- Volume:5 Issue:1, 2019
- تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/11
- تعداد عناوین: 10
A Need to Address Different Dimensions of Aging Challenges of Iranian Elderly for Publishing in Elderly Health JournalPages 1-2According to a report by world health organization (WHO) in 2018, the population of the elderly over 60 years will double from 2015 to 2050, and will increase between12% to 22%. Also, in 2050, 80 % of the elderly will be from low and middle-income countries. Though population changes toward aging has begun from developed countries such as Japan, but in the middle of the 20th century, the elderly population of Iran has reached a notable level. WHO considered hearing loss, cataract and refractive errors, back and neck pain and osteoarthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, depression and dementia as common public health problems of elderly population .It also noted environmental, social and physical conditions of individuals including homes, neighborhoods, and communities as factors of healthy aging due to their significant influence on the development and maintenance of health behaviorsKeywords: Aging, challenges, Elderly Health journal
Pages 3-4Home health care is a wide range of health care services that can be given in your home for an illness or injury (1). During last decade, home health care is taken into consideration seriously. The concept of home health care began in the 1850's when traveling health care professionals provided in-home visits to patients in need of health care and unable to seek such care on their own (2). Now, these cares are used primarily to provide long-term care (3). In the inadequate access to these services in the home, the care of seriously and chronically ill elderly and terminal patients is frequently relegated to hospital and long-term care facilities, or to traditional home nursing services supplemented by episodic emergency room visits and crisis hospitalizations (4). This can be costly for governments, insurance companies and families as well as elder people prefer take care at home.
Elderly health in Iran is of newly established issues (5, 6). Elder people have several needs such as insurance, psycho-social support, and health services which means that home health care services are an inevitable necessity. For example about wound care for pressure sores or a surgical wound, patient and caregiver education, intravenous or nutrition therapy, injections, and monitoring serious illness and unstable health status (1).Keywords: elderly, Iran, health system
Pages 5-11IntroductionThis study was designed to determine the epidemiological profile of hip fractures among Greek population with special importance to the cause of fracture, their characteristics, the treatment instituted and to assess the incidence.MethodsThe current study conducted in a single hospital in the northern part of Greece, in the regional unit of Grevena, during the 2016 calendar year. Patients themselves, or a relative member or a caregiver, were interviewed by a questionnaire regarding to the past medical history, time and place of the fracture occurrences.ResultsThe 73 patients included in the study presented a mean age of 83.5 years, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:2.17. Falling from the same level was the cause of 97.6% of the fractures. Transtrochanteric fractures accounted for 52.1% of the fractures, femoral neck fractures, 38.4% and subtrochanteric fractures, 9.6%. More fractures are seen during the summer months (32.9%), inside the house (61.6%) and during the morning (49.3%). The overall annual incidence rate was 672.2 per 100,000 inhabitants (442.6 and 882.9 per 100,000 male and female, respectively). Length of waiting time to surgery was 1.87 days and length of hospital stay was 8.46 days, without statistical significance according to the type of surgery, the age group and the associated comorbidities. Hypertension (87.7%) was the most common comorbidity, followed by heart disease (50.7%) and depression (31.5%).ConclusionThe patients attended at this hospital presented an epidemiological profile similar to the worldwide literature. Hip fracture rates in the region of Grevena are higher than other regions in Greece, such as Athens and Crete.Keywords: Hip fractures, Epidemiology, Incidence, Seasonal variations, Greece
Association between Rehabilitation Needs and Quality of Life of the Elderly Patients with Visual ImpairmentPages 12-18IntroductionGiven to the high prevalence of impaired vision in aging population and importance of their quality of life, this study was aimed to evaluate the association between quality of life and vision rehabilitation needs in elderly patients with low vision referring to Bu Ali Sina Hospital, Qazvin, Iran.
MethodsA total of 94 elderly patients with visual acuity less than 6/18 participated in this cross-sectional study. Visual functioning questionnaire -25 and vision rehabilitation needs questionnaire were used to assess the quality of life and rehabilitation needs, respectively. Data were analyzed using Pearson and Spearman correlations, Independent t, and ANOVA tests.
ResultsThe prevalence of rehabilitation needs ranged from 29.8% (telling time with a watch or clock) to 76.4% (reading). The results also showed significant associations between the quality of life, age, marital status, and total rehabilitation needs (p < 0.05).
ConclusionThese results highlight that addressing the rehabilitation needs of elderly patients with a visual impairment may be an effective means to improve their quality of life.Keywords: Quality of Life, Rehabilitation, Aging, Visual Acuity
Pages 19-31IntroductionOsteoarthritis (OA) is estimated to be the eleventh leading cause of disability worldwide. In Asian countries, OA is much less well-known than in the caucasian population and strongly associated with aging. Therefore, this article focuses comprehensively on the prevalence, risk factors and primary prevention for OA identified in Asian countries.
MethodsThis scoping review used the methodological framework by Arksey and O'Malley (2005). Pertaining to this topic, a comprehensive search on academic journals published from 2008 to 2018 (English) was conducted.
ResultsA total of 30 studies were selected in this review from 221,510 studies screened from electronic databases. The overall prevalence of OA is in a range of 20.5% to 68.0%. Most of the Asian populations reported to have knee OA in a range of 13.1% to 71.1% in various Asian countries. Risk factors that have been associated with OA are advanced age, being the female and obesity. Osteoporosis, higher body mass density, low level of education, family history of OA, smoking and environmental factors appeared as significant risk factors for OA. A strategic method of primary prevention for OA through lifestyle modification is reducing obesity and treating concomitant cardiovascular disease.
ConclusionDetermining OA prevalence and risk factors will provide important information for planning future cost-effective preventive strategies.Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Primary Prevention
Effect of Melatonin on Incidence Rate of Delirium in Elderly Patients Undergoing Open-Heart Surgery without a Pump: A Clinical TrialPages 32-39IntroductionDelirium has been considered as the most common cognitive disorder after major surgery. Melatonin therapy is effective in reducing the incidence of delirium after open heart surgery with pain relief mechanism and adjustment of the sleep cycle and the absence of specific side effects. This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of melatonin on prevention of delirium after coronary artery bypass surgery.
MethodsThe double blind randomized controlled clinical trial recruited 140 patients, equally decided, who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery in Afshar Hospital, Yazd city, 2016. All participants of the two groups were evaluated for the presence of delirium on the day of surgery and three days after by the Confusion Assessment Method for ICU (CUM-ICU). Respectively, The intervention and control group received 3 mg melatonin and 3 mg placebo orally before and after the operation. Data were analyzed by Chi-square, T-test, paired t-test and Cochran tests.
ResultsThe incidence of delirium in the melatonin and the control group was 35.7% and 5.7% on the day of operation, 68.6% and 31.4% three days after the operation, respectively. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the frequency of cognitive test of CAM-ICU on day of surgery and three days after surgery between the two groups (p <0.001).
ConclusionDespite the efficacy of melatonin therapy in reducing delirium, further studies on the effects of other effective drugs on the treatment of delirium, such as antipsychotics and receptor blockers, should be considered.Keywords: Melatonin, Delirium, Surgery, Older Adults, Clinical Trial
Pages 40-46IntroductionAdulthood is associated with many challenges which requires adaptability. Differences between adults and the older adults are important to adapt with these challenges and facilitators of adaptation. The present study aimed to determine the difference between the meaning of life and psychological well-being through different age groups of adults, older adults and oldest olds.
MethodsThe present study is a causal-comparative study. Samples were 60 adults, 60 older adult and 60 oldest old men and women selected in Tehran through cluster sampling method and responded to Meaning of Life Questionnaire and Well-being Psychological Scale. The data were analyzed by multivariate variance analysis.
ResultsIn psychological well-being, the mean scores of the adults group were higher than the other two group and the higher age means resulted in decreasing in psychological well-being. No significant difference was observed in the component of purpose in life and variable of meaning of life among the male age groups. The mean scores of the adult women groups were higher than the two other groups based on psychological well-being and meaning of life. Among the women, higher age led to a decrease in the average psychological well-being. Based on the findings, higher age leads to a decrease in psychological well-being and the meaning of life.
ConclusionThe findings indicated that psychological well-being varies among male and female age-groups. Therefore, further studies are needed to identify the resources which can help to adjust to going to ages and should be considered in mental health services to prevent the decline of psychological well-being and meaning of life. In addition, the promotion of psychological well-being and the meaning of life should be considered in parallel with the life time.Keywords: Meaning of Life, Psychological Well-Being, Adult, Aged, oldest old
Pages 47-52IntroductionGiven the importance of pain assessment in the older adults, instrumentation for pain measurement is inevitable. The aim of this study is to compare psychometric properties of three commonly used pain intensity scales; (Numeric Rating Scale , Verbal Descriptor Scale (VDS) and, Faces Pain Scale Revised (FPS-R)) in Isfahanian older adults, to identify the most validated and reliable scale.
MethodsThis was a methodological study on 60 cognitively intact older people in Isfahan in 2017, selected through convenience sampling. First, the worst pain of life and then pain intensity in general, at rest and immediately after the movement of upper and lower limbs was measured using all three scales. The data was analyzed by SPSS 20 using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance (W) and Chi-square tests.
ResultsBased on the results, there was no significant differences between FPS-R and VDS in terms of preference (p = 0.506) and simplicity (p = 0.647). Finding showed significance and convergent validity, and reliability of all three tests (p < 0.05).
ConclusionAll three pain assessment tools adequately demonstrated reliable validity to measure pain in isfahanian older adults. Accordingly, hence probable limited generalizability of the results, nurses and other health care team could be recommended to use the pain assessment tools specially VDS for pain assessment in old people.Keywords: Cognitive, Aging, Pain Measurement, Psychometrics
Reliability of Identification of Seniors at Risk Screening Tool in Predicting Functional and Mental Decline in Discharged Elderly PatientsPages 53-57IntroductionEmergency wards today are facing with an increasing numbers of older patients. Therefore, it seems important and essential to develop a short screening tool with an acceptable predictive power to identify the seniors being discharged from hospital and mean while are at risk of a decline in physical and mental performance, and thus, facing re-admission emergency wards in hospitals.
MethodsThis prospective study was performed on 190 randomly selected elderly people being discharged from emergency centers in Sabzevar city. Data were collected using Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR), GHQ-12 and Barthel questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods including Pearson correlation coefficient and area under the ROC curve were used for data analysis.
ResultsWithin the six months period of follow up, the accuracy of ISAR tool for predicting functional and mental performance decline was at a moderate level (AUC = 0.74 , AUC = 0.77 ) but at desirable level for both physical and mental performances, as a whole condition (AUC = 0.84).ConclusionISAR has moderate accuracy to predict the risk of physical or mental decline in elderly people six months after discharge from hospital emergency wards.Keywords: Aged, Emergencies, Seniors at Risk
The Effect of Lower Limb Resistance Exercise with Elastic Band on Balance, Walking Speed, and Muscle Strength in Elderly WomenPages 58-64IntroductionThe aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an 8-week resistance exercise program on balance, walking speed, and muscle strength in elderly women.
MethodsThis randomized controlled trial was performed on 50 elderly women aged 60-66 years who were assigned to two groups of experimental and control. The Time Up and Go test, was used to measure dynamic balance, Romberg's test was used to measure static balance, and the 10 Meter Walk Test was used to measure walking speed, and the 30 Second Chair Stand test was used to measure muscle strength. Paired t-test and independent t-test was used for comparing balance time before and after the exercise program.
ResultsThe mean duration of static balance increased in the experimental group from 21.64 ± 10.98 before exercise to 28.20 ± 13.47 after exercise (p < 0.001). The mean duration of Up and Go Time decreased from 12.88 ± 1.45 seconds before exercise to 10.80 ± 1.80 seconds after exercise (p < 0.001). Ten-meter walking time in the experimental group decreased from 1.15 ± 0.1 seconds before exercise to 1.00 ± 0.11 seconds after exercise (p < 0.001) and muscle strength in the experimental group increased from 7.8 ± 1 before exercise to 9.56 ± 1.71 after exercise (p < 0.001).
ConclusionLower limb resistance exercises with elastic band improve static and dynamic balance and also walking speed, which possibly improve muscle strength. It is recommended that these exercises be considered in developing the elderly women's health care programs due to their accessibility, affordability, and reliability.Keywords: Aged, Resistance, Exercises, Balance