad Taghi Fakhr Dai Gilani, volume 2, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Publishers, 1983 Saeedi Sirjani, Ali Akbar, Vaghaye Ettefaghiyeh, Reports of British secret agents, Tehran: Peykan Publications, 1982 Florida Safiri, the South Persia Rifles, translated by Mansoureh Ettehadiyeh and Mansoureh Jafari Fesharaki, Tehran: Publication of Iranian history,1985 Savori, Roger, Iran under the Safavids, translated by Kambiz Azizi, Tehran: Sahar Publications, 1987 Dagobert von Mikush, Wassmuss the German Lawrence, translated by Freshteh Azam Mirfakhrai, Tehran: Navisa Publications, 1996 Blue Book: The British Department of State’s Secret Reports on the Constitutional Revolution in Iran, complied by Ahmad Bashiri, volumes 1-8, Tehran, Nashrno, 1988 George Nathaniel Curzon, Persia and the Persian Question, translated by Gholamali Vahid Mazandarani, 2 volumes, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Publishers, 2008 The Discovery of English Tricks or Duplicity and Falsehood, compiled by Kianfar, Einollah and Estakhri, Parvin, 1984 Gehrke, Ulrich, Ahead to the East, translated by Parviz Sadri, Book I, Tehran: Siamak Publications, 1998 Hugo de Groot, Travelogue, translated by Mohammad Jalilvand, Tehran: Markaz Publications, 1990 Philippe Graves, Cox Headquarters Mission in the Persian Gulf and Persia, translated by Hasan Zanganeh, Tehran: Behdad Publications, 2001 Ann KS Lambton, History of Islamic Persia, translated by Yaghoub Azhand, Tehran: Amirkabir Publications, 1984 J.G. Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Volume I, translated by Abdulhamid Ayati, Tehran: Iranian Studies Foundation Publications, 2001 Wilhelm Leiton, Iran’s Peaceful Influence to Mandate, translated by Maryam Mirahmadi, Tehran: Moeen Publications, 1988 Masaharu Yoshida, the Travelogues of Masaharu Yoshida, translated by Hashem Rajabzadeh, Mashhad Astan Quds Razavi Printing and Publishing, 1994 Majd, Mohammad Gholi, Persia in World War I and Its Conquest by Great Britain, translated by Mostafa Amiri Tehran: the Political Studies and Research Institute, 2011. Hedayat, Mehdi Gholi (Mokbbar-al-Saltanah), Memories and Risks, Tehran: Zavar, 2010. ------------------------------------------------------------Iran Report, Tehran: Silver, 1984. Watson, Robert Grant, A History of Persia in the Qajar Period, translated by Abbasgoli Azari, Tehran: Bina Publications, 1981 Wilson, Arnold, Wilson Travelogues, translated by Hossein Ali Sa ́adat Nouri, Vahid Publications, 1984.  
    References (in latin)
    1-            Bullard.R.The Middle East a political and economic survey, Oxford University press London New Toronto: 1951. 2-            Degoey, Ferry. "The business of consuls, consuls and business men". Erasmus University Rotterdam. Faculty of his tory and art, 2010 3-            Lorimer, J.G, Gazetter of the Persian Gulf, Oman, and Central Arabia, Completed and edited by R.L.Bird Wood, Calcutta, 1970. 4-            Stebbin, H.L. (2009). British Consuls and “Local” Imperialism in iran, 1889-1921, phD Dissertation: University of Chicago. 5-            -Windler, Chris. "Diplomatic History as Field for Cultural. Analysis: Muslim- Christian Relations in Tunis, 1700-1840 ". The Historical Journal 44: 1, 2001.
    Keywords: Great Britain, Consulate, Shiraz, Trade, Security
  • Khalil Hakimifar * Pages 33-52
    Introduction
    The Buddhism was born in India and originated from Hinduism. In Primitive Hinduism, it was emphasized on the sacrifice and various rituals for salvation. Following the Vedas, the Upanishids era emerged, which recognized knowledge as the right way of salvation. Their common conviction was that ultimate salvation was possible only for one class, that is, Brahmans. In response to the early Hinduism, Two reformist religions emerged: Jainism and Buddhism. The Jainism emphasized austerity, but Buddha introduced the middle way as a way of salvation. All Buddha's recommendations were practical and he asserted that his massage is about human suffering, its origin and the way of out of it. Because they are the only ones that help human beings escape from suffering. Therefore, his words were empty of theoretical discussion and did not speak of philosophical issues. Thus, the Buddhists believe that the Buddha (meaning "awake") has presented the real way of salvation, because he himself has seen in this way the laws of the world, including four noble truths and the law of interdependent origination. This principle explains the real conditions of the world which forms the basis for the peaceful coexistence of human beings. 
      Background of study
    To understand each religion, it is necessary to recognize its features and foundations. Fundamental doctrines of religions provide an appropriate response to basic human questions. Since these teachings represent the attitude of a religion towards the world and the universe, it is called a worldview. What is presented in this article is the explanation of one of the basic teachings of the Buddhist tradition and the expression of its social function, regardless of its complex details.    
    Review of Literature
    According to the studies, there is no independent work in this field in Persian language, but many studies have been conducted in other languages, including English, can be mentioned as follows: Dr. Yochi Cawada (1999), in his book "from inner peace to global peace" is trying to examine the Buddha's solution to global peace. To this end, he explains the causes of suffering in Buddhism, and continues to explain the concept of "shanti" or peace in Hinduism. In the following, he refers to the concept of peace in the light of the principle of the interdependent origination. Theresa Der-lan Yeh (2006), in his article "The Road to Peace in Buddhism," first defines the principle of interdependence of phenomena and then examines the causes and factors of violence in Buddha's view, and ultimately concludes that the Buddha's solution for peace and peaceful coexistence is an amazing and practical one. Ven Mahasi Sayadaw explores the details of this principle in his valuable book entitled "Debates on the principle of interdependence of origination" in fourteen chapters. It is originally published in Burma in 1999 and it was translated and published online by Aye Maung.    
    The statement of study
      The present research is responsible for answering these questions: First, what is the meaning of the interdependent origination in Buddhism and its denominations? Secondly, how can relate this law to other Buddhist teachings and, thirdly, what is the relation of this law to peace and peaceful coexistence in human society? 5-     
    Methodology
    This research is descriptive-analytical and based on library resources. the author has tried to use as authentic and relevant sources as possible. 6-     
    Discussion
    The Dependent Origination (Paticcasamuppada) is one of the most vital concepts of Buddhism. This theory explains the nature and relations of being, becoming, existence and ultimate reality. The essence of this rule is that all creatures and phenomena are interdependent, and everything in the world is based on this rule. With the awakening to the interdependent reality, selfish compulsive responses will be replaced by four positive emotional faculties (Brahmavihara): metta (loving-kindness), karuna (compassion), mudita (sympathetic joy), and upekkha (Equanimity). The idea of Compassion has its origins in pre-Buddhistic thought. It is first met with in the Chāndogya Upanishad, where it is said that one should practice Ahiṃsā (non-violence) towards all creatures with the sole exception of holy places in other words animal sacrifices to God were permitted. The concept of ahimsa also finds a central place in Jainism, where the Jain ascetic goes into extremes in practicing this virtue. But it was Buddhism which made ahimsa basically a virtue to be practiced in human relations and introduced the new word “mettā” (the abstract noun from mitra, friend) to denote this concept. But the object of one’s mettā (Compassion, Love) is not only human beings but all beings both higher and lower than the human, and it came to mean the completely selfless but boundless compassion of a Buddha. (Jayatillake. 2008, p.3) Therefore, the principle of the interdependent origination as an external reality, in addition to the idea of compassion as an internal virtue, led to the rejection of violence. The Buddhist tolerance and peace are rooted in this structure.  In this way, Buddha provided a theoretical foundation for peace. A peace based on this rule is a lasting peace, because it is based on mutual relations at the macro and micro levels of the world. In today's world, the Savior is the one who can turn the situation in favor of peace and tranquility. He can be someone whose actions are manifestations of wisdom and compassion.   7-     
    Conclusion
    According to the teachings of Buddha, peace and joy in society require inner peace and happiness, and everyone first of all must fix them within themselves. Inner Peace is along with wisdom and compassion. Since every human being lives in a context of interconnectedness with other people, beings and the world, by knowing this principle, he can turn his instinctive love into altruism and cultivate empathy and tolerance. The rule of no-violence in Buddhist ethic is based on this doctrine that other living entities are like us; we must treat them in the way we want to be treated with us. The sense of empathy decides that a person has a respectful and non-violent view of all creatures. A sense of empathy required that a person has a respectful and non-violent view toward all beings. Finally, the Buddhist approach to peace can provide common ground for other religious traditions. The real and lasting peace can be pursued through continuous dialogue and cooperation and ultimately lead to the expansion of friendships and understandings.   
    Keywords: Buddha, Dependent Origination, Compassion, peace
  • Alireza Heydarinasab * Pages 53-76
    Introduction
    Moghatel Ibn Soleiman Balkhi is one of the great scholars of the Qur'an and Hadiths of the Islamic world. He has relied on some of the most innovative and valuable works such as "Al-Ashbah and Al-Nazaire" and "Interpretation of Moghatel". Nevertheless, "Moghatel" is considered to be generally wounded in the narrative; Some Sunni scholars such as Abu Hanifa, Ibn Sa'd, Ibn Mu'in, Ibn Rawiya, Bukhari, Nasā'ī, Ibn 'Edi and Ibn Hānban have accused him of being false and ill. In addition, Ibn Huban likened him to the accusation of interpreting Israelis in commentary. Ja'zjani and Khatib Baghdadi called him a brave fake, and some even called him Mahdor al-Dham and Zahabi made a consensus on his quest. Some Shiite reciters have also narrated the same allegations.  On the other hand, some of them are praised especially in commentary. Abu Hanifa ordered his interpretation. Ibn Mubarak and Sufyan ibn Abdul Malik praised his commentary, with the exception of his documents. Sofyan ibn Oe'ineh assisted in the reasoning of the contents of the book. Moghatel bin Hayan saw the knowledge of the martal against the knowledge of others like the ocean compared to other seas. Shafi'i considered the people in the interpretation of Ayal Moghatel. Ibn Hanbal said: I do not know much about him in interpretation. Ibn Odi counted the interpretation of Mu'atlit as the ultimate interpretation of the Qur'an after Kelby. Ibrahim Hobbi has called for your carelessness! Some Shi'a scholars have also described goodness to him. Given the fact that the votes on the arrogance and his leading role in the interpretation of the Qur'an, the greatness and significance of this interpretation, and that the narrative in his commentary has a special place. Recognition of the Hadith personality is important.  
    Research Methodology
    The present paper, which is descriptive-analytical, the information necessary for its writing was compiled by referring to various references, interpretations and dates of the Persian Gulf, and then, along with some articles related to the arrogance, this information has been analyzed. In this regard, at first, various allegations of martyr, and then his qualifications and prominence, and the validity of his narrations, have been investigated. 
    Discussion
    The surveys show that the most important accusations are: False and exaggeration (Balkhi, 1423 AH, p. 5, p. 24, 43, 60, Khatib Baghdadi, 1417 AH, 13, p. 164 Razi, 1372, 8, p. 354 and Shayeste Nejad, 2008, B, p. 100) The narration of Israelite (Balkhi, 1423 AH, C 3, p. 490, p. 5, p. 60 and Baji, B.T, p. 271) The likeness of God (Khatib Baghdadi, 1417 AH, p. 13, p. 167 and Ibn Habban, B.T, J 3, p. 14) Enemy with the Ahlul-Bayt (AS) (Balkhi, 1423 AH, p. 1, p. 188 and 374, p. 2, p. 199, p. 4, pp. 887 and 66) Accompany with the rulers (Khatib Baghdadi, 1417 AH, 13, p. 168, Ibn Asakir, 1415 AH, 60, 126, and Mezi, 1413 AH, 28, p. 466) Due to the simplicity of the Moghatel, the false relation to him is not correct. The Israeli referendum does not belong to him, but his scientific pride and exaggeration are far from correct. He denies the likeness of himself. If this ratio is proven, the behavior of the martyrs can be interpreted as the work of other scholars. He has a non-Shiite view of the Ahl al-Bayt (AS), and has counted a significant number of verses in the right of Ali (as) and his followers. Although his companionship with the ruler of Khorasan in suppressing the insurrection of the people, as well as the presence of some scholars in the court of the rulers, can be considered, but the news of the proposal of hadithism in the interests of the Abbasid is not correct and does not make his work. Though, according to some statements, he is a wounded and desolate figure. However, most of his hadiths are authentic, Shows that even if the offensive proportions are correct to him. It can still be said that the falsehood has not spread to his narrations. In addition, these ratios are commonly found in sources related to different religions and less in the sources of tragedy and history. On the one hand, his works, which are the most illustrative documents, are indicative of his ambition, science and commitment. Therefore, in order to issue a final verdict, it is worthy to see its prominent role in the defense of the Qur'an and religious culture. A fragment of evidence from the nature of his hadith character is: - Having the best honors like Sadeqin (AS), Zahak, Attieh, Mojahed and Atta - Having first-degree students such as Abdul Razzaq San'any and Hasan ibn Populi About Abdul Razaq and his high degree of science and credibility is that: If he is an apostate, his hadith will not be lost. Hasan ibn Mahboub is a Shia preacher who claims to be a consensus about jurisprudence, science, and correcting Sahih al-Sind's narratives. - The existence of the same narrations or copies and evidence in the communities and resources of the Hadith of the Persian Gulf Existence of evidence and correspondence to the conspiracy of the Islamic Republic of Iran reinforces and corrects the narrations and narrations. The fact that it is related to the traditions of the sacrifices is very frequent, it is also a sign of the authenticity of the theme of his narrations. - The presence of Moghatel in the commentary of Ali ibn Ibrahim Qomi Ali ibn Abraham is safe. Many scholars have accepted his claim for interpretation in his commentary. In his commentary, he has repeatedly narrated Moghatel. -  - The presence of martyrs in Shi'a hadith scriptures Some scholars especially Akhbariyan, such as Sheikh Horrameli, believe in the authenticity of the publication of newspapers, And it is narrated from the verses in the repeated verse.   
    Conclusion
    Although heavier charges are related to the hadith, the investigations show that many accusations against him - which he thought and acted within the framework of Sunni beliefs - because of the belief in similitude, form, falsehood, and intimacy, The rulers and the installation of Ahl al-Bait (AS), even on the condition of the correctness of the relationship, do not harm his narrations. The only proportions that prove to be in it are the lack of full adherence to the way the narrators are in the tradition and scientific pride that is no longer the case. Various evidence of the relevance of his cases and his narratives, such as the existence of evidence or evidence of his traditions in credible African communities and resources, the presence of elders or superior narrators, the prominent defense of the Qur'an's life besides life with asceticism, its boldness and clarity if it is preceded by Other narrators do not show at least their level.      
    Keywords: Moqatel Ibn-e- Solomon, records of Moqatil, character of Moqatil, narration of Moqatil
  • Mehdi Dahmardeh, Rouhollah Shirazi *, Hassan Basafa Pages 77-102
  • Mehdi Zolfghari * Pages 103-124
       Introduction  
    According to many scholars religion can be considered as the point of origin of many social capacities; however, if environmental requirements are not understood correctly, the same can turn into an agent in creating social divisions and finally political conflicts and internal chaos (Copeland, 2016: 5). The feeling of insecurity as well as partial deprivation combined with ethnical-religious feelings and orientations make a suitable context for turmoil and inclination of individuals toward extremist radical movements. In sectarian extremism which is a form of organized violence, it is an obligation to form identity and embark on spreading awareness and extending sectarian organization to develop the operational scope (Mori, 2016:18). The danger which factions propose to society is the spread of organized threat towards a group or some individuals (Abdo,2015 :17-18). Meanwhile; religious and sectarian fidelity has created a suitable ground for an outbreak of a large wave of security events in southwestern Asia. As the result of these conflicts which have put nations into opposition with one another, the possibilities for coming into national agreement and explore opportunities to maximize the values have become narrowed down (Nasrollahi,2010:198). As such; the existence of a high potential for sectarian conflicts inside the security environment of Islamic Republic of Iran is one of the most important components able to produce threats for internalization of unity and national solidarity. One of the reasons to believe so is instability in neighbor countries and interference by countries of the region with an intention of exacerbating sectarianism to achieve their goals. Amongst countries of the region Pakistan maintains a high potential for sectarianism as religious sectarianism constitutes the foundation of this country. In fact, the society of Pakistan holds an ethnic and sectarian nature with various ideas and ethnic-tribal bigotry and special religious and traditional perceptions suffering from ever-widening gaps between them (Masoudnia & ShahGhale, 2009;201). Today, Pakistan has turned into the center of gravity of sectarian extremism and home to foster fighting Salafi groups (Hill,2015:17).The said factor especially when regarding long borders between Iran and this country and settlement of Baloch minority along borders has brought about threats to the I.R of Iran. Terrorist groups split from sectarianism have become activated in Iran especially in southeastern parts of the country and conducted operations against the national security of the country. Due to the importance of this issue, the current study examines sectarianism in Pakistan, its causes, and contexts of growth and geopolitical effects it has on I.R of Iran’s national security.
    Methodology of Research
    The method of this research is descriptive-explanatory which explores the causes of extremism in Pakistan, its characteristics and its status regarding national security of Iran. Data gathering was carried out by library and document research. 3-Discussion The social and political environment of Pakistan has special complications the main reasons of it are ethnic and trial characteristic of the social structure of this country, military interference in political affairs, foreign powers interferences and most importantly, religious conflicts along with tribal rivalries. Such environment in combination with foreign powers ‘meddling with internal issues of Pakistan has created a favorable context for the growth of sectarianism. (Masoudnia & ShahGhale,2009:194). From 1947 when Pakistan first appeared as an independent country on maps, it has suffered from a myriad of problems due to a conductive background for sectarian extremism, religious fundamentalism, and interferences and unlimited power of the military. (Gerges,2014). Consequently, in recent two decades in Pakistan fundamentalism and religious sectarianism has been raising remarkably and leading into this country turning into the heart of fundamentalism and especially sectarianism. (Masoudnia & Najafi,2011:79). Thus, Pakistan depends on various schools of jurisprudence and thought with their specially formed political organizations.  We should notice that although Pakistani religions are divided into two major Sunni religious groups of Hanafi and Shiite, neither Sunni or Shiites of this country follow a single sect (Cohen,2012). In fact, not only the society of Pakistan breaks into a multitude of major and minor political groups but each major Sunni and Shiite sects of it further divides into platitude of methods and trends. To make things even more complicated, we should bear it in mind that in case of tribal and language perspective a similar situation prevails (Masoudnia & ShahGhale,2009:202).
    Conclusion
    The country of Pakistan appeared on the political map of the world with Islam as its existential cause. Since its independence, it has tried to use Islamic thinking as an identity factor. Unfortunately, Pakistan was not successful in this regard. This country was engulfed by devastating sectarianism after its independence. Today it is notorious for being the center of fundamentalism and sectarianism. Nowadays, Pakistan is known as one of the most challenging and unstable countries in the world. For that reason, sectarianism with characteristics such as totalitarianism, austerity, bigotry, fundamentalism, separation from general society aggravates various social, cultural and economic contrasts and by dividing down various identities prevents from a general sense of identity and feeling of belonging to the national space to form. Accordingly, by disrupting the normal flow of social and political order, it provokes tensions and violence and plays a significant part in instability. A whole collection of factors are amongst contributors in sectarianism and its amplification in Pakistan, the most important ones include: how Pakistan was formed in first place, political, social and economic crises of it, its special cultural-social status, deprivation and lack of prosperity and economic development, the Kashmir dispute, invasion of Afghanistan by USSR, policies of colonial powers specially the US and support from these policies by Arab countries of Persian Gulf particularly the Saudi Arabia, victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran, weakness of Pakistan in terms of nation building, Islamization policies followed by Zia-ul-Haq, religious schools, wide ethnic and linguistic varieties along with tribal culture, weakness of government in dealing with extremist groups and the military and ISI of country. The said factors have helped with prevailing sectarianism and worsened religious and sectarian challenges. Concerning Iran’s neighborhood with Pakistan and imposed borders between two countries which have entailed the separation of Baloch people, sectarianism in Pakistan has proposed threats to Iran’s national security. It has led to terrorist attacks in southeastern parts of Iran and challenged the national security of it. In fact, it has increased terrorism and smuggling of goods, sectarian armed conflicts, number of the terrorist groups, suicide attacks and bombings plus hostage-taking. Meanwhile, aside from foreign countries interference which plays the main role in this regard, what has prepared the background for sectarianism and its expansion in a southeastern part of the country is unbalanced development. Therefore, the province of Sistan&Baluchestan despite its high potentials is the most deprived part of the country.
    Keywords: Pakistan, Security, Sectarian Extremism, Iran, America
  • Ahmad Sanchouli * Pages 125-140
      
    Introduction
    One of the main topics in the organization and processing of discourse in the form of text and extracting and deducing the meaning of the text is the background knowledge or previous information (Yarmohammadi, 2004: 30). Based on this view, the text that continues in a chain of sentences is "the exchange of the speaker (or writer) and the listener (or the reader) in a specific context within the framework of social and cultural tradition" and " It helps to make meaningful and meaningful words, and makes a continuous speech to become an expanded and coherent set of meanings, not merely a set of unambiguous and separated sentences "(Abrams, 1387: 104-103). One of the patterns described in the reader or listener's mind in explaining and describing how the information contained in a text is organized and reorganized according to their expectations, and the listener or reader also, based on his prior expectations and knowledge, he organizes this information in his own mind, the model-theoretic schema model. Based on this template, when a member of the collection (or one of the subsets) is instigated, the rest of the members are also active (Yarmohammadi, 2004: 31). The concept of schemata or macro production, first developed by Bartlet in 1932,  to explain and describe how to adjust and reorganize the information in a story in the minds of the reader or the listener according to their expectations. That is, the listener or the reader, based on his previous expectations and knowledge, organizes this information in his mind (Rashidi & Ansari, 2011: 124, quoted by Swales, 1990).   Swales (1990) also uses the mental plan as a pre-knowledge structure in the minds of humans, which means that humans, based on their experience, knowledge, beliefs have fixed patterns, and designs in their minds. He also believes that a person always evaluates events based on his own mental plan and measures their alignment with their previous experiences, knowledge and beliefs and, on this basis, analyzes and adjusts and Organizes (same: 125). In general, there are two major types of intellectual contexts that are: formal and content (Yarmohammadi, 2004: 30; and Swales, 1990). The intellectual-formal framework is a pre-knowledge knowledge (prior knowledge) of rhetorical structures of various types of texts; the intellectual-content framework is a variety of linguistic and non-linguistic experiences that shape the concepts and facts in the human, mind and spread background knowledge for a discourse that makes the possibility of evaluating the validity of the propositions and the appropriateness and relevance of them (Rashidi & Ansari, 2011: 125-124).   Accordingly, the speaker and the listener, or the author and the reader, speak or write in a conversation or writing, according to the prior information that is thought to be shared between them in relation to the topic in question. The delivery method, the choice of the format of the speech, the summary or the broad expression of the subject, and finally the use of the syntax and the specific vocabulary of the presentation of the presentation depends on several factors, including the quality of the background knowledge. The listener or the reader also uses these features to discover, interpret, and extract the purpos of the speaker and writer (Yarmohammadi, 2004: 30).         
    Research methodology
    The research methodology is a descriptive-analytic method in which Iqbal Lahouriʼs distiches are studied using the proposed constructive discourse and textual construct proposed by yarmohammdi on Khayyam's quatrains based on the three factors "description", "recommendation" and "explanation". In this research, all Persian distiches of Iqbal Lahouri have been analyzed in the collection of poems of "Armaghan Hejaz". At first, each distich has been studied and the framework has been extracted and then all of these frameworks have been compared and the frameworks the obtained in most of the distiches are generally compared to the proposed constructive discourse and the proposed text by yarmohammadi and the ways of sharing and differentiating them are expressed.     
    Discussion
    Armanagh Hijaz, that was published in 1938 , is the latest collection of poetry of Iqbal Lahori, published after his death. This book contains 394 distiches that express his political, social, educational, religious, and spiritual opinions. Of course, part of this book was in the Urdu language, which was not mentioned in the general Persian poems. This collection, which has been written "in the pursuit of the pilgrimage of Mecca and Medina in the style of Baba Taher's distiches" (Science, 1366: Fifteen), consists of five separate sections, namely: "the Presence of the Right", "Presence of Mission", "the presence of the nation", "the presence of the human world" and "to the helpers" of the way. According to the studies on the construction of the Persian distiches of Allameh Iqbal-e-Lahouri in the collection of poems "Armaghan Hejaz", based on the proposed constructive textbook proposed by Lotfollah Yar-Mohammadi, these distiches in terms of constructive elements are divided into three categories: 1. distiches that are clearly seen in all three of the "description", "recommendation", and "explanation" structures. 2- distiches that only have a "description" or "recommendation" structure. 3. distiches that have two "descriptions", and explanation", descriptions and recommendations" or "recommendations and explanations".  
    Conclusion
    The creation of the Great distiches of Allameh Iqbal Lahouri in the collection of poetry of Armaghan Hejaz is based on the proposed discourse and textual design proposed by Lotfalullah Yarmohammadi (2004) is considerable; with the difference that Iqbal Lahouri describes the description of three categories "human", "word" and "self-esteem" instead of describing nature. This suggests that the kind of discourse in its distiches communication system focuses on the three elements of the "sender", "the receiver," and the "message itself". Hence, the type of discourse of Iqbal in the collection of poetry of Armaghan Hejaz is of a kind of emotional, persuasive and literary. In addition to "descriptions" that is of the highest frequency, "recommendation", "explanation" and "desire and wish" have also been used in its macro-distiches construction. Of course, the "desire and wish" is the least frequent. According to the recommendation and the explanation, Allama Iqbal Lahouri invites Muslims to know the truths of Islam, their knowledge of themselves and their own culture, and to avoid the glorious effects of Western culture. Because it is based on the fact that it is possible to make a new plan in the world and to cope with the struggle against colonialism and Western culture. References Abramz, mayer, descriptive culture of literary expressions, translation: Saeid Sabziyan M., Tehran: Rahnama, 2009. Iqbal Lahouri, Mohammad, Complete Persian poems of Molana Iqbal Lahouri, introduction of Ahmad Soroush, Tehran: publication of Sanai library, 1990. Khoramshahi, Bahaodin, Hafez Nameh, 2 V, Tehran: scientific and cultural publication, 1995. Rashed Mohasel, Mohammad Reza, "distich the place of displaying emotional needs", the book Mahe Honar, Farvardin and Ordibehesht, pp 18-24, 2005. Razmjoo, Hossein, "Laleh Toor and Armaghan Hejaz", Ashena Magazine, the third year, the sixteen Number, pp 58-65, 1995. Rashidi, Naser and Ansari, Ayoob, "the examination of the great frame work of Baba Taher Hamedaniʼs distiches (Oryan)", Boostan Adab Magazine of Shiraz university, the third year, Number 2, successive 8, pp 123-143, 2011. Shamisa, Siroos, Movement of quatrain in Persian poem, Tehran: Ashtiyani publication, 1985. Safavi, Kourosh, From linguistic to literature, V 1, verse, Tehran: Mehr Sooreh, 2005. Elmi, Mahmood, (M. Darvish), Introduction and margins of complete poems of Iqbal Lahouri, Tehran: Javidan publication organization, 1988. Fotoohi, Mahmood,
    Methodology
    theories, approaches, methods, Tehran: Sokhan, 2012. Yarmohammadi, Lotfollah, Common and critical discourse, Tehran: Hermas, 2005.     12. Jams, c. contrastive analysis, London, longman, 1980. 13. Swales, j. m. genre analysis: English in academic and research setting, Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 1990.
  • Nader Shohani, Borhan Veysinab *, Sohrab Amirian, Mohammad Hassan Yazdani Pages 141-156
     
    Introduction
    Today, along with the widespread developments that have emerged in the social situation of women in human societies, we are witnessing changes in the demands of women's who seek to enforce their lost rights and achieve gender equity (Nabavey and Sigeda, 2014: 8). With overview at the status of women in the world and comparing them to the situation of men, it becomes clear that women are the most vulnerable in terms of opportunities and active participation in development (Adhami and Roghaneyin, 2009: 129). Gender inequality has different forms in the social, political, economic and cultural spheres; Including women's economic dependence on men based on less women's participation in the labor force and low wages for them, the political dependence of men's dominance on political power structures, the dependence on more men's authority and their decision-making power in the family and at work, dependence on men's power in defining social reality, dependence on men in protecting women from violence against other men and even the psychological dependence of women on men, due to emotional ties, reveals the need for attention to this issue not only as the soul of gender inequality, but also its consequences at the micro, intermediate, and macro levels (Hemati and Maktovbyan, 2013: 117). Therefore, with regard to the mentioned issues and the importance of gender equality, the purpose of the present study is to examine the status of gender inequality index in subcontinent countries of India. The status of this gender inequality has been studied in terms of economic, political, health and educational dimensions. 
    Research methodology
    In the present study the research method is descriptive-analytic and is applicable to the type of research. Using a descriptive method based on analyzing statistics and information extracted from valid scientific documents and analyzing these indicators in the countries studied, the analytical method has been used. This comparative study was conducted on the basis of the Human Development Report and the Gender inequalities of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) from 2011 to 2014.   
    Discussion
    In terms of GII, the highest positive change was for Nepal, with 0/079 of the least developed for Bhutan with zero percent change, and other countries, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar and India respectively, were 0/021, 0/011, 0/062, and 0/054 have had positive changes. In the whole of Nepal, progress has been greatest in three areas (global rank, regional rank, and GII) in terms of progress in other parts of the region. The countries of the subcontinent have two different statuses in terms of health index: the first is that the four countries of Bhutan, Pakistan, Myanmar and India are in a position that is lower than the global average (to a lesser extent, this amount is less favorable) ) And in Bangladesh and Nepal, their situation is higher than the global average, so they are not well positioned on this benchmark. The situation in the Indian subcontinent countries in terms of women's labor force participation rate index shows that Bangladesh, Nepal and India respectively have recovered by 1/4, 9 and 4 percent, while the countries of Bhutan, Pakistan and Myanmar are 13 , 2/7 and 22/6 with significant improvements in Myanmar. The highest percentage for this measure was for Myanmar with a score of 85/7 and the lowest for Pakistan with 24/4 percent. An examination of the educational situation in the Indian subcontinent countries that during these three periods, the only country in Bhutan has progressed by 17.8 from 2/16  in 2011 to 34 in 2013. The examination of the status of other countries indicates a 4/2 percent drop in the country of Pakistan and a stagnation of the status and scores of other countries in the studied years. The country of Bhutan is ranked first with 34 present of women who have higher secondary education (high school) and Nepal, with 17/9 percent is ranked last.  
    Conclusion
    Gender inequality in access to opportunities and economic, social and political, is one of the most important challenges for the countries of the Indian subcontinent. Today accepted the fact that no nation will be able to achieve sustainable development; women are deprived of basic rights in the community. The results of the two aspects of the investigation: The first aspect at the global level among the countries of the sub-continent indicates that, during the three rounds of any country not a good situation because the country of Myanmar (the country in terms of this indicator) during the three GII values 0/492, 0/437 and 0/430 asset classes 96, 80 and 83, which is indicative of the distance of this country and other countries with international standards. The second at the regional level show that during the three periods, despite relative progress in terms of GII have always Subcontinent but they always rank at the regional level has not changed, Myanmar and India in last place in the first rank have taken.      
    Keywords: Indian subcontinent, index of gender inequality, human development
  • Leila Abdollahi *, Mojtaba Zarvani Pages 157-174
    Introduction
    Two schools of Madhyamika and ShinShu both of which are of Mahayanistic school,that  offer two different ways of achieving salvation. The school of Madhyamika, like most Buddhist schools, knows the way of salvation through knowledge, but the school of ShiShu knows the way of salvation through mentioning the name of Amida Buddha. In the process of rescuing the human position as one end of this flow, it is of particular importance. The different form of human presence and being active in this process can introduce different ways of salvation and vice versa. As well as rites and rituals can help people in this process, the basic issues in recognition of different approaches are in question of salvation. The founders of the two schools of Madhyamika and ShinShu offer two different ways and process of salvation. in spite of the similarities between the theoretical bases of the two sects, there are differences between the two schools in both the way of the human presence in the way of salvation, which is necessary and this article tries to address these differences and similarities. The aim of this study is to identify the concept of salvation and necessary arrangements, as well as explaining the role of man in the rescue process from the perspective of these two sects. The first question: how is the rescue path in two schools of Madhyamika and ShinShu? Question 2: What is the role of man in the Salvation process?  
    Method of Study
    In this paper, the research methodology is descriptive - analytical. The descriptions will be based on the sources related to both Buddhist texts, which are mainly from important and reliable sources in the studies of Buddhism. The analyses will also be based on the general approach of the paper, which is evaluated and compared to Madhyamika and ShinShu Jodo.   Statement: The name of Madhyamika school came from one of the most important works of Nagarjuna, the founder of this school, called Madhyamika Karika(Eliade,vol.9.71).  The Madhyamika school was inspired by the early Mahayanistic Sutras, which have been written in the second century bc. Mahyamika recognize two kinds of knowledge, the "relative knowledge”[1]And the "superior knowledge"[2] .  Nagarjuna in Mahyamika Sastara about importance of distinguishing of these two kinds of knowledge has said: he/she who not understand the difference if two kinds of knowledge, Actually did not understand the truth of Buddhism( Suzuki.1907,95). The relative knowledge: the relative knowledge that is made by the thought and reasoning of the individual, and the result of his relation to the world and the world, is called Samvwrthi. The term means covering and hiding the truth (Radhakrishnan. 658). That is to say, not with truth, but with the veil and veil of truth, which is an illusion compared to the truth. The superior knowledge: in the school of Madhyamika, the 'superior knowledge ( parmarth) is that can destroy the roots of suffering. It is the knowledge that is the middle path; that is to say that things are neither eternal nor divine, neither possess nor lacking in substance. The transition from the state of relative knowledge to higher state of knowledge is a change that occurs in human perception and his/her attitude . Salvation is a kind of change in the perspective and perception of the subject. So it 's nothing to get to the rescue . It is a special case of our existence. Shiran, the founder of ShinShu Sect, does not know the way of Salvation as knowledge alone. He is loyal to many of the bases that have been accepted in the different sects of the Pure land( Mahayana), but he strengthens his way of rescue from suffering on the basis of belief in the love of Amida and mentioning of the name of Buddha. From one point, the freedom from suffering in a Buddhist religion can be divided into three categories. One by “'Ethical obedience”[3], the second through "an inner focus”[4]And the third, which means acquiring "superior knowledge and illumination”[5]It is. These three methods, of course, depend on certain assumptions about human evolution that can be particularly active in achieving the rescue. In other words, human active presence is an introduction. The method that Shiran learned from its master Hunen is the believe in Amida Buddha finds in the first form. Of course, in ShinShu wen is talk about behavior , it does not necessarily mean ethical behaviors, but it is the everyday practice and everyday life of man. What should be taken into account is that things are done not in the will of man but of their power and will. Thus, faith in the context of compliance does not imply compliance. That is to say, to him, with all the devotion of his heart, that we shall be preserved. Thanks to her and take refuge in the shelter of her loving arms, in the hope of salvation in the future life(Oberlin,209). This is achieved through ethical obedience. Indeed, Shinran’s epistemology is based on moral structure and obedience.
    Conclusion
    the present study has examined the role of knowledge and their relation to the salvation of the two sects of Madhyamika and ShinShu, and also how can each of these two ways be able to save a Buddhist, and how is the process of salvation in these two school? According to Nagarjuna the way of salvation is Para Jnana or superior knowledge not Jnana or knowledge alone. He calls the relative knowledge non real and defines superior knowledge as Shuniata(emptiness). The knowledge that is based on experience from the surroundings and through the senses cannot be true. A superior knowledge of life, that is to say, the emptiness of the mind from all knowledge, the negation of the inherent existence for the beings of the world. There is a little way in here a little in the way of ShinShu school. For in ShinShu, man must be free and detaches himself/herself from all sorts of knowledge. And he would go a step further, to put his will entirely to his side, and devote himself to his task. But the difference is that, in the Madhyamika School, Superior knowledge which is cause of Salvation, lies in continuation and extension of that relative knowledge; and in fact, it is the whole of them. Whereas in ShinShu, one must not only abandon any learned knowledge, but by emptying his mind and his will and dedication to his will, he deserves to receive kindness and grace. It is the mercy of the man alone who works alone and brings him to the rescue. In other words, here is the knowledge of Amida which can do prepare salvation for man. Nobody can be free from suffering without grace of Amida Buddha.
    Keywords: Madhyamika, knowledge, Amida, ShinShu, Mention
  • MOHAMMAD REZA ABDI, Mohammadamir Mashhadi *, Abdollah Vasegh Abbassi Pages 175-194
    Introduction
    Maulana Ghasem Kahi (1464-1580), is one of the first pilgrims of "Kaaba of India" who is considered a member of the literary chain along with some other noted poets like Ghazali Mashhadi, Faizi Dakni, Orfi Shirazi which was formed and developed over 16th to 18th centuries, and he tried to perfect the intellectual and taste chain of Iranian culture and language in India. "Abdolghader Badavani" and "Annemarie Schimmel" have introduced "Kahi" as the first poet providing a poetry book and having a pen name serving in Jalal ad-Din Akbar Shah's court (Schimmel, 2007: p.286). Ali Asghar Hekmat has also stated in the book "Land of India" with regard to the book "Akbari Ritual" that: "Abolfazl the minister in the well-known book entitled "Akbari Principle" has provided a long list of the poets along with their names and titles serving in the court of this king including sixty names who were all immigrants from Iran. In this regard, Ghasem Kahi, Naziri Neyshabouri and Orfi Shirazi are the most well-known poets (Hekmat, 19588: P. 90). Although "Kahi" has been considered by a large number of Tadhkirah books and history books compiled from 16th to 18th centuries as one of the first poets immigrating to India and a poet esteemed by Mughal emperors, unfortunately only some dispersed poems from his poem book and only the name of his poetry book "Goafshan" have been provided so far. This Masnavi is one of the valuable instances of "response technique" in Persian literature that has been composed rhyme by rhyme in response to Bustan of Saadi including a prologue and 10 parts including 3683 couplets in total that was composed in 16th century and dedicated to "Akbar Shah" (1542-1605). With regard to the fact that most of the works and poems composed by Kahi have been destroyed, and the acknowledgment of Hadi Hassan, who corrected Kahi's poetry book, and confirmation of Zabihollah safa, to the effect that "Golafshan" Masnavi has been destroyed, it has been attempted in the present paper to answer the following questions thorough providing a brief biography of Kahi and introducing the unique manuscript of this work with IRN 1174-016 belonging to Ibn Miskawayh Library in Isfahan, and revealing the identity of one of the manuscripts composed in India while trying to protect this cultural legacy, so as to reject the beliefs of Hadi Hassan and Zabihollah Safa in the destruction of the poetry book "Goafshan".


    1- How is it possible to prove that this manuscript was composed by Kahi?
    2- What are the attributes and features of the present manuscript?
    3- What are the similarities between the number of couplets, titles of each part of the book, stories and characters of Golafshan poetry book and those of Bustan of Saadi?
    4- What are the advantage of Golafshan poetry book over other Masnavi books imitating Bustan of Saadi?

    Research
    method
    The present research is a descriptive-analytical study which has been conducted based on the manuscript of "Golafshan" Masnavi that has been found recently in Ibn Miskawayh Library in Isfahan and library resources. The digital version of the mentioned manuscript has been determined as the basis of the research due to unavailability of different versions of his Masnavi, and the secondary resources, published poetry book of Kahi and the manuscript of Kahi's poems No. 1523318 belonging to Central Library of Tabriz have been used to complete the required information.
    Discussion
    Seyed Abolghassem Najm al-Din Muhammad Samarghandi under the pen name "Kahi" was one of the great poets serving in the courts of Humayun Shah (d. 1556) and Akbar Shah (1576) (Mughal Emperor) , who was born in 1464/1474 in Miankaleh. He learnt the preliminaries of sciences in Samarghand and Bokhara and enjoyed the blessings of Abd al-Rahman Jami when he was 15 years old and joined Naghshbandieh sect and lived for a long time in Kabul, then he made his first trip to India in this period (1524-1549) having a yearning to see Hashemi Kermani, and in this period he composed some poems praising Bahador Shah (1527-1536), Askari Mirza (1527-1537), and Mahmoud Shah (1537-1554) (Anousheh, 2001:736/1). Kahi made his second trip to India in 1554, at the invitation of Humayun Shah, which lasted until his death in 1580. Kahi was quite proficient in the science of interpretation, astronomy, Kalam1 and Sufism and his knowledge of the science of Sufism, complex sciences, history and practical competence was unparalleled in his age (Badvani, 2000:12/3). The date of death of this poet has been registered 1580 (Razi, 1999:1555/3).
    The manuscript of Golafsahn poetry book with IRN 1174-016 is the only existing version of this moral Masnavi that is kept in Ibn Miskawayh Library in Isfahan. The present manuscript has a cardboard cover with a thin cover of Alvan paper including 284 pages and 142 sheets of paper which is 12×12 in size, and there are on the average 15 couplets on each page written in Nastaʿlīq2 and black ink. The complete version of the manuscript includes Rekabeh3; however, unfortunately many pages lack footnotes because of the fact that the pages have become battered and worn out. The pages 61, 80, 135, 204, 252, to 273 and 279 to 283 have been damaged severely due to rebinding, adhesiveness of the papers, worn out annotations and the damage done by water where the beginning and end of the couplets are illegible. There remains about 3683 couplets of the original manuscript now. The titles of the parts and stories have been written in Nastaʿlīq with cinabre. The seal of "Jafar Ali Abdoh" can be seen in the margins of the pages 3 and 24, and a piece of writing by the owner of the book in cursive script using another pencil reading, "This book belongs to "Molla Hossein" the son of "Jahanbakhsh" can be seen in the margin above page 54, and the same words appear in the margin of the page 101. In addition to this piece of writing, on page 150 where Nas Surah has been written, the imprint of two different seals can be seen. One of the seals belongs to "Mashhadi Ali Akbar" the son of "Mulla Ali Muhaamad Naghnei" and the other seal indicates the date June 1810 stating that the book had been granted by "Rafi-ud-din Mohsen" to the apple of his eyes "Muhammad". The type of pencil is not the same throughout this version. After the sixth part, the type and size of the pencil change along which many incorrect records, cross-outs and corrections, repetitions of couplets, writing mistakes, omissions and chronological mistakes can be seen which have been often marked by some signs such as Persian letters for "Kh", "M" , "H", "La" and . Considering the fact that the pages of manuscript are torn and worn out and the rebinding of the manuscript, the manuscript is very untidy and its pages are misplaced and the stories of the parts are dispersed which are only related to each other through a deliberate attempt. Probably, about 10 first pages of the manuscript including the foreword, Master of Messengers, section on the reason to write the book and parts of the praising poems composed by the presenter have been lost and the manuscript lacks the first page containing the name of the composer and the presenter. The first page starts with a couplet of the second part of Golafshan indicating the disorder and confusion of the pages. The last page of this manuscript including the particulars of the scriber and the date of inscription has been destroyed. Considering the short introductions of the parts, the name of the poet, the presenter and the date of the composition of the poetry book can be perceived and the authenticity of the version can be confirmed. Since there is no name of Humayun Shah in the poetry book, it has been probably composed around 1558, that is, after Akbar Shah acceded to the throne in 1556.

    Result
    The Manuscript of Golafsahn poetry book with IRN 1174-016 is the only existing version of this moral Masnavi that is kept in Ibn Miskawayh Library in Isfahan. This manuscript is one of the valuable instances of "response" and imitating "Bustan of Saadi" that has been composed in India in 17th century. The names of the work, poet, presenter, scriber and the inscription date of the work is unknown because the first and last pages of the manuscript are lost. However, there is much evidence like the starting couplets of the introduction of the different parts and pen name of the poet at the end of the couplets show clearly the book's name, poet's name and presenter's name. This Masnavi has been composed following Bustan of Saadi style including 3683 couplets containing one foreword and ten parts namely "Justice, Fairness, Prudence and Monarchy", "Benefaction", "Saints' Love and Path", "Modesty", "Satisfaction", "Contentment", "Education", "Thankfulness", "Repentance", "Prayer and End of the Book". Regarding the fact that most of the works of Kahi and that this Masnavi is one of the valuable instances of response and imitation of Bustan of Saadi, it is important to investigate and introduce this work in terms of history of literature, stylistics and eloquence as well as being important for revealing the identity of one of the works composed in India, and the investigation into and introduction of this work can solve the problems facing the researchers.


    Keywords: Golafshan, Kahi Kabuli, imitation, response, Bostan of Saadi
  • Fat?yyih Fat???z?deh, Hosein Afsardir * Pages 195-214
     
    Introduction
    In the contemporary time, Qurān interpretation has been entered into new stage and from quantity and quality point of view, has been greatly changed revolutionary. In this period some Qurānic issues have been considered as the culmination of the discussions like: revelation, angels, Jinn, Satan, miracles, resurrection day and some Qur'anic science belonged subjects. There are various theories about Aḥmad Khān Viewpoints.  Hence, based on these matters, to achieve the correct and logic prospect about Aḥmad Khān interpretive thoughts principles, it is necessary – while considering sociopolitical conditions – his intellectual foundations be extracted and their impressions degree be evaluated over the interpretive opinions of Aḥmad Khān. Therefore, this paper is going to answer to two essential questions: 1. What bases have affected the Aḥmad Khān interpretive thoughts be formed? 2. How much Aḥmad Khān intellectual principles have affected his interpretive opinions? The purpose of this research is consideration of formation bases of Aḥmad Khān interpretive thoughts and the influence degree of these intellectual bases over his interpretive opinions. This research has been done with descriptive – analytic method and library information gathering manner. 
    Research methodology
    The current study has employed a descriptive and analytic methodology and used a literature review research approach. The study is based on Tafsīr Sir Siyyid Aḥmad Khān (the Commentary of Qurān by Sir Siyyid Aḥmad Khān) to induce his thoughts and views; therefore a dozen of his comments are also presented here. The primary purpose of the current study has not been evaluating the accuracy of Siyyid Aḥmad Khān’s ideas.
    Discussion
    Aḥmad Khān was born at 17 September 1817 in Delhi. He was 19 years old that his father passed away and one year later, he was served in India government. The first and most important Aḥmad Khān intellectual principle is Qur'ān sufficiency that means the only authentic religion source to learning the teachings is Qurān and the traditions (pl. Ḥadith) whether haven’t such a position or have limited place. One of the evidences that denotes to Aḥmad Khān Qurān sufficiency is his interpretation title. He does not use of Ḥadith to interpret the Qurān and in some cases refers to traditions to approve his understanding. Sometimes considers them as a historic source too and has achieved the early Islam history through it. Concerning cultural and political prevailed spaces over Aḥmad Khān and his fascination to the new sciences and paying attention to making peace between religion and science, he has followed empiricism by which has interpreted esoteric the Qurān miracles. He poses conformity of genesis and canonization books to vindicate his empiricism and based on that interprets esoteric the whole miracles, revelation, prophesy (Nubuwwah), angels and Satan.  Aḥmad Khān believes that the early scholars have considered the prophesy as office and profession by which the God - like a king that from his associates makes someone minister and another person commander – gives prophesy to whoever wants or choices.            He don’t consider the angels as real creatures but believes nature rules are the interpretation of the angels in the Qurān.      Aḥmad Khān third principle is, considering of being common of the Qurān language. About Qurān language and quality of its interpretation, he says:  doubtlessly the Qur'ān is word of God; but has been revealed according to dialog and human word style; it means as we use some figures of speech – while speaking -  like: simile, trope, metaphor and allusion, or sometimes refer to famous word and sometimes speak based on addresser's degree of information and understanding and choice a special figure of speech or do befooling in somewhere and joke in somewhere else, the Qur'ān follows such attitude too and should be interpreted based on these principles. For instance, Aḥmad Khān believes the word "seven" in Qurān is for consistency of that time people opinion who believed in seven planet. In other term, the word heaven is used based on that time current dialogs. Aḥmad Khān has interpreted the Qurān based on every of these triple principles. He has analyzed some part of miracles based on considering of being common of Qurān language and some part based on empiricism. In the following, cases that he based on considering of being common of the Qurān language principle has interpreted the miracles as a natural matter, are cited.   
    Conclusion
    The main results are summarized as follows: 1. The cultural-political situation of India in 19th century and the hard economic and cultural conditions of Muslims after the occupation of India by UK led Siyyid Aḥmad Khān to act as a social reformer to improve his society, especially Muslims’ intellectual life. 2. Due to false and superstitious claims in the commentaries (Tafsīr) of Quran by the Sunni scholars, Aḥmad Khān believed that Qurān is the only source to induce commentaries; therefore he set asides the Hadiths totally. 3. As a result of his distrust in sacred narratives, he focused on understanding Qurān only through Qurān. However, he had been expressing inaccurate interpretations due to extreme Qurānism. 4. Employing empiricism in interpreting the Qurānic verses to concord between science and religion and by using the compatibility between the systems of Takwīn (creation) and Tashrī’ (legislation), he tried to justify many spiritual things such and angels, revelations and the miracles of the prophets. 5. Believing in the “conventional (‘urf) language of Qurān, Ahmad Khan interpreted some stories, such as the quarrel between angles and Allah or the seven sky, based on colloquial style, ignoring common tafsīr works. 6. His bases for tafsīr had widely dominated his interpretations of Qurānic discussions and all of the subjects, including moral and historical discussions, aḥkām and religious arguments.
    Keywords: Siyyid A?mad Kh?n Hindi, Qur?n, Experientialism, Interpretation, Quranic Language
  • Abdollatif Karevani *, Majid Mouvahedmajd Pages 215-236
     
    Introduction
    The political ideology of nationalism arose during the eighteenth century, first formally expressed in the French Revolution when the old state (monarchy legitimated by religion) was replaced by the “people” as the sole legitimate authority. The nationalists had created the nation as a cultural and territorial unit and in the basis of the ultimate foundation of solidarity; In practice, therefore, a small number of nationalists were hostile to religion as a faith and consolidate social solidarity. Also, many secular nationalists have been advocating a separation between religious faith and social solidarity in the face of religious divisions within the territorial nations. The nationalist debates in the Islamic world do not have a long history and they have been coming back for several centuries and various factors have contributed to the arrival of nationalist debates on the Islamic world. After World War II, two dimensions were added to nationalist discourse and strategy: Arab socialism addressing the issue of how to organize the growing number of independent Arab states, and pan-Arabism (al-qawmiyya al-arabiyya) aiming to transcend the existing regional order(Kramer, 2001: 273). The nineteenth-century Muslim writers, like Tahtawi , Nadim, Mursafi, and Abduh, used the term nationalism to preserve the independence and freedom of a nation against a foreign invader who called it synonymous with the term patriotism(Enayat, 1363: 14).   Pan-Islamism or the Alliance of Islam is a name for an ideology in which transnational Islam ties replace any ethnic or national link. For the first time, Western orientalists used the term to show the expansionist policies of the Ottoman Empire, but most Muslims, The word was made and reflected on the mindset of the European people. Also, Another group is also known as Islamic advocates in politics. Islamic advocates in politics have often proclaimed that ‘the Muslim’s nationality is his faith’. Many such Muslims have denounced nationalism for dividing the Muslim community, the umma, into fragmentary units, contributing to its weakness in the face of its religious and civilizational opponents. Sayid Qutb, the founding ideologue of modern radical Islam, responded to the Prosecutor’s questioning of his patriotism in the trial that culminated in his execution in 1966: “I believe that the bonds of ideology and belief are more sturdy than those of patriotism based upon region and that this false distinction among Muslims on a regional basis is but one consequence of crusading and Zionist imperialism which must be eradicated”( Zubida, 2004: 407). The present article aims to investigate the Nationalism in Sunni Intellectuals’ Views. And has studied the ideas of such scholars as Iqbal Lahori, Abul A’la Muwdudi, AbalRahman Kawakibi, Sati' al-Husri and Mustafa Kamil, and examined the roots of the thought of these scholars. Accordingly, the present research seeks to answer the following questions: What are the views of Arab Intellectuals’ (Kamil, Kawakibi and al-Husri) about nationalism and the relationship between nationalism and Islam? What are the views of the Indian Subcontinent Intellectuals (Iqbal and Muwdudi) on nationalism and the relationship between nationalism and Islam? What are the differences between the Arab Intellectuals and the Indian Subcontinent Intellectuals in the relationship between Islam and nationalism?      
    Research methodology
    The research method used in this paper is documentary research.  The documentary research, also called the "study" method, is a research method that is conducted through a study of various sources and sources. In the documentary method, the researcher does not seek to examine the mental intentions and the perception of the hidden motives of a text, but the researcher's interest is to exclude from the comprehension of the intentions and motives of the documents and texts or interpretive analyzes of a text, and as a language The writer's writing and discourse are accepted and documented (Gaborone, 2006: 222).  
    Discussion
    The first and most important difference between the thoughts of these Intellectuals is that all three Arab Intellectuals have a positive view of nationalism, but Iqbal and Muwdudi are completely opposed to nationalist debates in the Muslim world. In this regard, one can mention Mustafa Full, who turned Egypt's nationalist movement into a struggle and, by introducing it to the world, could turn Egypt into an international issue(Yari, 1392: 131).It is also possible to point out that Iqbal, who completely disagreed with nationalist debates, considered this as the main cause of the misery of the Muslim world, in other words, treating nationalism as an insult to Islam(Saidi, 1380: 542). Other differences include the emphasis of the Arab Intellectuals on being Arab instead of being Muslim, while Indian subjectivist Intellectuals, regardless of nationality, emphasized Islam. In this regard, one can also refer to the Kawakibi who is known as the father of Arab nationalism, while both Iqbal and Muwdudi have a great deal of emphasis on the Islamic world as a whole of the same nationality. The great emphasis of Arab Intellectuals on nationality is among the other differences that the Indian subcontinent Intellectuals, and especially Iqbal, are completely opposed to. Iqbal believes that the division of Muslim countries with different names is wrong: He believes: "The nationalities and colors that individuals make - Hindi, Pakistani and Indonesian, are fake and tricky, and ethnicity and nationalism are often livestock that colonizers are for the diversion of Muslims from a broad unity, but Muslims must know that the land of Islam is one(Iqbal, 1368).If the Arab Intellectuals, and especially Mustafa Kamil, have a great deal of emphasis on nationality, and especially on Egyptians. Thus, the Instrumental use of religion in the service of the ideals of nationalism, among other differences, can be seen among the Arab thinkers, especially among the ideas of Kawakibi and al-Husri. In this regard, one can refer to Kawakibi who believed that religion was not in opposition to patriotism, but considered religion as a tool for serving patriotic ideals(Kawakibi, 1363: 60).  If the Indian subcontinent thinkers, both lucky and Muwdudi, consider religion as the most important factor for Muslims' solidarity.    
    Conclusion
    Based on the findings of the present research, these thinkers can be divided into two opposing factions, the first one being the opinions of Iqbal Lahouri and Muwdudi, and the other side includes Intellectuals like Kawakibi, Kamil and al-Husri. Intellectuals such as Iqbal Lahouri and Muwdudi are against nationalism in the Western sense and oppose nationalism in its modern European sense and oppose nationalism as Islam and Islamic unity. And, on the other hand, thinkers such as Kawakibi, Kamil and al-Husri are in favor of nationalism, and nationalism is considered to be the flourishing factor of Islam, especially the Arab world. In addition, Arab Intellectuals have a great deal of emphasis on Arabs, but Indian Subcontinent Intellectuals, regardless of all features, emphasize being Muslim, and this is another of the differences between these two intellectual factions. Also, the great emphasis of Arab Intellectuals on nationality is among the other differences between these two factions, and separates the Intellectuals of the subcontinent from the Arab Intellectuals, Indian subcontinent Intellectuals, and especially Iqbal, are completely opposed to this issue. , the Instrumental use of religion in the service of the ideals of nationalism of the differences between the two factions and sides of the border has become more obvious.
  • Abdolhosein Latifi * Pages 237-252
    Introduction
    mysticism which can be said is more or less an important aspect of the different religions, indicates to more similarities among the people in comparison with other aspects like jurisprudence, theology, and rituals. These similarities in some cases are so considerable that the experts cannot believe in interactions of the religions; or consider natural needs and the spirituality of human beings as the mere cause of these similarities.  Of course, it can be said that sometimes both of these points of view can be the basis of the similarities. The latter point of view can open a vast horizon in front of the readers, because this outlook includes the two authentic approaches i.e. the comparative and fusionism. Considering these observations, the author tried to investigate the similarities in the two important scopes of mysticism and spirituality: Mathnawi Manawi in the Islamic mysticism (Sufism), as one of the most significant inspiring fields of mysticism and spirituality; and also, the elementary Upanishads in Hinduism.     The cause of selection of Mathnawi and Upanishads is that both of these two varieties are mostly and off course, with a mystical and spiritual attitude, based upon the scriptures. In other words, Mathnawi directly and indirectly related to Quran and the elementary or classical Upanishads propose a new and mystical sight of the most important teachings of Rig Vida as the basic sacred book. Thus, this research seeks to reply to these questions: 1.Which ontological and epistemological arguments are proposed in this article? 2. What are the similarities between Mathnawi and the elementary Upanishads in the topics studied in this essay? The research’s objectives are: 1.Proposing the ontological and epistemological disputations in the two investigated scopes, the significance of mysticism as an appropriate field for strengthening human being’s sympathy is emphasized. 2. By means of Mathnawi Manawi, the mystical and spiritual treasuries of Hinduism are considered, if not profoundly, by the popular readers.
    Research methodology
    This research is carried out in accordance with textual achievement, by the analytical-comprehensive method based upon library. Thus, as it is obvious from the title of this article, in the investigation of similarities, as long as the article permits us, some couples of Mathnawi and some portions of the important Upanishads will be referred. It should be said that the short name of mathnawi Manawi i.e. Mathnawi is used in this article. Moreover, everywhere the term of Upanishads is used, it means the elementary or classical Upanishads.
    Discussion
    3-1- The conception of monism in the elementary Upanishads and Mathnawi Molana like the sage authors of the Upanishads, believes that beyond the changing world there is a constant and eternal truth which the world is its form. Many portions found in the Upanishads, are comprehensible by this theory of monism that God is the all, and all is God. So, the world is not a creature distinguished from God… God is the world, and the world is God...(Staice, 1358: 214) 3-2- Salvation and its relationship with knowledge in Upanishads and Mathnawi Salvation in the Upanishads and also mathnawi has a profound relationship with the way of attaining to knowledge and its kinds and also the point of view about the world. The knowledge, as it is in  Mathnawi, has some kinds in the Upanishads. In the other words, in both of these collections, knowledge sometimes belongs to the concrete and external affairs and sometimes depends to the essential and fundamental ones; and this is the latter kind that causes the salvation. The perfect man knows that he should seek after God in himself and should not suppose the virtual affairs as truth. So, he simultaneously understands the human and divine truth. (Zamani, 1374: 495-6) 4-
    Conclusion
    The similarity of Hindu thought and especially Upanishadic mysticism with Molana’s mysticism cannot be denied. Besides the fundamental origins of molana’s thought i.e. Quran and Hadith (Tradition), strong traces of Indian thought in Mathnawi are not deniable. This topic would be more obvious if we observe this point that Molana’s mysticism has been notably influenced by mysticism of Khorasan which has been in neighborhood of India. The significance of Upanishadic teachings are so prominent that their traces and signs can be found apparently in Mathnawi. Off course, the similarities originated from man’s spiritual nature which are not essentially necessitated to the interaction, cannot be denied. But the very approach i.e. believing in similarities originated from the man’s nature is also valuable and effective because it can be very helpful for finding these similarities 
  • Hassan Yaghoubi *, Esmat Esmaeili Pages 253-268
     
    Introduction
    Anand Ram mukhlis, Persian poet and author of the 12th century, was born in the Sialkot district of North Lahor in the Punjab. His birth was between 1107 and 1111 AH. He followed his master, Bidel Dehlavi in poetry and he was one of his best students, but we do not know in his poetry the complexity of  Bidel's  poem. his prose style has been known to sobriety and Simplicit, So that He is considered as one of the bestwriters of the time Anand Ram Mukhlis's works consist of: Karname-ye eshgh, Hengame-ye eshgh, Pari khaneh, Rogha'at-e Mukhlis, Mer'at-ol estelah, Chamanistan, Badaye' vaghaye', Divan-e ash'ar, Tazkirat-oshoara, Masnaviat-e Mukhlis, Long letter, Entekhab-e Tohfe-ye Sami, Rahat-ol afras (Anosheh, 2001:2324-2325). Chamanistan is one of the works written on the subcontinent in the imitation of the Golistan-e Saadi Shirazi. In Chamanistan sometimes we see a beautiful and colorful prose. Anand Ram Mukhlis tries to create a poetic work by using the literary arrays. One of the main questions of study is to determine in the Chamanistan what are topics and important points, and what is the Anand Ram Mukhlis's prose style in this work. Anand Ram Mukhlis is one of the 12th century poets and writers in the subcontinent. He has the influence of composition, story, dictionary and letter-writing. It is one of his prose works that only once printed by lithography in 1877 AD in India. Because of the importance and value of this book, this paper seeks to introduce and examine the characteristics of this work 
      Research Methodology
    The method of research in this paper is based on the library method and content analysis based on peresentation of evidence. Therefore Camanistan was studied and was show prominent topics and points, and characteristics of  Anand Ram Mukhlis's prose. Also whit the study and research in related Mukhlis's works, has been used for the richness of this paper.  
    Discussion
    Camanistan, one of the Anand Ram Mukhlis's prose work is a collection of jokes, ironies and nuances, some contemporary and some indication of status descriptions of trees, flowers and fruits. Subject matters organized on four grass and grass on the two bouguet. This work written in 1746 AD and printed by lithography in Nolkeshvar press in india in 72 pages  in 1877 AD (story, 1927:1/6123). This book contains special information about the kings and princes and ministers like Abbas shah-e Safavi, Awrang zib Alamgir, Sa'dollah khan, Omdat-olmoluk, Jahan ara Beygom, that no existe in other history books (Zohur-oddin Ahmad, 1977: 166-167). Also Anand Ram Mukhlis described some Indian customs and other contries. For example in the 31and 32 pages, he dealt with the Seti Hindu tradition and He narrate the event that he has seen exactly. in detail about the kinds of flowers, fruits and trees, wich showed his interest in growing the flower and plant and his extensive information in this regard. In this book, he described only 44 various of tulips. Mukhlis uses Indian words in his prose and combines Hindi and Persian names together, but he warns beginners of doing this (Anosheh, 1380: 2324). In this invalauable work, we face stories of poets, writers and artists. For his devotion to Sa'eb Tabrizi, like the rest of his works, he talk more to him than other poets. He expresses beautiful tales of his memories in meetings with his contemporary poets.Anand Ram Mukhlis in many instances, in this work, wrote verses of contemporary poets and his verses. Anand Ram Mukhlis refers to some strange things and events that he has seen or heard, For example a square board called the Choki. The stylistic features of Anand Ram Mukhlis, like the other clerks of the course, use local words in prose, although he have been used rhythmical and poetic phrases (Hashemi,1996:194).     
    Conclusion
    Camanistan, one of the Anand Ram Mukhlis's prose work is a collection of jokes, ironies and nuances, some contemporary and some indication of status descriptions of trees, flowers and fruits. Subject matters organized on four grass and grass on the two bouguet, that written in 1746 AD. Chamanistan is one of the works written on the subcontinent in the imitation of the Golistan-e Saadi. In Chamanistan sometimes we see a beautiful and colorful prose. Anand Ram Mukhlis tries to create a poetic work by using literary arrays. his prose style has been known to sobriety and Simplicit , So that he is considered as one of the bestwriters of the time. Mukhlis uses Indian words in his prose and combines Hindi and Persian names together, but he warns beginners of doing this. In this work, we face important historical, literary, social and linguistic points, including: valuable historical references and some otherlands, the introduction of flowers and various plants,  poet's stories and poems, jokes, strange things and events, indian customs, the use of indian words, ancient terms, etc.    
    Keywords: Anand Ram Mukhlis, chamanistan, Subcontinent, prose