فهرست مطالب

Energy & Environment - Volume:10 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:10 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 14
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  • J. Chen *, Y. Haijun, L. Hao, Z. Zhifang, L. Mei Pages 72-79
    Taking Shanxi fat coal, Shanxi 4# coke coal and Shenmu low rank pulverized coal as raw materials, three different concentrations of NaOH modified corn stalk were used as binder.  The effect of changing NaOH concentrations and coal particle size used in moulding briquette and formed coke on its SEM micrographs, combustion property and FTIR absorption strength were investigated. The micro-properties of corn stalk before and after modification was also discussed.  Results showed that the moisture content and ash yield of modified corn stalk increased obviously and the volatile yield showed opposite trend. 2.0% NaOH modified corn stalk showed more voids or porosity which could wrap a large number of coal particles to form strong strength briquette. Addition of modified corn stalk could reduces the briquette burning time and increased burning rate with strong flame and good ignition. From SEM micrograph, briquette had rough surface, and different sizes coal particles and fiber were bound together firmly. Formed coke showed light gray metallic luster, light mass, obvious circular holes and small gaps among particles.The melting colloid and binder could better infiltrate and encapsulate coal particles to form a dense and impermeable entity, which blocked the channels of organic group decomposition during pyrolysis process. Thus, it is forming many holes of different sizes on the surface and inside formed coke. The infrared spectrum of formed coke was simplier than briquette, and the absorption peak number was less and absorption strength was weaker also.
    Keywords: binder, Briquette, Corn stalk, Formed Coke, Micro-Properties, Molding
  • M. Firoozzadeh, A. Shiravi *, M. Shafiee Pages 80-84
    Photovoltaic (PV) power plant is one of the most important renewable power generation methods, which is rapidly developing. One of the weak points of PV power plants is the negative effects of increasing the cells temperature on their power generation. In this study, a simple and low cost method is proposed to reduce the temperature of these panels. The use of fins has been proven in many industrial applications and here it is used as coolant of PV panel. This experiment was performed in maximum operating temperature of photovoltaic modules which is known as 85°C. By using numbers of aluminum fins on the back surface of photovoltaic panels under two different irradiation, the temperature reduction up to 7.4 °C was observed, and this reduction leads to 2.72 % increasing in efficiency. Finally, an economical assessment of the offered cases based on output power of PV panels carried out, which shows a suitable economic justifiability.
    Keywords: Economic, energy analysis, fin, Photovoltaic
  • A. Al, Ezzi *, S. H. Alhamdiny Pages 85-90
    In this work, a modified internal loop airlift reactor has been designed to remove the organic pollutants in synthetic wastewater at an efficient and inexpensive treatment technique by means of a synergistic effect combining of (oxidation, stripping and adsorption). The validation of the current style was experimentally examined in the treatment of synthetic Wastewater contained chloroform. The experimental testing rig was implemented at various air flow rates range (5-20) (L/min), with total variable residence period (5-60 min) with a different molar ratio of CHCl3 to H2O2 i.e. 1:10, 1:15 and 1:20. The results showed that the best molar ratio of chloroform to hydrogen peroxide was 1:20 for the air flow rate 18 L/min and extended retention period (60 min) having the uppermost results (83.3%) to remove chloroform from the contaminated effluent water. This design complements the research objectives with high efficiency through the synergy of stripping, oxidation and adsorption processes to remove contaminated chloroform from wastewater. This work contributes to a part of the solution of the environmental problems of the contaminated water before recycling, reuse or released to our safe environment.
    Keywords: Adsorption, Chloroform, Stripping, Synergistic System, oxidation
  • I. V. Priya, S. V. A. R. Sastry *, A. Sahoo Pages 91-95
    Sustainable energy source and pollution free environment is the immediate requirement of developing countries. Waste cooking oils of five different origins were considered in the present work for biodiesel production. Attempt was made to study the effect of process variables on acid-catalyzed oil transesterification. The various parameters such as catalyst amount, reaction temperature, reaction time, molar ratio of alcohol, and free fatty acids were analyzed to determine the optimum condition for biodiesel production. Food grade coconut, mustard, olive, peanut and soybean waste cooking oils were used to produce biodiesel. Attempt was made to develop mathematical expressions by correlating different input parameters and yield of biodiesel obtained with all the five oil samples. The experimental yield was also compared with those obtained from developed correlations. Good agreement among experimental and theoretical values was observed which implies that this study maybe considered as a base line for the development of an optimum biodiesel production plant.
    Keywords: Acid-catalyzed Transesterification, Biodiesel, Vegetable oils, Waste cooking oils
  • G. Anju, B. Subha, M. Muthukumar, T. Sangeetha * Pages 96-103
    A treatment method based on the degradation of sago processing wastewater using ozonation process was conducted in this research study. The optimization of the process variables was designed with the aid of software called Design Expert and the technique was called response surface methodology (RSM) in Central composite design. The effect of ozonation variables like pH, treatment time and ozone concentration on the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of sago waste water was investigated. Interestingly, two different types of results like maximum removal of COD and optimum removal of COD were observed. Maximum COD removal of 62.45% was at pH 9.8, ozonation time 95.7 min, ozone dose 42% and optimum COD removal 0f 56.7% was at pH 9.8, ozonation time 35.7 min, and ozone dose 42%. Bacterial count was found to be nil after ozonation and microscopic observation of biomass proved that the sludge content had effectively reduced after ozonation treatment. It was determined that the ozonation of sago wastewater was a promising effort in wastewater treatment.
    Keywords: Central composite design, Chemical Oxygen demand, Ozonation, Sago Wastewater, Response Surface Methodology
  • A. Kumar Singh *, R. Patle, M. Das, R. Sanodiya, N. M. Stanley, P. Malkhani Pages 104-110
    Applications of nano-scaled energetic materials in diesel and diesel-biodiesel blends as catalytic agents have emerged contemporarily in pace to develop an efficient and eco-friendly alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. Inclusion of nanoparticles as additives for CI engine fuels promises as overall improver of engine performance and emission characteristics. However, simultaneous control on engine performance parameters and emission characteristics is usually difficult. Dispersion of nano-additives improves combustion efficiency by altering specific fuel properties of diesel. Average particle size of 40-50 nm facilitate greater surface-to-volume ratio, hence ensure more complete combustion through further chain reactions during combustion. Nanoparticles as catalytic agents in diesel and its proportionate blends have recently emerged as game changer but their potential is in-fact not fully explored for market acceptability. The following are the major challenges that are to be considered in future researches: (a) There is a need of on-road testing in real ambient conditions, (b) Effects of exhaust emission fuelled with nanocatalysts on human breathing, (c) Overall effects on diesel engines of agricultural tractors and other heavy earth moving machines which are designed for high load factors, and (d) Effects of such modified fuels on driving habits of consumers.
    Keywords: Compression Ignition Engine Fuels, Emission Characteristics, Nanoparticles, performance
  • J. Oyewole *, A. A. Olanrewaju Pages 111-114
    Solar distiller was constructed and tested in this study. The purpose is to get a portable water from nearly any source available in a relatively cheaper means using a renewable solar energy. The result obtained clearly confirmed the reliability of this method to provide portable water especially in a rural area of developing country like Nigeria where the supply of fresh water is inadequate. A local dirty stream that is constantly throughout the year served as the source of the brackish water was used for this work. Sample taken from this stream was distilled using the constructed double slope solar distiller. The incoming solar radiation from the sun is focused and concentrated on to solar water distillation unit. Analyzing the sample of the distillate, the pH value of the brackish feed water was 9.20 ±1.10 while that of the distillate was 8.10 ±1.06, which falls within the WHO limits of 6.5-8.5 for drinkable water.
    Keywords: Brackish Water, Distiller, Portable Water, Renewable Energy, Solar energy
  • F. Mohammad Alinezhad * Pages 115-120
    Dezful city, located in southwest of Iran, has a hot and semi-humid climate. In the past, architectures used design solutions to provide the cold of living space. Shavadoon is one of the most important design for reaching this goal. Shavadoon is an underground space in traditional buildings of Dezful city designed with a trend of respect and protection of natural environment. Shavadoon, linked with its peripheral environment, provided an appropriate space for sheltering residents in summers hot weather without a need of energy of fossil fuels. Exploring the causes of thermal comfort in this underground space with no need to non-renewable energies was the aim of this article. In this article passive cooling of shavadoon was reviewed in a descriptive and analytic procedure. Results indicated that the architectural design of shavadoon is such that cool down the shavadoon through three types of cooling including the ground cooling, cooling through ventilation and evaporative cooling.
    Keywords: Evaporative Cooling, Ground Cooling, Passive cooling, Renewable Energy, Ventilation
  • M. Benali * Pages 121-125
    This paper presents the experimental investigation of biogas production from cow dung as an alternative for fossil fuels for energy consumption. This was carried out using an 18 Liters capacity plastic keg prototype biogas plant, constructed to investigate the anaerobic digestion for generation of biogas. Batch experiment was operated and daily gas yield from the plant was monitored for duration of 30 days. The digester was charged with these wastes in the ratio of 1:1, of waste to water, respectively. The mesophilic temperature ranges attained within the testing period were 20 – 35 °C.  The Biogas production from cow dung fluctuates from the first day to the thirtieth day between 0 and 340 ml. The pH of cow dung gradually reduced due to acid former and methanogenes within the 30 days retention period.
    Keywords: anaerobic digestion, Biogas production, Cow dung, mesophilic
  • M. Moallem *, H. Hassanpour, A. A. Pouyan Pages 126-135
    Smart homes enable many people, especially the elderly and patients, to live alone and maintain their independence and comfort. The realization of this goal depends on monitoring all activities in the house to report any observed anomaly immediately to their relatives or nurses. Anomaly detection in smart homes, just by existing data, is not an easy task. In this work, we train a recurrent network with raw outputs of binary sensors, including motion and door sensors, to predict which sensor will be switched on/off in the next event, and how long this on/off mode will last. Then, using Beam Search, we extend this event into k sequences of consecutive events to determine the possible range of upcoming activities. The error of this prediction  i.e., the distance between these possible sequences and the real string of events is evaluated using several innovative methods for measuring the spatio-temporal similarity of the sequences. Modeling this error as a Gaussian distribution allows to assess the likelihood of anomaly scores. The input sequences that are ranked higher than a certain threshold will be considered as abnormal activities. The results of the experiments showed that this method enables the detection of abnormal activities with desirable accuracy.
    Keywords: Anomaly Detection, Beam Search, Deep Learning, Long Short Term Memory, Smart Homes
  • K. Sumalatha, J. Ishwara Bhat * Pages 136-146
    The medicinal properties shown by different plants are due to phytochemicals present in the plant. These phytochemicals are the most vital source for the treatment of various diseases. Different phytochemicals have an extensive range of activities, which help to enhance the immune system and give resistance to the body to protect against attack of harmful pathogens. It is well accepted fact that even areca plant seed is also a good source of phytochemicals and hence planned to examine the phytochemicals present in its different stages, that is, tender areca nut (TACN), mature areca nut (MACN) and dry areca nut (DACN). All the three stages of areca nut extract were examined for tannin, phenols, flavonoids, alcohols, acids, amines and nitro groups. They showed positive results for all the tests. Trace elements such as Cu, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb are present in small amount when compared to Na and K, and are identified by Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of functional groups such as –OH. –NH, -CH, >C=O, >C=C<, >C-O-C and –NO groups in the areca nut extract. Extracts were investigated through GC-MS for identification of the chemical composition of extract, on comparison with results obtained from FTIR, and molecular mass nine, fourteen and five compounds were identified in TACN, MACN and DACN extracts, respectively.
    Keywords: Areca Nut, anti-bacterial, Anti-oxidant, Crystalline Compounds, phytochemicals
  • A. M. Tunde * Pages 147-153
    Climatic parameters are part of the main determinants of agricultural production in many developing countries including Nigeria. This study analyzes the vulnerability of vegetable crops to the impact of rainfall and temperature variability and the management techniques in Kwara State agro-ecological region of Nigeria. Data on rainfall, temperature and vegetables (tomato, pepper, okra, amaranthus and garden egg) were collected for a period of twenty-five (25) years from the four agricultural zones of Kwara State. These were subjected to descriptive, correlation and regression analyses. The result revealed that climatic variables examined fluctuate but there has been constant increase in temperature over the years and year 2001 recorded the highest (40.06oC). Vegetable crop yield also fluctuates. Correlation analysis revealed that tomato correlates positively with rainfall, maximum and minimum temperature. Okra and pepper correlate positively with rainfall and maximum temperature and inverse correlation with minimum temperature. Amaranthus has an inverse correlation with rainfall and maximum temperature but correlates positively with minimum temperature although very low. Garden egg correlates with rainfall and inversely correlates with maximum and minimum temperature. Hence, vegetable crops examined are vulnerable to the impact of climatic variables but not too strong as there are other factors such as the nature of soil, specie of seedlings, chemicals among others that contributed to vegetable crop yield. Management techniques suggested to improve the productivity of vegetable crops in Kwara State include the use of modern agricultural techniques such as development of irrigation and water harvesting technologies.
    Keywords: Agriculture, climate variables, Kwara State Agricultural Development, Rainfall, variability, Vegetable Crops
  • V. Kanthe *, S. Deo, M. Murmu Pages 154-158
    In this research paper, the effect on autogenous healing in concrete by cementitious material such as fly ash (FA) and rice husk ash (RHA) are reported. The utilization of waste byproduct are the interest in research for healing of concrete. The non-destructive testing and microstructure analysis were conducted to quantify autogenous healing in concrete. The concrete specimens prepared with different proportion of FA and RHA. The satisfactory results of non- destructive test were obtained with respect to the durability of concrete. In the chemical and microstructure analysis the calcium carbonate crystals formed on healed cracks surface and dense particle packing in the matrix of concrete were observed. This type of ternary blend is useful for making durable and sustainable concrete structure. The utilization of industrial and agricultural byproduct reduces the effect of environmental pollution and also reduces the consumption of cement with the same reduction in CO2 emition from cement industry.
    Keywords: Autogenous Healing, Concrete, Fly ash, Rice Husk Ash
  • E. S. Aghaee Meybodi, M. Ghasemzadeh * Pages 159-164
    Prediction of software vulnerabilities-severity is of particular importance. Its most important application is that managers can first deal with the most dangerous vulnerabilities when they have limited resources. This research shows how we can use the former patterns of software vulnerabilities-severity along with machine learning methods to predict the vulnerabilities severity of that software in the future. In this regard, we used the SVM, Decision Trees (DT), Random Forests (RF), K Nearest Neighbors (KNN), bagging and AdaBoost algorithms along with the already reported vulnerabilities of Google Android applications, Apple Safari and the Flash Player. The experimental results showed that the Bagging algorithm can predict Google Android vulnerability with accuracy of 78.21% and f1-measure equal to 77%, the vulnerability of the Flash Player software with accuracy of 82.37% and f1-measure equal to 87.73% and predict the vulnerability severity of the Apple Safari with accuracy of  70.58% and f1-measure equal to 70%. The novelty of this research is introduction of a new method for prediction of software vulnerabilities severity.
    Keywords: Machine Learning, Pattern Recognition, prediction, Vulnerability Severity