فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:18 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Shahram Yazdani, Maryam Hajiahmadi*, Sareh Shakerian Pages 1-15
    Background
    The concept of interdisciplinarity that we recognize today, was initially formed in 1920 in the United States. During this period, the United States Social Science Research Council expressed its interest in interdisciplinary research. Interdisciplinarity is a multidimensional word with various meanings and interpretations. It is considered as the newest unknown critical, educational, and organizational concept in the modern academic environment. In this study, we defined interdisciplinarity and the characteristics of the underlying concepts to present an analytical definition of the concept of interdisciplinarity.
    Methods
    Walker and Avant’s concept analysis method was used. This method is a systematic approach often used for analyzing relatively new concepts. In order to obtain and extract the applications of interdisciplinarity and its defining characteristics, we searched different databases and used keywords.Five main domains that form the defining structure of interdisciplinarity were emerged. Those domains include nature, integration, method, goal, and levels of interdisciplinarity.
    Results
    We identified five domains major of “ interdisciplinarity: “nature,” “integration”, “method”, “goal”, and “levels” of interdisciplinarity. Based on the defining attributes a definition is formulated for the concept of interdisciplinarity.
    Conclusion
    This study, achieving a simple and elegant concept, resolved the differences between the different perspectives in this field and helped us design the theoretical and practical model.Keywords: DEFINITION, CONCEPT ANALYSIS, INTERDISCIPLINARITY, WALKER AND AVANT’S METHOD
    Keywords: DEFINITION, CONCEPT ANALYSIS, INTERDISCIPLINARITY, WALKER, AVANT’S METHOD
  • Babu Noushad *, Faraz Khurshid, Galal Mohamed Ismail Pages 16-21
    Background
    Retinoscopy is one of the important clinical skills an undergraduate optometry student should learn. It requires time, dedication, practice and support to attain an acceptable level of proficiency. We report the process of implementing Cooperative Learning (CL) for Retinoscopy skill training in an Optometry program, focusing the preparation, implementation and our experiences.
    Methods
    Year-2 Optometry students were divided into heterogeneous groups to facilitate formal cooperative learning. Students worked together as cooperative units, regulated their own learning and contributed to the success of the group under faculty supervision.
    Results
    Participants positively responded to the supportive learning environment. Faculty felt the implementation and weekly skills training sessions were less cumbersome though the initial planning and preparation was more.
    Conclusion
    Students and faculty appreciated the promotive learning environment that CL offered to maximize learning Retinoscopy and develop social and communication skills.Keywords: COOPERATIVE LEARNING, GROUP WORK, OPTOMETRY, UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS
    Keywords: COOPERATIVE LEARNING, GROUP WORK, OPTOMETRY, UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS
  • Shahin Tohidi, Farkhondeh Jamshidi, Hassan Ahmadinia, Maryan Shahdoust, Hossein Karimi Moonaghi* Pages 22-28
    Background
    As science is developing, the ability of students in self-directed learning becomes more and more important. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between self-directed learning and motive of progress and learning strategies in medical students.
    Methods
    This descriptive-correlational study was conducted on 283 undergraduate students in 2016. Sample size was determined based on guideline study and correlation coefficient between study variables. Data were collected by Fischer self-assessment questionnaire, Hermann’s motivation for progression, and self-learning strategies through stratified sampling. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and descriptive and analytical statistics were used.
    Results
    The average participants’ age was 22.85 3.97. 190 participants were males (67.2%). The mean score of self-directed learning, learning strategies, and developmental motivation was 84.24±7.96, 75.77±11.38, and 75.42±10.40, respectively. There was a direct and significantly positive correlation between self-esteem and developmental motivation (r=0.61) and learning strategies (r=0.60) (P<0.001).By fitting a regression model and considering the learning strategies and the motivation for progress as predictor variables and self-explanatory as a criterion variable (R=70%), R2=50%, beta and alpha coefficients indicate the significance of the relationship between the variables studied.
    Conclusion
    Significant motivation to progress and learning strategies are considered as two predictor variables in self-directed learning. In this regard, promotion and management of the components affecting self-directed learning such as motivation for progress and learning strategies are highly significant.Keywords: EDUCATION, LEARNING STRATEGIES, MOTIVATION, SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING
    Keywords: EDUCATION, LEARNING STRATEGIES, MOTIVATION, SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING
  • Saeedeh Mohammadifar, Leila Afshar* Pages 29-37
    Background
    The complexity of the current health system, the expansion of the range, and types of activities of the medical group members have caused the physicians to encounter daily with many ethical issues, and as a result, attention to the medical ethics curriculum in medical scienceuniversities ,in line with the increasing advances in science, has  enhanced.The present study aimed to use the global experience through a comparative study of the medical ethics curriculum in a number of selected universities.
    Methods
    This study compares the medical ethics curriculum in selected medical schools based on the Bereday model. .The top 10 Medical School, based on the Times Higher Education ranking system(THE),were selected , and the results presented in four levels of description, interpretation, juxtaposition , and simultaneous comparison .
    Results
    This study showed that teaching medical ethics have various objectives in different medical schools and .A wide range of topics is taught in addition to using traditional teacher-centered strategies,such as lectures, new and active educational methods, such as discussion in small groups, independent student studies, and role play have been used. For assessing the student’s knowledge, written examswere the most used methods as well as measuring the students moral skills by self assessment tools and objective structured exams. Most of the medical schools adopted a multidisciplinary approach in teaching medical ethics.
    Conclusion
    this comparative study showed that the medical ethics curriculum should adopt a student centered strategy and multidisciplinary approach to strengthen medical student’s ethical reasoning and decision making.Keywords: MEDICAL ETHICS, COMPARATIVE STUDY, CURRICULUM
    Keywords: MEDICAL ETHICS, COMPARATIVE STUDY, CURRICULUM
  • Morkos Iskander* Pages 38-49
    Introduction
    The increase in simulation training across the range of medical education offers a potential route to train non-technical skills and knowledge. More recently, there has been a move towards the use of computer based, including virtual reality, simulation. However, studies evaluating the efficacy of computer based simulation training have used inconsistent methodology, limiting the capacity to construct an overview.The goal of this study is to systematically review the existing literature and carry out a meta-analysis of the existing randomised controlled trials, evaluating the efficacy of computer based simulation on non-technical skills and knowledge, with sub analysis between doctors in training and those in continuing medical education.
    Methods
    A scoping search identified the relevant search terms, followed by a comprehensive database search of literature from 2007 until the present on MEDLINE, PubMed, CINHAL, ERIC, BEI, PsychINFO, Proquest Dissertations & Theses and Educational Abstracts databases with hand searching the table of contents of major medical education journals. The inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials for the meta-analysis and cohort studies for the systematic review, with subjects being postgraduate doctors using a computer based simulation for training and education.
    Results
    This review found evidence to support the utilisation of computer based simulation for nontechnical skills and knowledge and understanding domains.
    Discussion
    Using computer based simulation offers an opportunity to enhance non-technical aspects of practicing doctors in a safe and effective manner. More high quality controlled studies are required to enable the demarcation of training boundaries.Keywords: NON-TECHNICAL SKILLS; SIMULATION-BASED TRAINING; SIMULATION- BASED MEDICAL EDUCATION; TECHNOLOGY ENHANCED LEARNING
    Keywords: NON-TECHNICAL SKILLS, SIMULATION-BASED TRAINING, SIMULATION- BASED MEDICAL EDUCATION, TECHNOLOGY ENHANCED LEARNING
  • Rafael Antonio Vargas* Pages 50-59
    Medical practice, which is defined as the development of doctor-patient relationships, is a technical procedure that is carried out in a social context, which is historically determined and affects society.Elements of this relationship involve doctors, patients, and social contexts interacting in a bidirectional manner. In the last century, the field of health, through doctor-patient relationships, has permeated society and tendencies derived from medical practice such as medicalization, pharmaceuticalization, and technologicalization of health and life, have emerged. These changes have involved the development of society and the advancement of various fields of knowledge that permeate and modify medical practice. All of these changes are designed to improve the quality of healthcare services. Due to such changes in the doctor-patient relationship and in the practice of medical profession, new questions regarding economic, legal, ethical, epistemological, and ontological ordering have been raised and must be analyzed from different points of view to ensure that the objectives of medical practice are not deviated from an aim to support the welfare of individuals and society. These topics are analyzed in this paper and it is suggested to include this discussion in graduate and undergraduate medical education.Keywords: DOCTOR-PATIENT RELATIONSHIPS, MEDICAL PRACTICE, MEDICALIZATION, PHARMACEUTICALIZATION,TECHNOLOGICALIZATION OF HEALTH CARE
    Keywords: DOCTOR-PATIENT RELATIONSHIPS, MEDICAL PRACTICE, MEDICALIZATION, PHARMACEUTICALIZATION, TECHNOLOGICALIZATION OF HEALTH CARE
  • Susana Calle*, Eliana E. Bonfante, Mejia, Roy F. Riascos, Castaneda Pages 60-65
    Background
    As a neuroradiology section it came to our attention that each member of our group was independently saving cases encountered during daily practice in their own personal manner. This wealth of information was essentially being underutilized as it was not readily available among the other members of the team. The need for a teaching file to collectively archive all these cases brought on the idea of developing a teaching file using Microsoft OneNote.
    Methods
    Microsoft OneNote is a note-taking program that provides access using an online portal or free-to-download mobile application. The program allows the user to create unlimited folders and subfolders that can be subclassified at the group’s discretion. In our case we have organized it according to etiology of the condition, i.e. infectious, congenital, etc. We propose the development of a template for the purposes of maintaining uniformity. The template includes space for demographic information, symptoms, four illustrative images, imaging findings, differential diagnoses, pearls and pitfalls, and embedded multimedia.
    Results
    Ultimately, a dynamic, customizable, and continually- expanding teaching file was created to suit the specific needs and objectives of our department. As part of their neuroradiology rotation, medical students and visiting trainees are encouraged to contribute to the file.
    Conclusion
    The potential applications of the Microsoft OneNote program as a teaching file, as well as its design flexibility and the ability to access the file from virtually any mobile device represent a truly innovative take on radiologic teaching files. The format, classification and customization options can adapt to the department’s individual needs.Keywords: TEACHING FILES, RADIOLOGY, MOBILE APPLICATIONS, ARCHIVING
    Keywords: TEACHING FILES, RADIOLOGY, MOBILE APPLICATIONS, ARCHIVING