فهرست مطالب

Advanced Medical Sciences and Applied Technologies - Volume:3 Issue:4, 2017
  • Volume:3 Issue:4, 2017
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1396/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Pouria Mohammadi, Seyed Mohammad Salar Zaheryani * Pages 179-187
    The neuromuscular junction is a highly specialized cholinergic synapse, essential for initiating nerve-evoked muscle contractions by means of neuromuscular transmission. Loss or dysfunction of any component of this junction might affect synaptic performance. Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes (CMSs) are rare heterogeneous disorders of autosomal inheritance caused by genetic defects affecting neuromuscular transmission that results in skeletal muscle weakness and abnormal fatigability on exertion.  The onset is usually from birth to childhood. CMSs are more uncommon than autoimmune myasthenia gravis. CMSs are classified based on their genetic and clinical presentations into presynaptic, synaptic basal lamina, and postsynaptic CMSs. To date, mutations in more than 25 genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of CMSs. In this review article, different CMSs diagnostic procedures are investigated, and the genetic, clinical, and molecular aspects of CMSs are outlined.
    Keywords: Congenital myasthenicsyndromes, Synaptictransmission, Mutation, Neuromuscular junction, Ophthalmoplegia
  • Iman Ghodrati Toostani, Mohammad Nami *, Tanit Ganz Sanchez, Alexandre Cl?udio Botazzo Delbem Pages 189-196
    Individuals suffering from tinnitus frequently report sleep disturbances. The most common sleep-related complaint among tinnitus patients, insomnia, may even remain unresolved despite adequate and specific treatments of tinnitus. The more severe the tinnitus, the more patients report impaired sleep. Given the fact that sleep disorders potentially affect physical and mental health, patients with tinnitus would require a special diagnostic and therapeutic care. Subjective (sleep questionnaires and self-rated psychometric evaluations) and objective (polysomnographic recording) assessments in Sleep-Disturbed Tinnitus Patients (SDTPs) have similar parameters compared to subjects with insomnia. However, as the elderly subjects have higher prevalence of organic sleep disorders, special care is needed regarding the differential diagnostic measures. Treatment of insomnia in SDTPs is commonly based on the use of hypnotics, with or without insomnia-specific psychotherapy. Similarly, cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia is shown to ameliorate both insomnia and tinnitus. This review article discusses sleep and insomnia based on a recently-proposed neurofunctional tinnitus model.
    Keywords: Tinnitus, Neurofunctionaltinnitus model, Sleepcomplaints, Insomnia, Cognitive behavior therapy
  • Mahshid Tahamtan, Ali Shamsizadeh, Mohammad Allahtavakoli, Mohammad Nami, Neda Mohammadi, Gholamhossein Hassanshahi * Pages 197-204
    Objectives
    Cerebral ischemic preconditioning lessens stroke-induced injuries, but it is clinically feasible only when the occurrence of stroke is predictable. Reperfusion plays a critical role against cerebral injury after stroke; we tested the hypothesis that interrupting ischemia during early reperfusion, i.e. Postconditioning (POCO) affects CXC chemokine expression and further reduce inflammation in rat model of ischemia/reperfusion. Materials &
    Methods
    Adult male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were used in this experiment. Using 4-vessel occlusion method, global cerebral ischemia was induced and POCO was performed by applying 3 cycles of 15-s/15-s reperfusion/reocclusion after a 45-s reperfusion (POCO-45-15/15). Western blotting analysis was used to investigate CXCL1, CXCL10 and CXCL12 expression 24 h, 48 h and one week after ischemic postconditioning (iPOCO).
    Results
    Based on the results, iPOCO attenuates the expression of inflammatory chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL10 in hippocampus area of postconditioned rats, while the CXCL12 was not affected by iPOCO.
    Conclusion
    Current findings may support chemokines role in iPOCO via reduction of inflammation. Also there could be a link between postconditioning, stress and inflammation through chemokines.
    Keywords: Chemokine, Global cerebralischemia, Postconditioning
  • Marzieh Bagheri *, Mohammad Nasiri Pages 205-211
    Objectives
    Increasing use of colored materials in various industries and their discharge into the environment through industrial wastewater, can create many problems for humans and other beings. In the present study, the effect of removing Reactive Blue 21 (RB 21) dye using Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) as adsorbent is studied.Materials &
    Methods
    The research was carried out on a laboratory scale and in a discontinuous system. Factors affecting dye removal such as pH, adsorption dose, concentration of dye and contact time were investigated. Also two Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were studied in different concentrations of dye. UV-visible spectrophotometer was used to determine the dye removal. It should be noted that all experiments were carried out at 25°C.
    Results
    Regarding the results in an environment with pH=3, in 30 minutes time, with 0.05 g/L of adsorbent (MWCNTs) to remove 50 mL of RB 21 dye with a concentration of 40 ppm, the best adsorption and maximum dye removal was obtained as 81%.
    Conclusion
    According to the results of the experiments, it was found that MWCNTs are very suitable for comparison with other synthetic adsorbents used to remove RB 21 dye.
    Keywords: Wastewater, Adsorption, MWCNTs, Isotherm
  • Hamid Aria, Mohammad Mehdi Naghizadeh * Pages 213-219
    Objectives
    Heart Failure (HF) is a chronic condition with great impact on the lifestyle of the patients. As many as 80% of HF patients report experiencing sleep difficulties. Thus, we try to detect clinical predictors of sleep quality and define probable relationship between anxiety, depression, and sleep quality in HF patients.Materials &
    Methods
    One hundred patients (male: 50 persons, female: 50 persons) with ejection fraction less than 45% who were hospitalized in CCU and post-CCU ward, were included in this study. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire were used to collect the related data.
    Results
    The patients’ mean (SD) total PSQI score was 9.07(4.43). The most problem was seen in sleep onset latency (1.85[1.15]) sub-score of PSQI and the sleep quality of 78% of patients was abnormal. This score was higher in patients with history of abnormal blood pressure (P=0.001). PSQI score have significant correlation with anxiety (r=0.216, P=0.035) as well as depression (r=0.351, P=0.000).
    Conclusion
    Many HF patients suffer from sleep difficulties and PSQI score seems to have significant correlation with anxiety and depression.
    Keywords: Sleep quality, Anxiety, Depression, Heart failure
  • Mohammad Nami *, Samrad Mehrabi, Sabri Derman Pages 221-225
    Well-designed studies are essential to screen suspected cases of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) using the widely-referenced questionnaires and then to confirm the diagnosis by means of full Polysomnography (PSG), and finally to assess various variables of treatment efficacy and safety. Defining the severity index of OSAS based on the Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI), sleep marco- and micro-structural features (i.e. hypnogram and cyclic alternating patterns or CAPs), and neurocognitive functions would help better explain the treatment outcome. Using the neural network models on sleep data in OSAS sufferers is potentially expected to help the above goals. Determination of neurocognitive impairments in OSAS subjects in relation with disease severity indices and subsequent changes in microstructural changes (i.e. CAPs) in sleep Electroencephalography (EEG), would therefore be useful in defining individualized care and cognitive rehabilitation plans. The present methodology paper has attempted to address the above hypothesis in a clinical population from a hospital-based sleep disorders laboratory.
    Keywords: Sleep apnea, EEG, Microstructure, Arousals, Neural network methods
  • Sanaz Tajadini, Neda Mohammadi, Mahshid Tahamtan *, Mohammad Nami Pages 227-234
    Objectives
    Dementia of Alzheimer Type (DAT) is associated with progressive cognitive impairments. Such a clinically significant condition is known to affect approximately 9.5% of people over 70 years of age. However, it is accepted as a more challengeable medical entity because of its increasing atypical presentation, rarity of efficient treatments, and diagnostic and prevention challenges.Materials &
    Methods
    we present a case who referred with 5 months history of cognitive decline following Medial Temporal Lobe (MTL) atrophy upon neuroimaging. Following cognitive and neurophysiological assessments, she underwent 21 consecutive sessions of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) 3 times per week. Concurrently, a media-rich computer platform was administered for cognitive and behavioral remediation.
    Results
    Based on the evidence regarding the use of tDCS in dementia, we aimed at stabilizing the cognitive profile and halting or slowing down the process of progressive cognitive decline in the present case. The outcome of our neuromodulatory intervention using tDCS supported the beneficial impact of such an approach in not only stabilizing but also ameliorating cognitive functions. This is especially important when rapid progression of cognitive symptoms in DAT is of concern.
    Conclusion
    The promising clinical course of this specific case supports the possible beneficial effects of tDCS in halting the progression of symptoms in DAT. Sham-controlled clinical trials would get momentum to highlight clinical impact of such an intervention in DAT.
    Keywords: Dementia of alzheimertype, Cognitive impairment, Transcranial direct currentstimulation