فهرست مطالب

International Journal of Infection - Volume:6 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:6 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Hamidreza Kouhpayeh * Page 1
    Context
    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne acute viral hemorrhagic fever with variable complications and mortality. Its mortality rate could be as high as 60% - 80% or as low as 0% - 5%. The most common complications are hemorrhage, shock, DIC, and multi-organ failure that might result in death.
    Evidence Acquisition
    This review was conducted based on 18 articles, two text books, and the experience gained by the author on CCHF cases since 1999. The articles were taken from different sources, specially Google Scholar. Three of the articles were published by the author and his colleagues. Different sections of the reviewed articles including results, conclusion, and discussion were used for this overview.
    Results
    The most common complication of CCHF in different studies has been hematologic disorders of which, thrombocytopenia and increased PTT and PT time are the most common disorders seen in up to 100% of CCHF patients. Bleeding in different organs, especially the oral cavity, is the next common complication. The average mortality rate is 10% to 40%, but it might vary from as low as 0-5% in Iran to as high as 60% - 80% in different regions. The usual causes of death are shock, DIC, and multi-organ failure including hepatic, renal, and respiratory failure. Moreover, rare complications such as intracerebral hemorrhage, compartment syndrome, intra-abdominal, pleural and pericardial effusions, acute pancreatitis, myocarditis, and cholecystitis are reported.
    Conclusions
    CCHF has many common and rare complications some of which may lead to death. The most important causes of mortality are hemorrhage, shock, and multi-organ failure, but the mortality rate is very different and is related to the experience of the treatment center in early diagnosis and treatment of the disease and its fatal complications. Moreover, there are other less common or rare complications of CCHF that may be difficult to be diagnosed and managed by inexperienced physicians.
    Keywords: CCHF, Complications, Mortality
  • Mohammad Reza Hedayati Moghaddam *, Farzad Mollahosseini Foomani , Arezoo Gowhari Shabgah Page 2
    Background
    Mashhad is a large pilgrimage city with over 20 million pilgrims and tourists annually. Some pilgrims donate their blood voluntarily during the pilgrimage.
    Objectives
    The present study aimed to compare the prevalence of viral transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) between resident and pilgrim blood donors in Mashhad.
    Methods
    We reviewed the records of all blood donors in Mashhad blood centers in 2011. The demographic data and the prevalence of TTIs, including HBV, HCV, HIV, and HTLV-1, were compared between 42821 donors from Mashhad and 15219 donors from other cities of Iran. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2010 and Epi-Info 6.0 software.
    Results
    The mean age of residents and pilgrims was 34.6 ± 9.9 and 34.2 ± 10 years, respectively. The male to female ratio in the first group was higher than that in the second group (13.1 and 6.6, respectively). One-third of the residents and nearly two-thirds of the pilgrims were first-time blood donors. The most prevalent TTIs among the residents were HTLV-1 (0.39%) and HBV (0.33%); however, the frequencies of these infections were 0.24% and 0.57% among the pilgrims, respectively. The seroprevalence of HCV infection was 0.054% and 0.072% in the first and second groups, respectively. The HIV infection was observed only in one donor from Mashhad.
    Conclusions
    A low prevalence of TTIs, particularly HCV and HIV infections, was found among blood donors from all parts of Iran. A higher prevalence of HTLV-1 infection among Mashhad donor population than among donors from other parts of Iran verified the virus endemicity in this region.
    Keywords: Transfusion-Transmitted Infections, Blood Donors, Iran
  • Mohammad Hasan Jahandar, Mohammadreza Nassiri *, Khadijeh Nasiri , Alireza Haghparast Page 3
    Background
    Salmonella infections are one of the most important causes of human and animal diseases, worldwide. InvG gene is one of the main genes of type III secretion system and leads to initial binding of the bacteria to the host cells. In the recent decades IgY technology has been detected as an efficient alternative procedure to generate antibody for applying in immunotherapy.
    Objectives
    This research attempted to produce and detect IgY against the recombinant InvG protein of Salmonella typhimurium and evaluate specificity of anti-InvG IgY against the recombinant InvG antigen.
    Methods
    Polymerase chain reaction was carried out to amplify InvG gene with InvG one pair of specific primer of Salmonella typhimurium. pTZ57R/T and pET32a vectors were used to clone and sub-clone InvG gene. Recombinant pET32a-InvG plasmid was transferred to E. coli BL21 (DE3). Expression induction was carried out using 1.5 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside. Next, the recombinant InvG protein was injected to laying hens. Western-blotting and Dot-blotting analysis and iELISA were carried out to determine the specify of anti-InvG IgY.
    Results
    This research produced specific InvG egg yolk antibodies by injecting InvG protein to the hens. The anti-InvG IgY corroborated to bind specifically with the InvG protein of Salmonella typhimurium.
    Conclusions
    The finding of the present research confirmed that anti-InvG IgY could be suggested as a candidate for passive immunization and protection against Salmonella typhimurium.
    Keywords: Salmonella typhimurium, InvG gene, Recombinant Protein, Immunization, IgY
  • Nawfal Hussein *, Reving S Salih , Narin A Rasheed Page 4
    Background
    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious concern of the global health sector and more recently, an escalating problem in the community.
    Objectives
    This study was performed to investigate the incidence of MRSA in hospital staff and community students in Duhok, Kurdistan, Iraq, and make a molecular comparison between the strains based on the detection of mecA gene and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) gene.
    Methods
    We obtained 109 and 103 samples from the nares of hospital staff and community students, respectively. Conventional laboratory tests were performed for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and antibiotic sensitivity testing to identify MRSA isolates. Besides, PCR was utilized for molecular analysis.
    Results
    All isolates from hospital staff were identified as S. aureus. Out of the 109 isolates, 55 (50.4%) were MRSA carrying the mecA gene, among which 4/55 (3.7%) were MRSA-PVL positive. Additionally, 54/109 (49.5%) isolates were methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) but four isolates (3.7%) were MSSA-PVL positive. Furthermore, 23/103 (22.3%) samples from community students were identified as S. aureus, among which 5/23 (21.7%) and 17/23 (73.9%) isolates were MSSA-PVL positive and MSSA-PVL negative, respectively. Moreover, 1/23 (4.3%) was found as MRSA and was PVL gene-positive.
    Conclusions
    The results showed that MRSA is swarming in hospitals and community in Duhok, Iraq. The highest rate of PVL was associated with community-acquired-MSSA (CA- MRSA). With further genotypic study, immediate action is needed to control and reduce the spread of MRSA clones, determine their clonal relations, and conduct epidemiological investigations.
    Keywords: Methicillin Resistance, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, mecA, PVL, Duhok, Hospital, Community
  • Nawfal Hussein *, Amer A Balatay , Lokman A Almizori , Hilbeen H Saifullah Page 5
    Background
    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem. Close household-contacts are at high risk of infections, particularly latent TB (LTBI).
    Objectives
    The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of LTBI in household-contacts of active TB patients.
    Methods
    A total of 150 household contacts with active TB patients were recruited. Blood samples were collected and tested for the presence of LTBI by QuantiFERON-TB-Gold-Plus assay.
    Results
    Amongst those recruited in this study, 62/150 (41.3%) were positive. Amongst the positive subjects, 33/62 (53%) were male. Four samples gave indeterminate results including two males and two females.
    Conclusions
    The prevalence of LTBI was high in household-contacts. For successful TB control, close screening of contacts should be considered.
    Keywords: Latent, TB, Tuberculosis, Kurdistan, Iraq, Contact, Household
  • Stephanie Jupsa Mbiandou , Samuel Fosso, Edimo Bille , Armand Beleck Matoh , Hugues Nana Djeunga, Albert Same Ekobo , Flobert Njiokou * Page 6
    Background

     Depression of the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) promotes the onset of opportunistic infections including intestinal parasites.

    Objectives

     In this study, we are comparing the prevalence of these parasitic infections among individuals infected with HIV (HIV+) and non-infected (HIV-) enrolled in four HIV care units in the Centre Region of Cameroon.

    Methods

     A cross-sectional study was conducted and stool samples were collected from 283 HIV positive subjects and 245 seronegative subjects. These samples were processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration, Kato-Katz procedure, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining, and Baermann techniques to identify both common and opportunistic intestinal parasites. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between HIV infection and socio-demographics factors as well as infection with intestinal parasites.

    Results

     A total of 123 (23.4%) individuals were found infected with at least one protozoan parasite species, and nine (1.7%) with intestinal worms. Overall, infection rates were 27.9% and 22.4% among HIV+ and HIV- subjects, respectively. The frequencies of Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar were significantly more important among HIV+ subjects (P < 0.0455). Pentatrichomonas hominis and Entamoeba coli were significantly more prevalent among HIV- subjects (P < 0.0210). Heterogeneity was observed in the distribution of intestinal parasites, according to socio-demographic parameters. In addition, Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly associated with the decrease in CD4 cell count (P = 0.0035). The frequencies of infections with Cryptosporidium spp., Isospora belli, and Iodamoeba buetschlii were significantly more important in HIV positive patients not taking antiretroviral (P < 0.0226).

    Conclusions

     Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, and Blastocystis spp. were the intestinal pathogens more often found among HIV infected individuals. HIV positive subjects were significantly more infected with intestinal parasites than seronegatives in intermediate and rural settings, among individuals aged more than 45 years and among unemployed individuals.

    Keywords: Intestinal Parasites, HIV Infection, Prevalence, Socio-Demographic Parameters