فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 75 (پاییز 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/09/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • هاشم داداش پور*، مجتبی آراسته صفحات 5-16
    امروزه بنادر در اغلب نقاط جهان، به عنوان مهمترین کانون مفصلی میان حمل و نقل دریایی و زمینی، نقش حیاتی ایفا می کنند. بنادر ایران علی رغم برخورداری از موقعیت راهبردی، آنگونه که باید نتوانسته اند نقش موثر خود را در توسعه مناطق پسکرانه محلی بروز دهند. هدف از انجام این تحقیق، بررسی تعامل های کالایی میان بنادر ایرانی و کانون های پسکرانه ای و تبیین ساختار فضایی حاصل از این تعامل است. بدین منظور چارچوب روش شناختی این پژوهش بر مبنای پارادایم اثبات-گرایی استوار شده و برای تحلیل تعامل های کمی کالا، از تکنیک تحلیل شبکه های اجتماعی بهره گرفته شده است. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد بندرعباس، طی دو دهه اخیر اغلب تعامل های کالایی خود را با تهران انجام داده و این دو کانون شاخص ترین سهم مرکزیت وزنی و واسطگی کالا را به خود اختصاص داده اند؛ به طوریکه چرخه تامین کالا کاملا وابسته به این کریدور تعاملی شده است. هرچند که در گذر زمان، به مرور نقش کانون های پسکرانه منطقه ای پررنگ تر از سابق شده است. نکته قابل توجه اینکه اغلب کانون های پسکرانه محلی بنادر جنوبی علی رغم مجاورت با بنادر، جایگاه قابل توجهی در تولید، ذخیره، فرآوری و توزیع کالا ندارند. بنابراین می توان گفت ساختار فضایی سرزمین ایران در طول دو دهه اخیر، بر مبنای ساختار منظومه ای قطب محور شکل گرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: ساختار فضایی، بندر، پسکرانه، تحلیل شبکه، ساختار منظومه ای قطب محور
  • محمدمهدی طاهری، حامد مظاهریان*، سعید خاقانی صفحات 17-26
    هدف از این پژوهش، گونه شناسی مسجدهای تاریخی ایران بر مبنای شبستان آنهاست. بدین منظور با بررسی کالبد مسجدها، انواع شبستان تعریف و مسجدهای ایران بر این اساس دسته بندی شدند؛ سپس داده های گونه شناختی رقومی  و به صورت توصیفی تحلیل شدند. در گام بعدی، اطلاعات گونه شناختی با استفاده از GIS بررسی شده و نقشه های پراکندگی و تراکم و پهنه بندی گونه شناختی مسجدهای تاریخی ایران حاصل شد. اگر انواع کنار هم نشینی شبستان ها در کالبد مسجدها را در نظر بگیریم، مسجدهای ایران را می شود در ده گونه ی مختلف جای داد: ستون دار (59.13٪)؛ طنبی (14.5٪)؛ طنبی و ستون دار (6.02٪)؛ ستون دار و مرکب (5.7٪)؛ ستون دار و گنبدخانه (3.7٪)؛ طنبی و گنبدخانه (3.06٪)؛ مرکب (2.96٪)؛ گنبدخانه (2.85٪)؛ ستون دار و گنبدخانه و طنبی (1.6٪)؛ طنبی و مرکب (1.37٪). گونه هایی که در کالبد خود از شبستان مرکب یا شبستان گنبدخانه بهره برده اند، عمدتا در نواحی مرکزی ایران و، به تعدادی کمتر، در خراسان حضوری پررنگ دارند؛ حال آنکه در نواحی غربی و جنوبی و شمالی ایران، گونه ی غالب گونه مسجد ستون دار است. گونه مسجد طنبی هم در برخی شهرستان های جنوب شرق ایران غالب است و نیز در دیگر نواحی هم حضوری قابل توجه دارد. همچنین تنوع گونه بندی مسجدها، عمدتا مربوط شهرستان های مرکزی ایران است و در بیشتر شهرستان های ایران، تنوع گونه ها اندک است یا غالب بودن یک گونه (عمدتا ستون دار)، چشمگیرتر است.
    کلیدواژگان: گونه شناسی، مسجد، GIS، گنبدخانه، ستون دار، طنبی
  • مسعود وحدت طلب*، سمیه قدیم زاده صفحات 27-40
    اهمیت گنبدخانه در معماری ایران سبب گردیده تا از نظر تاثیرگذاری زیبایی شناختی، همواره موردتوجه طراحان باشد. هدف از پژوهش حاضر، بازشناسی ویژگی های شکلی، هندسی و تناسباتی بناهای گنبدخانه ای با پوشش نار در دوره ی اسلامی با توجه به کیفیت بصری ظرافت است. به این منظور، ابتدا به شناخت ساختار و گونه های مختلف و روند تحولات شکلی گنبدخانه ها اقدام گردید. سپس 18 بنای گنبدخانه ای از میان آرامگاه ها در بازه ی زمانی سده های نهم تا دوازدهم هجری انتخاب و با استفاده از روش مدل سازی و طراحی ابزار تحلیل هندسی بر پایه ی پنج ضلعی منتظم، خصوصیات هندسی بررسی و در گام بعد بر اساس تعریف چهار شاخص (سنجه)، تحلیل گردید. یافته ها نشان داد طرح گنبدخانه ها در بازه ی زمانی موردبررسی، از چارچوب مشترکی برخوردار است به طوری که در اغلب نمونه ها، کشیدگی ارتفاعی گنبد بیش از دو قسمت ساقه و پایه بوده و بخش فوقانی، بیش از نصف ارتفاع بنا را به خود اختصاص می دهد. درعین حال تفاوت هایی در نمونه های این دو دوره به خصوص از نظر شکل و تناسبات بخش فوقانی دیده می شود؛ به طوری که ظرافت کشیدگی در دوره تیموری و نیز اوایل صفوی؛ و ظرافت هماهنگی در دوره صفوی نمود بیشتری دارد. الگوی مشترک هندسی و شاخص های ارائه شده در این مقاله به عنوان دو روش مکمل یکدیگر می توانند در ارزیابی زیبایی شناختی گنبدخانه های مشابه به کار گرفته شوند.
    کلیدواژگان: معماری ایرانی- اسلامی، گنبدخانه، ظرافت، شکل، آرامگاه
  • بنفشه یادگارزاده، فرشاد نوریان* صفحات 41-52
    سازمان های حرفه ای به عنوان یکی از مشخصه های مورد انتظار از حرفه های کامل، همواره در تقویت موضع حرفه ای شهرسازی، نقش آفرین بوده اند. با این وجود، نقش آنها نیز در گذار از رویکردهای سنتی متحول گردیده است. در این راستا، رویکرد انتقادی به عنوان یکی از رویکردهای مورد وفاق برای ترسیم چشم انداز حرفه و بازتعریف نقش های مورد انتظار از این سازمان ها، مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. با توجه به سیر تحولات، هدف این مقاله، تبیین نقش های مورد انتظار از سازمان های حرفه ای شهرسازی ایران و موقعیت یابی آنها در این جریان گذار است. بدین منظور، روش تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی برای تحلیل داده های حاصل از مصاحبه های گفتمانی استفاده شده است. با نمونه گیری هدفمند از نوع گلوله برفی، 19 فرد مطلع برای انجام مصاحبه از میان اعضای سازمان نظام مهندسی ساختمان انتخاب شده اند. نتایج پژوهش به شناسایی شش نقش برای سازمان های حرفه ای در عرصه ای گسترده تر از نقش های معمول منجر شده است. این نقش ها، در موقعیتی بینابینی میان نقش های سنتی و بازتعریف شده قرار دارند که با باور نظریه انتقادی به اصلاح پذیری سنت ها، به جای تخریب و عبور از آنها، انطباق دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: حرفه شهرسازی، سازمان های حرفه ای، تئوری انتقادی، تحلیل گفتمان انتقادی
  • مهدی ممتحن، مسعود ناری قمی* صفحات 53-68
    برخی، تمام و یا بیشتر روند آموزش معماری را فرایندی تربیتی می دانند تا برنامه ای صرفا آموزشی؛ این موضوع دستمایه برخی پژوهش های حوزه آموزش معماری در ایران نیز بوده است. رویکردهای تربیتی مبتنی بر «جمع محوری» یا «فردمحوری»، موضوعی است که در ادبیات علوم تربیتی و آموزش معماری مورد توجه است. بر این اساس، دو طیف قابل تشخیص است: طیف تعامل «استاد شاگرد» با دو قطب «استادمحوری» و «شاگردمحوری»؛ و طیف تعامل «معمار جامعه» با دو قطب «فردگرایی» و «جمع گرایی» در رویکردهای آموزش معماری. با ترکیب این دو طیف، یک مدل نظری چهار قطبی از گونه بندی آموزش معماری تدوین شده، که منتج به احصاء چهار حوزه تربیت معمار شده است. برای هر یک از حوزه ها، نمونه ای از گونه های آموزش معماری معاصر جایابی شده است. برای روشن شدن وضعیت تربیتی در روش های نوین آموزش معماری ایران، از روش تحلیل محتوای گزارش 28 کار انجام شده در این حوزه در ده سال اخیر (منتشر شده به صورت مقاله در مجلات پژوهشی و سه دوره همایش آموزش معماری دانشگاه تهران) استفاده شده است. با مرور منابع مزبور، روش آموزشی کارگاهی با رویکرد طراحی معماری، شناسایی، و با استناد به متون تشریحی و ارزیابی مربوط به آنها، محتوای تربیتی هر روش در هشت طیف مفهومی از سوی نگارندگان تحلیل شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تربیت، فردگرایی-جمع گرایی، استادمحوری-شاگردمحوری، آموزش معماری ایران
  • مجتبی رضازاده اردبیلی*، مجید سیدی ساروی، سارا طاهری امیری صفحات 69-82
    جمعه مسجد اردبیل، در طول حیات بیش از هزار ساله ی خود، خسارت های بسیاری را بر اثر عوامل انسانی و طبیعی بر کالبد و محتوای خود دیده است. پی بردن به فرم منحنی گنبد فرو ریخته مسجد در جهت تکمیل خطوط اصلی بنا برای ساخت گنبد جدید در مرمت، امری ضروری است. هم چنین شناخت جایگاه جمعه مسجد به عنوان یکی از مساجد مهم و کهن کشور و نیز بررسی تاثیرپذیری از و تاثیرگذاری بر بناهای مشابه متقدم و متاخر خود، بدون اشراف دقیق بر ویژگی های معماری آن، امکان پذیر نخواهد بود. هدف پژوهش، یافتن منحنی گنبد جمعه مسجد اردبیل با بررسی پلان ها و مقاطع مشابه آن و از نوع بنیادی است. روش تحقیق، تحلیلی - تطبیقی و به صورت داده بنیاد است. ماهیت پژوهش، آمیخته است. گردآوری داده ها از روش میدانی و با استفاده از اسناد و منابع کتابخانه ای بوده است. پس از مقایسه ی تطبیقی 20 بنای مشابه با جمعه مسجد در بازه ی زمانی صد سال قبل تا صد سال بعد از آن، بر اساس متغیرهای مختلفی نظیر نوع پلان، گوشه سازی، تزیینات، شکل ساقه گنبد، نحوه ی نورگیری و نیز تناسبات گنبدخانه، نزدیک ترین بناها به بنای مورد نظر مشخص گشته و منحنی گنبد آنها روی جمعه مسجد شبیه سازی و با شناسایی نوع منحنی و ترسیم دقیق آن، شکل اولیه گنبد ایلخانی جمعه مسجد ترسیم گردید.
    کلیدواژگان: جمعه مسجد اردبیل، منحنی گنبد، دوره ایلخانی، مطالعه تطبیقی
  • مهسا جبل عاملی، فرهنگ مظفر*، وحید قاسمی، محمود کریمی صفحات 83-94
    تکنیک ها و متدهای مورد استفاده در طراحی معماری را می توان به 2 دسته ی مرتبط با دانش معماری و مستقل از آن تقسیم نمود. یکی از قسمت های مربوط به دسته ی دوم، خلاقیت و نوآوری است. در این حوزه، یکی از به روزترین و جامع ترین زمینه های دانشی، تئوری تریز است. استفاده از تریز در معماری، طی سال های اخیر رشد زیادی داشته است، اما نبود روش مشخصی برای استفاده از تریز در طی فرایند معماری، همچنان به چشم می خورد. در این پژوهش، در راستای پوشش این خلاء، بر رکن کارکردگرایی تریز در فرایند طراحی معماری تمرکز شده است. هدف از این پژوهش، ارائه روشی برای استفاده از رکن کارکردگرایی تریز در فرایند طراحی معماری و آزمون کارآمدی آن است. کارآمدی این روش، با استفاده از یک طرح تحقیق شبه آزمایشی پیش آزمون پس آزمون با گروه گواه و آزمون، ارزیابی شد. داده های تحقیق با روش سنجش عملکردی و نمره دهی هیئت داوران مجرب، گردآوری شد. این داده ها با استفاده از نرم افزار SPSS و آزمون تحلیل واریانس یک راهه، مورد آزمون قرار گرفت. نتایج آزمایش نشان می دهد روش طراحی با استفاده از کارکردگرایی تئوری تریز، عملکرد طراحی دانشجویان را در کارکرد بنیادین، به شکل معناداری بهبود می دهد. به عبارتی کارکردگرایی تریز با کمک به فعالیت فرموله کردن، موجب بهبود عملکرد آزمودنی ها در کارکرد بنیادین طراحی آنها می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: فرایند طراحی معماری، تئوری تریز، تریز در معماری، ارکان تریز، کارکردگرایی تریز، نوآوری در طراحی معماری
  • علی اکبر جیدری*، قاسم مطلبی، سلمان مرادیان صفحات 95-106
    تحقیقات متعددی درباره ی حس دلبستگی به یک یا چند مکان در سراسر دنیا ارائه شده است که هر کدام به نتایج متفاوتی نیز دست یافته اند. این پژوهش سعی بر آن دارد که با نگاهی نو به این مسئله، ارتباط میان شدت دلبستگی به مکان و مقیاس مکان را مورد سنجش قرار دهد. بر همین اساس، عوامل تاثیرگذار بر دلبستگی به مکان را در سه بعد "کالبدی"، "اجتماعی-جمعیتی" و "احساسی-تجربی" مورد بررسی قرار داده است. عوامل کالبدی به سه مقیاس خانه، محله و شهر تقسیم شده اند. عوامل اجتماعی-جمعیتی به متغیرهایی نظیر سن، جنسیت، سطح تحصیلات و غیره تعمیم داده شده اند و عوامل احساسی- تجربی نیز، در قالب 12 شاخص از ادبیات مربوط به مفاهیم مکان و دلبستگی به مکان استخراج شده اند. در روند پژوهش، 12 شاخص احساسی- تجربی نامبرده، برای هر سه مقیاس مکانی مورد نظر در شهر شیراز مورد سنجش قرار گرفت. تحقیق در محلات مختلف شهر و با انتخاب تصادفی شهروندان از طریق ارائه پرسشنامه انجام گرفت و نتایج نیز به صورت توصیفی و تحلیلی ارائه گردید. یافته های پژوهش حاکی از آن بود که احساس دلبستگی افراد نسبت به مقیاس شهر در بالاترین سطح و پس از آن خانه و در نهایت محله قرار دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: دلبستگی به مکان، مقیاس مکان، خانه، محله، شهر
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  • Hashem Dadashpoor *, Mojtaba Arasteh Pages 5-16
    In recent decades, in a large number of developing countries, spatial inequalities have been a growing trend, as new forms of regional imbalance are emerging in the context of these countries. In fact, the growth of inequality between cores and peripheral regions has led to the rise of inequality, even nationally. In Iran, especially in the second half of the century, the spatial structure of the country has been heavily influenced by changes in the use of oil resources and its increasing exports. As a result, the capital (Tehran) has been steadily growing at the center of political, economic and social power, and its growth has continued to this day. This has made other peripheral areas increasingly dependent on the capital. It is clear that nodes, corridors, and flows are the basic elements of the spatial structure of a territory. Therefore, the relationship between seaports and hinterlands, due to the intensity of existing interactions, play an important role in shaping the spatial structure of a country. Southern ports in Iran seem to have played a double role in increasing power and concentration in the capital in recent years, but also have added to the severity of spatial inequality in peripheral regions. The basic statistical data and preliminary observations confirm the claim that the most deprived and most undeveloped areas of the country are located in the local hinterlands of the southern ports. This research intends to explore the levels of development and spatial inequality of the national and regional scales in Iran, focusing on the study of ports relations and hinterlands by employing social network analysis and evaluating of related indicators that have been extracted by UCINET and Gephi software. Accordingly, quantitative data (based on commodity flows between nodes) during the period 1996 to 2015 have been collected and analyzed based on the positivism paradigm framework. The findings of this research show that some social network analysis indicators (such as Network Transivity & Density, Weighted & Betweenness centrality, Core-Periphery, Community-levels, and Hubs-Authorities) emphasize that both the two cities of Tehran and Bandar Abbas have been in the first interacting and exchanging commodity flows during these two decades. other peripheral centers are also at the second level with significant differences (including Isfahan, Mashhad, Shiraz, and Ahwaz). However, cities such as Kerman, Zahedan, and Jahrom, while in the past centuries have been considered as strong logistic hubs for the southern ports, have had a good boom in the local hinterlands of ports; in recent years have not had a proper level and position in the network of spatial interactions. In other words, the results of this study indicate that the local southern hinterlands of the country, in spite of the proximity to the main southern ports of the country, and the huge capacity of development in the storage, processing, and distribution of goods, are suffering the growing spatial inequality compared with other national and regional hinterlands. Overall, according to these findings, we can name this spatial structure as a Constellation Centralized Structure.
    Keywords: Spatial Structure, Port, Hinterlands, network analysis, Constellation, Centralized Structure
  • Mohammad Mahdi Taheri, Hamed Mazaherian *, Saied Khaghani Pages 17-26
    Shabistan is the main space of mosques functions as the praying area, which has four variant types, as has been claimed by this article, namely “Tanabi” (lengthwise space), “SotunDar” (columnar), “Gonbadkhane” (domed), and “Morakab” (combined) which is the result of combination of at least two of those three mentioned types. 952 historical mosques of Iran have been examined in order to reveal in what and in how many types these mosques could be placed: a typological approach by which a more sophisticated context for historical mosques would emerge. As analysis shows, 65% of the examined mosques are single-Shabistan mosques, means they are built with only one Shabistan; 22.2% of them are double-Shabistan; 8% of mosques have three Shabistan, 0.8% of them have four, and 0.5% (8 mosques) have more than four Shabistan. So the aggregation of their quantity equals to 1433; in other words there exist 1433 Shabistan overall: 22% of them are Tanabi, 8% GonbadKhane, 7% Morakab, and 63% of them are sotounDar. Hence, the undeniable importance of sotounDars in historical mosques of Iran can be perceived by this statistics. Furthermore, since 35% of mosques have more than one Shabistan, variable kind of their juxtaposition could result in different “types” of mosques. Regarding this premises, among all 952 cases, 14.15% of them have just one or more Tanabi _called Tanabi type in this article. 2.85% of them have one GonbadKhane, 2.96% are Morakab, 3.06% have Tanabi and GonbadKhane, 6.02% have Tanabi and SotounDar, 1.37% are with Tanabi and Morakab Shabistan, 3.7% have SotounDar and GonbadKhane, 5.7% have SotounDar and Morakab Shabistan, 1.6% have Tanabi and SotounDar and GonbadKhane, finally 59.13% of them have only one or more SotounDar Shabistan. Therefore, with a notable difference in amount, SotounDar is the most popular mosque-type in Iran. As any spatial data and any historical event, historical mosques of Iran can also be analyzed with GIS: Using GIS in historiography is based on this fact that since everything in this world happens in a particular place, and since any place on the earth can be presented on a map, so all happened events and happening things can be analyzed with GIS. In historiography, integration of space and time could have a positive impact on the accuracy of historical narrations: Understanding mosques architecture about their location. Therefore, what we did in this research was integrating typological data of mosques with their geographical data. The Morakab and Gonbadkhane type are mostly located in Esfahan and Yazd provinces, and in less quantity, they are situated in Khorasan. Albeit it would be hard to find these two types of Shabistan in southern, southwestern and southeastern provinces of Iran. On the other hand, Tanabi mosque-type is more apparent in eastern provinces like Sistan and Khorasan; and they are plenteous in Yazd. Moreover, the variation and diversity of types, likewise, is excluded to central provinces like Yazd and Isfahan; in other distinction and provinces, mosque-type-presence is limited to one type or in some cases more than one type but with one dominant type.
    Keywords: mosques, typology, shabestan, GIS
  • Massud Wahdattalab *, Somayyeh Ghadimzadeh Pages 27-40
    From the aesthetic impression viewpoint, the significance of domed square in Iranian architecture has been noticeable for architects and designers of different eras. The aim of the present study is to recognize the formal, geometrical and proportional features of the Persian domed squares with regard to the visual quality of elegance. For this purpose, the structure, various types and evolution process of domed squares were initially studied. Then, 18 domed buildings were selected among the mausoleums pertaining to the ninth to early twelfth hijra centuries. The geometric characteristics of the elevations of the building were studied using the modeling method and designing geometric analysis tool based on the regular pentagon. The study was limited to general form and the three main parts of the dome, the drum, and the base. The height from the top (dome vertex) to the ground level was assumed to be equal for all buildings. In the second stage, based on the literature review, as well as the analysis of the geometric features, four main indicators were determined to evaluate the physical characteristics in terms of formal elegance, which included the ratio of height to width, the ratio of the dome height to the total height, the ratio of the dome width to the total width and the vertex angle of the dome arch. After determining the indicators, the elevation of each building was studied using them. The results showed that the designs of domed squares pertaining to the era in question consisted of a common framework such that in the most cases the elongation of the dome in height was greater than two parts of the drum and the base, and the upper part (consisted of the dome and the drum) had more than half the total height of the building. Nevertheless, variations were evident, especially in terms of the form and proportions of the upper part in structures of the two periods, such that the elegance of elongation in height amidst the Timurid and early Safavid periods, and the elegance of harmony during the Safavid period has been more emphasized. However, in terms of height and width divisions and the dome vertex angle, there were no major differences between the Timurid and Safavid periods. It can be stated that during the Timurid period, the use of discontinuous double- shell domes became prevalent and architects of the Safavid period continued the same method and created geometric harmonies to adjust the height and move towards square proportions, which is indicative of the desire to create more harmony and balance during this period. Moreover, based on the information obtained from the height to width ratio, the difference between the minimum and maximum values of each sub-indicator is greater in the Timurid era compared to the Safavid era, which suggests a greater diversity in the design of such buildings during the Timurid period. The common geometric pattern and the indicators presented in this paper can be used for the aesthetic assessment of similar domed squares as two complementary methods.
    Keywords: Iranian- Islamic architecture, domed square, elegance, Form, mausoleum
  • Banafshe Yadegarzade, FARSHAD NOURIAN * Pages 41-52
    Professional planning associations have acted as a critical component in advancing the professional status of urban planning as an independent profession. This is in the face of the fact that planning profession, by way of criticizing the instrumental rationality, has struggled with its own identity as a profession. The expected role of professional associations, which are making a transition away from the traditional frameworks, is making it more difficult for these bodies to face the ever-increasing challenges. Traditionally, these associations have tended to make a distinction, between what is considered as a profession and what is not. Thus, the traditional definition of professionalism and profession - while being criticized from different perspectives- has dominated the evaluation of the profession for a long time. Even today, it cannot be said with certainty that its domination has come to ended. However, theoretical shifts toward new approaches such as critical approach have opened new perspectives and have influenced the perception of full-fledged and credible profession. Critical approach provides new basis for redefining traditional roles and increase the responsiveness of professional associations toward new concerns in the planning field. Along with these transitions, the desired role of professional associations has also changed and has expanded beyond the limited scope of the traditional conceptions of profession. This process moves along with the fundamental changes in the concepts of profession and professionalism. New concepts such as “organizational-managerial” and “Hybrid” professionalism can be considered as the signs of this transition.  The traditional roles and their redefinition based on critical approach have provided us with a theoretical base, enabling us to critically look at the roles and responsibilities of urban planning professional associations in Iran and investigate their position on this transition process. The research approach was qualitative. In this regard, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) has been chosen as a research methodology. This method is sensitive to the context and has a capacity to uncover distortions. Non- probability sampling, consisting of purposive sampling technique was used to collect data using Semi-structured interviews. In this regard, 19 discursive interviews with selected members of professional and managerial bodies of planning associations and non-member planners have been conducted to achieve theoretical saturation. The findings reveal that professional associations in urban planning face with six different roles, which include a wide range of concerns in different aspects. Comparative comparisons showed that the position of extracted roles is somewhere in between traditional and redefined roles with a greater tendency towards traditional roles. This position can be interpreted as the associations’ dual role. On one hand, they are expected to comply with traditional roles to strengthen the foundations of the profession in the profession/non-profession dichotomy. On the other hand, they are expected to move toward new perspectives and redefined concepts of professionalism. This dual role means that for urban planning, the initial concern of substantiating its claims to professional status is still a major preoccupation. Although the necessity of moving toward new perspectives is acknowledged, it appears that it is not easy to step on this path.
    Keywords: planning profession, urban planning associations, critical theory, critical discourse analyze
  • Mahdi Momtahen Pages 53-68
    Some view architectural education as a training process that could not be reduced to a knowledge-based instruction. Such a theme has been searched through a body of academic researches about architectural aducation. This trend could be traced amongst historical types of architectural education as well as recent ones. So in this study it was first stablished a theoretical framework for studying human training within architectural context of eduction. The debate is organized in two spectrums: 1. Pupil-instructore relationship referes to the nature of educational process from view point of centrality of power and desire of the student as well as the same matter to the instructor. It becomes more important when we consider new trends of educational approaches are turning into student-based field that needs different behavioral system from instructors. 2. Individualist-socialist axis is a current debate of architectural discourse of post-modern era that has its strong roots in educational processes of architecture while its changing paradigm has also being approached mainly through architectural education. Ego-centric views of modern visual art have been spread throughout architectural debate so there is an internal barrier towards social architecture for educated architects. These two axial themes have enough supporting literature in educational sciences. Four types of training trends are so mentioned by an exapmlar for every one of them: 1.individualist-master based approach (ex. Tradition of beaux-ars school). 2. Individualist-student based approach (ex. new cognitive Pupil-instructore method of training). 3. Socialist-student based approach (ex. Critical method of architectural education of Thomas Dutton). 4. Socialist-master based approach (ex. Collaborative architectural education of Henry Sannof). The second part of this study dedicated to a qualitative survey of alternative educational approaches proposed within recent decade (2007-2017) in architectural schools of Iran. Here after reviewing of scientific journals of Iran and proceeds of three National Conferences of Architectural Education (the third, fourth and fifth conference of years 2008, 2011 & 2014 respectively), 28 cases were selected for content analysis. The selection was based on existing of a kind of educational process conducted in architectoral studio or there was at least such a proposition (even not realized). Using axial evaluation of contenta, the coding of their content was based on axial model of literature review mentioned above. For pupil-instructore relationship the four polar codes were: 1. Master’s being a model/ apprentices’ making a model; 2.Great architects’ being a model/apprentices’ making a model; 3. Instrutors’ framing process of studio/students’ producing process of studio; 4.Instructors’ tolerating process of studio/Instrutors’ framing process of studio. For individualist-socialist axis four polar codes were: 1.Emphasizing on social values/ Emphasizing on personal values 2.personal-driven creativity/Architectural institution-driven creativity. 3.  Architectural institution-driven creativity/ social-driven creativity; 4. Individual working/Group working. Our analisis shows that there is a great trend towards student-driven processes that is vastly stemmed from normative view of creativity as basic of architecture while social reponcibility has attracted minor attentions. Another obvious aspect of these proposed methods is their attempt for going far from the tradition of Beaux-art that has been the main pattern of architectural education of Iran.
    Keywords: training, Individualist-socialist education, Apprentice based-master based education, architectural education of Iran
  • Mojtaba Rezazadeh Ardebili *, Majid Seyedi Saroi, Sara Taheri Amiri Pages 69-82
    Historic events during of building`s existence, can trace many damages on their skeleton and content. During more than a thousand years, many parts of Ardabil`s Jome mosque has disappeared due to human and natural factors. Demolition of mansion`s dome than built in Eilkhani period, is a physical and visual main damage. Ardabil`s Jome mosque has built on ancient base. First mosque in Islamic primary centers, has constructed into harem than today, some parts of his columns has reconnaissance in archeological excavations. In Saljouqi period (fifth century), dome`s plan and narthex has built on part of first mosque`s harem. Through Mongolian aggression, the dome and vault of Ivan were collapsed and reconstruction of dome was happen in second half of seventh century and methinks that vault of Ivan does not reconstruction within Qajar period that wooden ceiling with 8 column push the space of Ivan. In Eilkhani period west harem has built upon of old harem too, that evidently its use was not the mosque. In ninth century this harem and other parts of mosque used for capitol but the new construct in the mosque was not happen. This event has recurred in Safavi period too and synchronously importance of the complex decreased insofar as change to cemetery. Practically can say that demolition of dome occurred in twelfth century and it never reconstructed. In recently years Jome mosque has repaired. Consolidation and concrete injection in bottom of foundation was happen. Finally, new dome with iron structure and irrelative arc has built and stand up to dome`s plan. Though, achievement to circumstance of form and skeleton from lost parts, generally vindicate by adduce to historic evidences, olden context, ancient predications and pictures, oral traditions and finally Ardabil`s Jome mosque`s comparative study with contemporary and conspecific buildings. Understanding the curved shape of its collapsed dome is critical in order to build a new dome that based on main lines of dome`s curve in the restoration process. Also without accurate knowledge of its architectural attributes, it is almost impossible to appreciate the Jome mosque as one of the oldest and most influential mosques of Iran, and how it has been influenced by prior buildings and has impacted the architecture of subsequent buildings. This study aims to find and redesign the curve of the Ardabil`s Jome mosque`s dome by researching similar plans and sections with a fundamental approach. It utilizes an analytical – comparative methodology with grounded theory manner. Essence of this research is quality and quantity. First, data will be collected from library sources and through undertaking a field study. Then, a comparative study of 20 similar buildings built during 100 years before and after the time Jome mosque was built will be conducted. Finally, based on various characteristics such as type of plan, cornering, decoration, shape of the dome`s ring, type of lighting, and proportions of dome`s plan, the most similar buildings to Jome mosque will be determined and the curve of the their dome will be simulated on Jome mosque to find its dome`s original Eilkhani form.
    Keywords: Ardabil`s Jome mosque, dome`s curve, Eilkhani period, comparative study
  • Mahsa Jabalameli, Farhang Mozafar *, Vahid Ghasemi, Mahmoud Karimi Pages 83-94
    Designing has always been an important challenge for humans to overcome to dominate the environment. Meanwhile in some domains design has found a special position and turned into a professional work. Architecture, which is a combination of engineering and art, is one of these domains. The complexity of design problems and the science behind it is increasing. Therefore, to carry out an effective and efficient design, it is necessary to utilize design techniques. Design techniques are divided into two groups: discipline-dependent techniques and knowledge such as hydraulics, thermodynamics, aesthetics and static and discipline-independent techniques that relate directly to design activities and can be applied to any product or technology such as tools for performing analysis, synthesis and decision- making. This paper focuses on the techniques and methods of creativity and innovation in the latter category. One of the latest and comprehensive techniques in this area is TRIZ theory. TRIZ theory development in the architecture field is growing nowadays. However, the question of how to use TRIZ theory in design process remains unanswered. The aim of this article is to address this gap by exploring a method that can potentially help architecture use TRIZ in the architectural design process. For this purpose, we studied the related texts and analysed the relation between them. Both TRIZ and architectural design process comprise of many different elements. TRIZ includes several elements including pillars, models, and tools. We focused on pillars of TRIZ, which is one of the fundamental parts of it. TRIZ pillars are included Functionality, Ideality, Contradiction, and Resource. Most of the times we fail to solve a problem because of solving a wrong problem until a wrong answer to a correct problem; so knowing the problems and its root is very important. On the other hand, according to the assortment of Lawson four function of architecture are the radical constraint, practical constraint, formal constraint and symbolic constraint. TRIZ Functionality could help the architecture designer in formulating skill and improve their performance in the radical constraint of design by helping them in achieving the foundation of the problem. The method is implemented and tested through a quasi-experimental pre-test – post-test control group design. The design method is the independent variable, and students’ design ability in radical constraint is the dependent variable of our research. The experiment was conducted during the academic year in the Architectural Design Studio 2 in the undergraduate program of architecture in Najafabad University. The dependent variable was measured by students’ design performance. Towards that goal, a panel of judges composed of educators of architecture ranked qualities of students’ design based on the goal of the research. Data analysis was carried out by means of Variance test to see if a statistically significant difference existed between the two groups. The findings show that the design performance of the test group is better than the control group in radical constraint, and the difference is statistically significant. Consequently, using TRIZ Functionality in architectural design could help the designer in formulating skill and have a positive effect on student’s design ability.
    Keywords: Architectural Design Process, TRIZ Theory, TRIZ in Architecture, TRIZ pillars, TRIZ Functionality, Innovation in Architectural Design
  • &Amp, Divide, , * Pages 95-106
    Attachment to place is the fourth level of the sense of place, which is the complex emotional relationship with place. A number of studies have been carried out into the notion of attachment to one or more locations around the world. In these studies, the same issue has been looked upon from different perspectives, thus leading to different results.  The present study aims to assess the relationship between intensity of attachment to place and scale of the place, taking a fresh approach. Accordingly, the factors contributing to the attachment to place have been examined in three "physical", "socio- demographic" and "emotional" dimensions. Physical factors have been divided into three scales of house, neighborhood and city. Social-demographic factors have been generalized to such variables as age, gender, level of education etc. Emotional factors have been extracted from 21 indices in the literature related to the concepts of place and attachment to place. In this research, 12 emotional and experiential cases were evaluated for each of the three place scales of interest for people with different demographic characteristics in Shiraz. In constructing the questionnaire, we made use of the Likert scale. The questionnaire consists of three sections. The first section was about seeking such demographic information as age, gender, level of education, etc. The second section consisted of questions investigating the different emotions of people toward three place scales. This section consists of three parts dealing with 12 indices for evaluation of the emotions of people (as considered in the theoretical framework of the study) of three scales of home, neighborhood and city separately. The third section consisted of the open-ended questions, dealing with the reasons and motivations of people in terms of their attachment to various place scales. The analysis of data has been accomplished using repeated measures and One-way ANOVA in which the mean value of the response by the participants in terms of each of the 12 indices of home, neighborhood and city was calculated. In order to analyze the qualitative data, we made use of content analysis to analyze the data obtained through open-ended questions. The results show that for the Shiraz citizens, the city scale has the highest level of intensity of attachment. They prefer to express the highest level of their emotional feelings to their urban space. The attachment to home is the second highest and the neighborhood is the Third. Factors such as “disappearance of neighborhood boundaries”, “diminishing of the neighborhood social function”, “the lack of specified physical context”, and finally “the movement of habitants to different neighborhoods” are the most important reasons justifying the low sense of attachment to the scale of neighborhood. The result revealed that out of the variables in question, two variables of age and the period of residence have direct effect on the intensity of attachment, which means that the attachment of people to various scales of place for various age groups, and also by increases in the duration of residence appear differently in the their home, neighborhood and city.
    Keywords: place attachment, place scale, home, neighborhood, city