فهرست مطالب

Research in Medical Sciences - Volume:24 Issue: 5, 2019
  • Volume:24 Issue: 5, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Alshaymaa M. Alhabibi, Dalia Mahmoud Eldewi, Maisa A. Abdel Wahab *, Nehal Farouk, Hanan A. El Hagrasy, Ola I. Saleh Page 1
    Background
    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is associated with signifcant morbidity and mortality. Tus, there is a great need to demonstrate a more efcient biomarker that would confrm the diagnosis of DVT. Our work aimed to evaluate the role of platelet-derived growth factor-beta (PDGF-B) as a new marker of DVT and its correlation with other radiological and laboratory tools used for the diagnosis.
    Materials and Methods
    A case–control study enrolled forty patients selected from our university hospital between April 2018 and August 2018, who divided into two groups: Group I (n = 20) consisted of patients diagnosed with acute venous thrombosis and Group II (n = 20) consisted of patients diagnosed with chronic venous thrombosis. Twenty samples were collected from age- and gender-matched apparently healthy controls to be used as a control. Venous duplex ultrasonography, routine laboratory investigations, D-dimer (DD), and protein expression of PDGF-B were performed on all patients.
    Results
    Tere was a highly signifcant increase in a protein expression of PDFG-B in all cases of acute and chronic venous thrombosis compared to the control group with P < 0.001; furthermore, it was more specifc than DD for the detection of DVT (specifcity 95% and 90%, respectively).
    Conclusion
    Our study submits a novel association of PDGF-B plasma levels with DVT, and PDGF-B is considered to be a more specifc indicator for DVT than is DD.
    Keywords: D‑dimer, deep vein thrombosis, platelet‑derived growth factor‑beta, venous duplex ultrasonography
  • Yasaman Sadeghi, Pouya Tabatabaei Irani, Laleh Rafee, Mohamadhasan Tajadini, Alireza Amouheidari, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard * Page 2
    Background
     Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and invasive form of primary malignant brain tumors, with a survival rate of about 1 year. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF- beta 1) plays a very important role in tissue homeostasis and cancers. It seems that polymorphism of T29C (L10P, rs1982073, or rs1800470), which has been studied in various cancers such as breast and colon, creates the significant differences plays an important role in GBM prognosis and treatment. In this study, we evaluated the effect of T29C (rs1982073) polymorphism of TGF-beta1 gene in GBM. 
    Materials and Methods
     This study was conducted on 100 cases of GBM including 47 paraffin-embedded brain tissue samples and 53 blood samples from another 53 GBM patients, who was under therapy, and 150 were controls. The TGF-beta rs1982073 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was identified by the NCBI and genotyping was performed by high-resolution melt (HRM) assay. Melt curves from HRM which suspected to SNP were selected and subjected to direct sequencing. Finally, the collected data were entered into the SPSS software (Version. 20) and mean ± standard deviation or n (%) was used to show the data. 
    Results
     The mean age in GBM group was 51.63 ± 13.27 years. Accordingly, the two groups were matched in terms of age and gender (P > 0.05). The frequency of GG genotype was significantly higher in GBM patients. In contrast, although the frequency of AG genotype was higher in GBM group, it was not statistically significant. Furthermore, the presence of G allele was significantly more frequent than A allele in GBM patients. 
    Conclusion
     Findings of the present study supports that the Pro10Leu, rs1982073, or rs1800470 SNP in TGF- beta 1 is found to be expressed significantly more in GBM patients as it was found in breast cancer.
    Keywords: Glioblastoma, polymorphism, transforming growth factor‑β1
  • Mohsen Ghoryani, Farhad Faridhosseini, Ali Talaei, Reza Faridhosseini, Jalil Tavakkol Afshari, Maliheh Dadgar Moghaddam, Parisa Azim, Zanireh Salimi, Hadi Zare Marzouni, Mojgan Mohammadi * Page 3
    Background
    Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the most important psychiatric disorders in the world. There is evidence suggesting the role of inflammatory mediators such as chemokines in the etiology of BD. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the gene expression of CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL8 in patients with BD and compare them to healthy controls.
    Materials and Methods
    A total of 48 patients with confirmed BD and 48 healthy controls enrolled in this study. All patients were recruited from April to August 2016 at Ibn‑Sina Psychiatric Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. RNA was extracted from the whole blood samples and then cDNA was synthesized. Gene expression of CCL2, CCL3, and CXCL8 was measured using SYBR® Green real‑time polymerase chain reaction. The difference of delta‑CT values between patients and healthy controls was compared with the independent samples t‑tests.
    Results
    CCL2 and CXCL8 genes expressed at higher levels in patients with BD as compared to healthy controls, but not significant. On the contrary, we found lower expression levels for CCL3 gene in our patients compared to healthy controls, but the difference was not statistically significant.
    Conclusion
    Our findings do not show an association between the gene expression of CCL2, CCL3 and CXCL8 and BD. Increasing the sample size and evaluation on the gene expression of other chemokines in depression and mania phases of BD might be helpful to get a better conclusion.
    Keywords: Bipolar disorder, CCL2 chemokine, CCL3 chemokine, chemokines, CXCL8 chemokine
  • Ebrahim Haghighizadeh, Mostafa Shahrezaee *, Seyyed Reza Sharifzadeh, Mitra Momeni Page 4
    Background
    Te high socioeconomic impact of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture is due to their high mortality, morbidity, and disease-related costs. Nowadays, bone mineral density (BMD) is a comparatively expensive way to diagnose and follow up patients with osteoporosis. Transforming growth factor-B3 (TGF-B3) is a protein categorized into cytokines. Some previous in vitro studies showed TGF-B3 effects on osteocytes and bone formation. Terefore, we conducted this study to fnd if there is any signifcant relationship between TGF-B3 and BMD results.
    Materials and Methods
    Tis was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in 2017. We included individuals who had been referred from their physicians to undergo BMD dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Blood samples were taken from 150 participants for measuring TGF-B3 with ELISA method.
    Results
    The mean ± standard deviation of TGF-B3 serum level was 79 ± 30.8 pg/ml (minimum 41 pg/ml and maximum 210 pg/ml). Tere was a statistically signifcant and direct proportional relationship between TGF-B3 and T-score as a marker for the diagnosis and follow-up of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture (P = 0.001) (Pearson’s correlation = +0.95).
    Conclusion
    Tere was a signifcant relationship between TGF-B3 serum level and BMD. TGF-B3 serum level may be used as a marker for the diagnosis and follow-up of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture.
    Keywords: Osteoporosis, osteoporotic fractures, transforming growth factor‑β3
  • Fatemeh Bitarafan, Masoud Garshasbi * Page 5
    Background
    Dysfunction of polycystin-1 or polycystin-2, the proteins encoded by polycystic kidney disease 1 (PKD1) and PKD2, respectively, are the cause of autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD). Tis genetically heterogeneous monogenic disorder is the most common inherited kidney disease. Te disease manifests are progressive cyst growth, renal enlargement, and renal failure, due to abnormal proliferation of kidney tubular epithelium.
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, mutation analysis of PKD1 and PKD2 genes in nine Iranian families was performed using next-generation sequencing. All patients met the diagnostic criteria of ADPKD.
    Results
    Mutations were found in all 9 families in PKD1 gene, comprising 2 novel and 7 previously reported mutations. No mutation in PKD2 was identifed.
    Conclusion
    Finding more mutations and expanding the spectrum of PKD1 and PKD2 mutations can increase the diagnostic value of molecular testing in the screening of ADPKD patients.
    Keywords: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, next‑generation sequencing, polycystic kidney disease 1, polycystickidney disease 2
  • Hala Abdalazeem Aljack *, Mohammed Karrar Abdalla, Omer Fadl Idris, Amar Mohamed Ismail Page 6
    Background
    Vitamin D (VD) deficiency is associated with insulin function and secretion. It is linked with diabetes mellitus (DM) progression, and complications were also recorded. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate serum VD level in Type 2 DM (T2DM) patients and its association with diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases (CVD).
    Materials and Methods
    In this cross‑sectional study, 205 patients with Type 2 diabetes age ranged from 39 to 75 years old were enrolled. Serum VD, high‑sensitivity C‑reactive protein (hs‑CRP), and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were measured. In addition, urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) was estimated.
    Results
    Patients with Type 2 diabetes had a 78.5% VD level ˂30 ng/m. ACR and hs‑CRP levels were significantly increased in patients with diabetes with VD ˂30 ng/m (P = 0.011 and P = 0.008, respectively). Female had significantly lower VD level than male P < 0.001. Patients exposed to sunlight had significantly higher VD level and lower hs‑CRP levels compared with less‑exposed, P value (0.001 and <0.001), respectively. Exercise significantly increased VD and decreased ACR levels in DM patients, P value (0.046 and 0.002), respectively. VD was positively associated with age (r = 0.355 P = 0.040) and negatively correlate with BMI (r = −0.502 P = 0.009), duration of disease (r = −0.498 P = 0.003), ACR (r = −0.384 P = 0.015), and HbA1c (r = −0.327 P = 0.032).
    Conclusion
    The evidence from this study suggest that patients with Type 2 diabetes with VD deficiency are at higher risk for developing CVD and nephropathy.
    Keywords: Albumin:creatinine ratio, cardiovascular diseases, high‑sensitivity C‑reactive protein, nephropathy, Sudan, type 2diabetes mellitus, Vitamin D
  • Hasan Jalaeikhoo, Mohammad Zokaasadi, Ahmad Khajeh Mehrizi, Mohsen Rajaeinejad, Seied Asadollah Mousavi, Mohammad Vaezi, Hosein Kmranzadeh Fumani, Manoutchehr Keyhani, Kamran Alimoghaddam * Page 7
    Background
    Adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) for patients with Stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) is an area of controversy in oncology. International guidelines recommend the use of ACT in patients with specific high‑risk features. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of ACT in improving survival in patients with and without high‑risk features.
    Materials and Methods
    A total of 225 patients with Stage II CRC who underwent primary tumor resection were included in this study. Patients with one or more high‑risk features including T4 tumor, poor differentiation, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, bowel obstruction, local perforation, positive resection margins, or suboptimal lymph node sampling (fewer than 12 nodes) were classified as high risk. The survival analysis was performed between patients who only received curative surgery and those received single‑agent (5‑fluorouracil [5‑FU] and leucovorin [LV] or capecitabine) or multiagent ACT (oxaliplatin and 5‑FU + LV or oxaliplatin and capecitabine).
    Results
    The 5‑year overall survival (OS) rate was 88.4%, and the 5‑year disease‑free survival (DFS) rate was 80.4%. The 5‑year OS and DFS rates improved insignificantly with ACT (89.8% vs. 81.2%, P = 0.59 and 81.3% vs. 74.6%, P = 0.41, respectively); however, multiagent ACT results to inferior 5‑year OS and DFS compared to single‑agent ACT (82.1 vs. 92.8%, P = 0.14 and 70.1% vs. 86%, P = 0.07, respectively). ACT was associated with insignificant improved OS and DFS in both high‑risk and low‑risk groups, but high‑risk patients who received multiagent ACT had a significant inferior OS and DFS in comparison with those received single‑agent ACT. T4 tumor and obstruction were independent poor prognostic factors affecting OS and DFS.
    Conclusion
    In our population, the improvement of OS and DFS with ACT was not statistically significant in high‑risk and low‑risk patients with Stage II CRC.
    Keywords: Adjuvant chemotherapy, colorectal neoplasms, survival
  • Meisam Amidfar, Zahra Karami, Gholam Reza Kheirabadi *, Hamid Afshar, Abolghasem Esmaeili Page 8
    Background
    Involvement of the immune system is one of the issues raised in the pathophysiology of depression. BCL2 and BAX genes are related to immune system regulation. We investigated the BCL2 and BAX expression as a probable mechanism of immune system involvement in depression.
    Materials and Methods
    This case–control study was conducted on 28 patients with major depression (case) and 28 nondepressed individuals (control) within the age range of 18–55 years in the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Clinical interviews, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, were conducted to detect depression, and Beck’s Depression Inventory was used to measure the severity of depression in the individuals. In addition, a real‑time polymerase chain reaction was employed to compare the level of Bax and Bcl‑2 gene expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The multivariate covariance analysis was used to explore the correlation between BCL2 and BAX gene expression and to control the effect of duration and severity of depression.
    Results
    The results showed that none of the variables including group membership, the duration of depression, and the severity of depression were not significantly correlated with the expression of BCL2 and BAX genes. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant relationship between the Bax and Bcl‑2 genes expression in case and control groups (P > 0.05).
    Conclusion
    Depression may have no impact on Bax and Bcl‑2 gene expression in patients with major depression. Studies with larger sample size are recommended.
    Keywords: Bax gene, Bcl‑2 gene, depression, gene expression
  • Farzaneh Rashidi Fakari, Nourossadat Kariman, Marzieh Saei Ghare Naz, Vida Ghasemi, Fahimeh Rashidi Fakari, Abbas Ebadi * Page 9
    Background
    The Pelvic Girdle Questionnaire (PGQ) is a tool designed to evaluate pain and disability in pregnant women with pelvic girdle pain (PGP). This study was conducted with the aim of translating and determining the psychometric properties of PGQ in pregnant women in Iran.
    Materials and Methods
    The present methodological cross‑sectional study was conducted on 150 pregnant women living in Tehran in 2017. The original English version of PGQ was translated into Persian version after the permission of the tool designer using the back‑translation method. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) methods were used to determine the construct validity, as well as Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to determine the reliability of the questionnaire.
    Results
    The results of factor analysis showed that the study of this scale consists of two extracted subscales as activities and symptoms. EFA and CFA confirmed two factors that determined 70.22% variance. Furthermore, findings showed that high internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha = 0.961, for the total score of instrument and for the factors, ranged from 0.87 to 0.91. Cronbach’s alpha symptoms and activities and total were 0.91, 0.87, and 0.87, respectively. ICC of symptoms and activities and total was 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88–0.93), 0.81 (95% CI: 0.66–0.92), and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.68–0.93), respectively.
    Conclusion
    The Persian version of PGP, as a valid and reliable tool, has the potential for studying and evaluating the activity and symptoms of PGP in pregnant women in Iran.
    Keywords: Pelvic girdle pain, psychometric, questionnaire
  • Mahboube Ganji Arjenaki, Mahmoud Rafeian Kopaei * Page 10
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been considered as a group of heterogeneous intestinal diseases that affects multiple organs outside of the gastrointestinal tract and is due to an uncontrolled inflammatory response mediated by the immune system. The IBD etiology has not been clearly defined, and it is considered as a multifactorial disease. Due to side effects of some conventional therapies, the consumption of complementary and alternative medicines, and in particular, the herbal therapy, more than before is increasing. Herbal therapy results for management of IBD by various mechanisms including leukotriene B4 inhibition, antioxidant activity, immune system regulation of nuclear factor‑kappa B, as well as antiplatelet activity are favorable, and no unfortunate events have been yet reported. In this article, we aimed to review and report the herbal therapies established for management of human IBD or evaluated by animal IBD models. Their possible mechanisms of actions are also discussed.
    Keywords: Herbal medicine, inflammatory bowel disease, medicinal plants, phytotherapy