فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:15 Issue: 2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/19
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Fatemeh Farahmand, Parvaneh Khorasani*, Mohsen Shahriari Pages 44-52
    BACKGROUND
    The aim of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a self-care education (SCE) discharge program with telephone follow-ups in managing hypertension (HTN) in older patients.
    METHODS
    The study was conducted on 56 older patients with HTN who had recently been discharged from the cardiac wards of hospitals in Isfahan, Iran, in 2017. Participants were randomly allocated to the intervention and control groups. The intervention was a 60-minute SCE discharge program with 4 re-educative telephone follow-ups every 2 weeks based on 4 chapters of the designed SCE program and booklet. After coding the data and entering them into SPSS software, data were analyzed for the comparison of mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) as well as frequency of managed HTN in the intervention and control groups at baseline (before discharge), and 2 and 3 months after discharge.
    RESULTS
    Statistical tests showed no significant difference in any of the demographic and confounding variables as well as baseline BPs (P > 0.050), but at post-intervention follow-ups, after Mauchly's sphericity test, repeated measurements ANOVA showed that the effect of time (P < 0.001) and group (P = 0.043) on SBP was significant. The effect of time (P = 0.036) and group (P = 0.047) on DBP was also significant. McNemar’s test showed that the frequency of managed HTN (normal BP), 3 months after discharge, was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control group [87.5% (n = 21) vs. 23.1% (n = 6), respectively] (P < 0.001).
    CONCLUSION
    SCE discharge program with telephone re-educative follow-ups was effective in reducing mean BP. The use of this program as a discharged plan for older adults with HTN and comparison of readmission rates for a longer period are recommended.
    Keywords: Elderly, Discharge Planning, Hypertension, Patient Education, Self-Care, Telenursing
  • Golnaz Vaseghi, Sina Arabi, Shaghayegh Haghjooy, Javanmard, Mohammadreza Sabri, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Alireza Khosravi, Sonia Zarfeshani, Nizal Sarrafzadegan* Pages 53-58
     
    BACKGROUND
    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is one of the most common genetic disorders, which leads to premature coronary artery disease (CAD). It has been suggested that heterozygous FH affects around 1:250 to 1:500 in the general population or even more than this, and homozygous FH affects 1:1000000 of the population. If patients with FH are not diagnosed and treated early in life, many of them will develop premature CAD event. As most of the patients with FH are undiagnosed, it is recommended that the general population be screened for high risks of the events since early treatments can reduce the risk of premature CADs. The clinical diagnostic criteria for FH consist of increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), clinical features and family history of CAD. However, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based detection of FH mutation has high diagnostic values. As there was no screening for FH in Iran up until now, we have started screening and registering patients with FH using the CASCADE method.
    METHODS
    We detected FH subjects in the general population by screening laboratories according to their high LDL-C levels (more than 190 mg/dl or 150 mg/dl if receiving treatments), while our second approach was hospital-based in which one screens hospitalized patients with premature CAD events.
    RESULTS
    We intended to screen families of indexed patients to provide standard care and therapy in order to optimize their LDL-C.
    CONCLUSION
    This article provides detailed information on the rationale and design of this screening and registry in Iran.
    Keywords: Screening, Registries, Familial Hypercholesterolemia, Iran
  • Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad, Amin Salehi, Abargouei, Masoud Mirzaei, Tahereh Rahimdel* Pages 59-66
    BACKGROUND
    The average salt intake in Iran is 12 g per day and it is reported to be about 10 g per day in Yazd City, Iran. This study was conducted to explain the behavioral beliefs toward salt intake reduction in people at risk of hypertension (HTN) based on Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) guideline.
    METHODS
    This study was a TPB-based exploratory research. The participants were 25 married individuals at risk of developing HTN, with a mean age of 42.9 ± 7.2 years. They were selected by purposive maximum variation sampling continued until data saturation. The data collection method was a semi-structured interview. Study lasted from January 2017 to April 2017.
    RESULTS
    Concerning the advantages and disadvantages of reducing daily salt intake, data analysis yielded 52 primary codes, 19 subcategories, and 5 categories. Advantages in two categories included disease prevention and misconceptions about the benefits, and disadvantages in three categories included physical health disorder, difficulty following a low-salt diet, and false beliefs about the disadvantages of salt intake reduction.
    CONCLUSION
    According to the findings of this study, prevention of high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) was among the most important advantages of reducing salt intake, and undesirable taste of low-salt foods and family members' disagreement were among the most important disadvantages of reducing salt intake. The misconceptions of our participants included blood lipids reduction and creation of difficulty contracting the muscles. It is recommended to correct misconceptions and strengthen behavioral beliefs to promote salt intake reduction behavior in educational interventions.
    Keywords: Sodium Chloride, Psychological Theory, Behavior, Hypertension
  • Abdullatef Ghazal, Hasan Shemirani, Afshin Amirpour, Mohammad Kermani, Alghoraishi* Pages 67-73
     
    BACKGROUND
    Previous studies have proved that intracoronary injection of eptifibatide is safe and more effective in infarct size reduction and clinical outcomes than intravenously injection in the patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study aimed to compare the effect of localized and intracoronary injection of eptifibatide on myocardial perfusion improvement and its outcomes.
    METHODS
    We conducted a randomized clinical trial study of 60 patients presented with thrombotic AMI. The patients underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and were randomly divided into two equal number groups. The first group received two bolus doses of 180 μg/kg eptifibatide through guiding catheter. The second group received the same bolus doses through export aspiration catheter into the coronary lesion directly. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow, myocardial blush grade (MBG), and no-reflow phenomenon were primary end points. Secondary end points were pre- and postprocedure cardiac arrhythmia, in-hospital mortality, adverse effects, reinfection, pre-discharge ventricular systolic function, and re-hospitalization and mortality after 6 month of follow up.
    RESULTS
    The mean ages of group I and group II were 58.3 ± 1.8 and 57.0 ±2.0 years, respectively, and most of patient were men (90% in group I and 80% in group II). Postprocedural TIMI flow grade 3 was achieved in 60.0% and 76.7% of the intracoronary and intralesional groups, respectively (P = 0.307). Postprocedural MBG grade 3 was achieved in 53.3% and 70.0% in intracoronary and intralesional groups, respectively (P = 0.479). There was no significant difference between the groups in no-reflow assessment. Moreover, no significant difference was seen between the two groups in secondary end-point analysis.
    CONCLUSION
    Both methods of intracoronary and intralesional eptifibatide administration during primary PCI in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were safe and similar in myocardial perfusion outcomes.
    Keywords: Myocardial Perfusion Imaging, Eptifibatide, Myocardial Infarction
  • Reza Bagherian, Sararoudi, Mohammadreza Maracy, Hamid Sanei, Mansoor Shiri* Pages 74-81
    BACKGROUND
    In physical diseases including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), illness perception (IP) plays an important role in illness outcomes. Fatigue is a major bothersome symptom after myocardial infarction (MI). This manuscript presents the research design, methodology, and primary findings of a study on factors in relation with fatigue and IP in patients with MI, and changes in fatigue after intervention on IP.
    METHODS
    241 patients with MI who experienced a first-time acute MI (AMI) participated in this study in 2016-2017. During hospitalization, the demographic and clinical information of participants were collected. After four months, the information regarding fatigue, IP, coping with stress, type D personality, perceived social support (PSS), and locus of control of the participants was collected at their houses. About one year later, based on the results of phase one of the study, a psychoeducation course was conducted for 35 of the patients as intervention group while 36 patients were supervised as control group. Two months later, the role of IP in fatigue changes of the participants was assessed.
    RESULTS
    155 (65%) of the patients had positive family history of coronary heart disease (CHD). 103 (43%) were cigarette smokers, 100 (43.5%) had high blood cholesterol, and 72 (30%) had sedentary life style before MI.
    CONCLUSION
    The overview of the factors related to fatigue and IP of the patients with MI could help the care teams to provide better care in the recovery period of the illness.
    Keywords: Myocardial Infarction, Perception, Fatigue, Education, Structural Equation Modeling
  • Mehdi Jafari Oori, Farahnaz Mohammadi*, Kian Norouzi, Tabrizi, Masoud Fallahi, Khoshknab, Abbas Ebadi Pages 82-92
    BACKGROUND
    Medication adherence (MA) has a crucial role in controlling of hypertension (HTN). A difference was observed in the prevalence of anti-hypertensive MA reported in different studies in Iran, so we aimed to determine the overall prevalence of MA.
    METHODS
    Using the English and Persian keywords extracted from Mesh, the databases of MagIran, Barakat Knowledge Network System, Scientific Information Database (SID), Web of Sciences, PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were reviewed from 2000 to 2018. The overall prevalence of MA was estimated using Random effect mode. The I2 and Egger’s tests were used to assess heterogeneity and publication bias, respectively. Meta-regression and subgroup analysis were conducted based on variables such as age, marital status, regions, and tools.
    RESULTS
    The overall prevalence of MA was 33%. Moreover, the prevalence of MA based on ‎the 8-Item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale‎ (MMAS-8), Hill-Bone Medication Adherence (HBMA) scale, researcher-made tools, and self-care tools, were 13%, 34%, 48%, and 47%, respectively. A higher MA prevalence (38%) was observed among older adults compared to other age groups, and married patients (32%) compared to single (23%) individuals. The highest MA prevalence (50%) was related to region 5 of the country. Meta-regression results showed a significant relationship between the used tools and MA prevalence.
    CONCLUSION
    The overall prevalence of MA is low in Iran. Furthermore, MA was measured using different questionnaires, such as standard international scales and researcher-made tools. It is proposed that a standard international questionnaire should be used in future studies.
    Keywords: Medication Adherence, Prevalence, Hypertension, Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, Iran
  • Mehdi Ghaderian*, Mohammad Reza Sabri, Alireza Ahmadi, Sargol Bayat Pages 93-98
     
    BACKGROUND
    One of the congenital heart defects which can cause severe cardiac symptoms and cardiac failure in early childhood and neonatal duration is coarctation of aorta. Balloon angioplasty or surgical approach could be done for management of these defects. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of coarctation stenting to improve the condition of these patients.
    METHODS
    Five patients with severe coarctation of aorta participated in this study. Balloon angioplasty performed for these patients initially. Each of five patients had a gradient decline after the initial balloon angioplasty, and againing gradients increased during the follow-up; then, they were treated by implanting a stent. We used Cook Formula stents for these patients.
    RESULTS
    The pressure gradient decreased in all 5 patients with maximum and minimum reduction of 55 and 35 mmHg; and we had not severe complication during or after the procedure and during the follow-up period.
    CONCLUSION
    Performing a stent in selected small children and infants that have sever and symptomatic coarctation of aorta can be effective and safe in improving patients' clinical state, and preventing surgery.
    Keywords: Coarctation of Aorta, Stents, Infants