فهرست مطالب

Shiraz Emedical Journal - Volume:20 Issue: 8, 2019
  • Volume:20 Issue: 8, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Maryam Ardebili *, Amir Nazemi, Mohammad Jalal Abbasi Shavazi, Ali Asghar Pourezzat Page 1
    Background
    The choice of methods for shaping the effective foresight model has always been challenging. Future studies are supposed to re-integrate and re-frame issues in order to provide novel solutions. It is very difficult to choose from a large number of (about 100) methods from various disciplines and different paradigmatic and methodological roots while avoiding stereotypes.
    Methods
    Involving both the experts of the field and the future researchers, a new approach for selection of method in forward-looking policy is presented, and based on policy challenges, future researchers were asked to prioritize methods to improve population policy by attractiveness and capability criteria.
    Results
    As the final result, four methods were chosen considering the main aspects of attractiveness and capability of each method to improve each specific policy issue. Priorities were determined by calculating the total number of choices by capability of method, multiplied by the attractiveness of methods through the questionnaire to form the foresight model: casual layered analysis (CLA) with 2250 points, scenario with 1596 points, expert panels with 1560 points, and interviews with 1232 points, which were the top four methods, respectively.
    Conclusions
    The path and logic used in this research to select the model of population foresight can be generalized to other public policy areas and can be a methodological basis for other applied interdisciplinary studies.
    Keywords: Population Policy, Foresight Model, Future Methodology, Forward-Looking Policy Making
  • Iraj Shahramian, Ali Bazi *, Negar Shafie Sabet, Alireza Sargazi, Omolbanin Sargazi Aval, Mojtaba Delaramnasab, Mohadeseh Behzadi, Zahra Zaer Sabet less Page 2
    Background
     Fecal calprotectin (FC) has been used as a diagnostic marker in intestinal inflammatory conditions.
    Objectives
     As a few studies have been dedicated to assess the role of FC in coeliac disease (CD), the current study aimed to address this issue.
    Methods
     This study included 70 newly diagnosed CD (Marsh score 3) and 70 healthy children. The study was performed at the pediatric ward of Amir-Al-Momenin Hospital in Zabol city, the southeast of Iran, during June 2016-September 2017. The FC level was determined using a specific ELISA kit.
    Results
     Women constituted 64.3% (45/70) and 55.1% (38/70) of CD and healthy children, respectively (P = 0.1). Three was no significant difference in the mean age between children with CD (6.3 ± 3.4) and without CD (8.3 ± 4.5) (P = 0.2). The mean level of FC was significantly higher in patients (239.1 ± 177.3 μg/g) than in healthy controls (38.5 ± 34.6 μg/g, P < 0.001). The titer of anti-tTG was significantly higher in patients than in healthy children (205.9 ± 156.2 U/mL vs. 6.7 ± 2.1 U/mL, respectively, P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between the FC level and anti-tTG titer (r = 0.611, P < 0.001). However, the correlation was not statistically significant between FC and age (r = -0.154, 0.07). The ROC curve analysis revealed an AUC value of 0.893 (95% CI: 0.827 - 0.960, P < 0.001). At the level of 50 μg/g, FC rendered the sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 92%, respectively, for the diagnosis of CD. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of FC at this cutoff value were 95.5% and 90.5%, respectively.
    Conclusions
     FC can be considered a screening complementary tool for detecting CD with high sensitivity and specificity.
    Keywords: Fecal Calprotectin, Celiac Disease, Gluten Enteropathy, Marsh Score
  • Hadi Bahrami Ehsan, Siamak Vahedi, Mohiadin Amjadian *, Reza Rostami, Kaivan Saboni Page 3
    Background
    Patients with coronary artery disease also have psychological disorders, such as stress and depression, especially if they underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery; a type of bypass surgery that forms new routes around narrowed and blocked coronary arteries, permitting increased blood flow to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed at comparing the effect of Islamic educations and breathing techniques with heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback therapies on HRV, psychophysiological coordination, and stress in patients undergoing CABG.
    Methods
    A total of 60 patients who underwent CABG surgery were selected and randomly assigned to three equal groups of the Islamic educations, breathing techniques, and control. The experimental groups received an eight-week intervention as a two-hour session per week with home practices. The control group received only the routine hospital care. The stress, HRV, and psychophysiological coordination levels of the subjects were evaluated before and after the interventions in the three groups using depression, anxiety, and stress scale-21 for stress and emWave Desktop software for HRV and psychophysiological coordination. The data were analyzed using ANCOVA and descriptive tests with SPSS version 21.
    Results
    The results showed a significant difference among the three groups in the increase of HRV and psychophysiological coordination and decrease of stress. Moreover, stress level reduced more in the Islamic educations group, while HRV and psychophysiological coordination levels increased more in the breathing techniques group.
    Conclusions
    Based on the results, it is recommended using both Islamic educations and breathing techniques as well as HRV biofeedback therapies in rehabilitation programs for patients undergoing CABG in hospitals.
    Keywords: Breathing Techniques, HRV Biofeedback, Spiritual Education Therapy, Psychophysiological Coordination, Stress
  • Fatemeh Owlia, Mohammad Hassan Akhavan Karbassi, Roqayeh Hakimian, Elahe Zakerinia* Page 4
    Background
    The frequency of cardiovascular disease increases with age. Dental procedures as stressful triggers may cause unpredictable changes in the function of the cardiovascular system. Impression is an inevitable dental procedure.
    Objectives
    Since upper jaw impression stimulates the sensory terminals of nerves, especially vagus, this study was conducted to evaluate the changes in blood pressure, heart rate, and pulse pressure due to dental impression.
    Methods
    This observational study was performed on individuals who referred to the Prosthetic Department of Yazd Dental School. The sample was composed of 46 individuals, including 26 women and 20 men, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and signed written consent forms. The severity of gag reflex was measured and just individuals with moderate gag reflex entered the study. Impression was carried out in the upper jaw in the upright position and rest condition. Blood pressure, pulse rate, and pulse pressure were measured and compared before and immediately after impression procedure. Taking into account the significance level of 5%, the test power of 80%, and blood pressure standard deviation of 4, and to achieve a significant difference of at least 2 mmHg in the groups, 46 people were needed in the study. Data were analyzed by SPSS 18 and t test.
    Results
    Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and pulse pressure were measured before and after dental impression. The difference between men and women was significant only for pulse pressure at both stages (P = 0.02). There was also a statistically significant difference in pulse pressure before and after impression only in women (P = 0.049). There was no significant difference in men.
    Conclusions
    Common dental procedures such as impression could not significantly alter blood pressure and pulse rate.
    Keywords: Blood Pressure, Denture, Heart Rate
  • Seyedeh Mahsa Poormoosavi, Mohammad Amin Behmanesh *, Hosein Najafzadehvarzi Page 5
    Background
     Iron is a key element in different aspects of life, with a remarkable role in the formation of cell structures. Iron is a hazardous substance with potential toxicity due to involvement in oxidation-reduction reactions, causing oxidative stress.
    Objectives
     The present study aimed to evaluate the protection induced by Spirulina platensis against the toxicity caused by iron in Wistar rats.
    Methods
     This experimental research was conducted on 32 adult male rats of the Wistar breed (mean weight: 200 ± 20 g). The animals were divided into four groups of control (group one), iron oxide intraperitoneal administration (group two; 15 mg/kg bw/day), oral S. platensis and iron oxide administration (group three; 400 mg/kg bw/day), and daily S. platensis (group four). Treatments continued for 16 days. In addition, serum, renal, and hepatic tissue examinations were carried out.
    Results
     According to the biomechanical tests, liver and kidney biomarkers significantly increased in group two (P ≤ 0.05). On the other hand, total antioxidant capacity and thiol protein reduced, while malondialdehyde increased in this group. According to the results of histopathology in group two, there were congested and dilated portal and central veins, while inflammatory areas were also observed in the liver. In addition, casts and acute tubular necrosis were detected in the urinary tubules in the renal examination. In group three, S. platensis and iron oxide-enhanced anti-oxidative properties, resulting in the treatment of liver and kidney functions and tissues.
    Conclusions
     According to the results, Spirulina platensis can overcome the damaging effects of iron on the hepatorenal system of rats and protects rats’ liver and kidneys against iron-induced toxicity.
    Keywords: Spirulina platensis, Iron Oxide, Liver, Kidney, Rat
  • Sexual Dysfunction in Males and Females with Type 2 Diabetes Referring to Healthcare Centers of Zarand, Kerman: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Maryam Alikamali*, Sedigheh Khodabandeh, Maryam Motesaddi Page 6
    Background
    Sexual dysfunction is a common complication of type 2 diabetes in males and females. Although sexual function is important, it is often neglected as a component of type 2 diabetes care.
    Objectives
    This study aimed at investigating the association between sexual function and marital dissatisfaction in males and females with type 2 diabetes living in southern Iran.
    Methods
    This study was a case-control research, which was carried out on 120 non-pregnant females and 120 males with type 2 diabetes. In addition, available samples of healthy individuals (120 females and 120 males), who referred to central cares located in Zarand, Kerman during year 2015, were used as the control group. The female sexual function data was obtained based on a questionnaire compromised of Rosen female sexual function indices (FSFI, 2000). The international index of erectile function (IIEF) questionnaire was used to obtain male sexual dysfunction data.
    Results
    Forty-one diabetic individuals (17.08%) of total diabetic participants had impaired sexual function, 29 of which (70.73%) were male (with higher rates in males than females, P < 0.05). In addition, 12 diabetic patients (5%) had decreased sexual desire and 66.6% were diabetic males. There was no significant difference in sexual desire between healthy and diabetic groups. Sexual arousal was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the diabetic group compared with healthy individuals. In addition, sexual lubrication (P = 0.008), orgasm (P = 0.003), satisfaction (P = 0.05), and dyspareunia (P = 0.05) scores were significantly higher in the healthy group in comparison to the diabetic group. Severe erectile dysfunction was significantly (P < 0.001) greater between diabetic than the healthy group. Sexual dissatisfaction was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in diabetic males compared to healthy individuals; the amount of libido average and marital life satisfaction were significantly lower in diabetic males (P = 0.01).
    Conclusions
    Based on the findings of this study, counseling, and prevention of diseases, such as diabetes is suggested along with a focus on marital and sexual relations at the age of fertility.
    Keywords: Sexual Disorders_Type 2 Diabetes_Male Sexual Dysfunction_Female Sexual Dysfunction_Iran
  • Mohammad Yousefi Nayer, Jalal Poorolajal, Zahra Cheraghi * Page 7
    Background
     The “only child” phenomenon can swiftly reduce the fertility rate in Iran, disrupt the age pyramid, and be followed by irreparable social and economic harms.
    Objectives
     The goal of this qualitative study was to understand the reasons behind the tendency toward the only child in the Iranian society.
    Methods
     The conventional content analysis was done following the semi-structured interview. Maximum opportunistic sampling was done. The variables taken into consideration for maximum variation were sex, age, education, and occupation.
    Results
     Overall, 46 interviews were conducted. Most of the participants underscored the role of economic causes as the most effective factor. They emphasized that the rise in costs of living was the main factor behind the employment of both parents, particularly the mother, which subsequently robs her of adequate time and patience for parenting.
    Conclusions
     The most important factors contributing to the lack of tendency toward family fertility were, economic factors, rising marriage age; inadequate support for working mother, and being away from relatives. Thus, if policy makers are bent towards intervening in fertility and neutralizing it, they must make the necessary arrangements to improve the families’ economic status.
    Keywords: Only Child, Qualitative Research, Iran
  • Comment on: H-Index Is an Ugly Truth; But What About Other Scientometric Criteria?
    Hadi Esmaily, Elmira Niknami, Ali Saffaei * Page 8