فهرست مطالب

Endocrinology and Metabolism - Volume:17 Issue:3, 2019
  • Volume:17 Issue:3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/08
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Asghar Ghasemi, Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Farhad Hosseinpanah, Niloofar Shiva, Azita Zadeh Vakili * Page 1

    The discussion section of a scientific paper is supposed to interpret and elucidate the significance of the study findings, highlight current knowledge available on the research problem being investigated, and explain the novel aspects emerging from the findings of the study in moving the field forward. A well-written discussion should provide clear “statements of the main findings”, “possible explanations and implications”, “strengths and weaknesses of the study and other studies”, “unanswered questions”, and “suggestions for future research”. The authors also need to clarify the external validity of the findings and show how the findings can be generalized. In this review, we focus on the function, content, and organization of the “discussion section” of a hypothesis-testing paper. Beyond providing the most important principles and common strategies for organizing the discussion section, we also discuss metadiscourse, scientific explanation (reasoning and contextualization), and models of scientific explanation.

    Keywords: Medical Scientific Journals, Scientific Writing, Discussion
  • Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani *, Mina Amiri Page 2
    Context

    Despite the importance of timely diagnosis and treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) among adolescent females, considering the paucity of data focusing on this group and controversies documented on its recognition and management, the purpose of this review was to summarize challenges and recommendations of diagnosis and treatment for adolescents with PCOS.

    Evidence Acquisition

    This review summarizes papers documented on PCOS among adolescent females. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched for retrieving studies conducted on PCOS among adolescent females up to March, 2019. The final selection of papers was made based on their relevancy with the fields of diagnosis and treatment of PCOS in this age group.

    Results

    Oligo-anovulation in adolescents, if persistent, is a matter for concern. Hirsutism and moderate to severe acne in adolescent females should be considered as clinical manifestations of hyperandrogenism (HA). Diagnosis of biochemical HA in adolescents with PCOS requires reliable tests using well-defined normal ranges. In adolescent females, an elevated androgen level (hyperandrogenemia) alone is not enough to detect HA, unless it is persistent and associated with anovulation. Metabolic disorders should not be used as diagnostic criteria of PCOS among adolescent females. Re-assessment of all adolescent females with probable PCOS, using reliable diagnostic criteria, is needed to avoid over diagnosis and unnecessary treatment in healthy normal females without HA. In adolescent females with PCOS, the main clinical problem is the control of menstrual irregularity and hirsutism; treatment approaches for these patients are primarily directed at the major clinical manifestations and complaints. Lifestyle modifications are baseline interventions, which can be added to special treatments, such as Oral Contraceptives (OCs), metformin, or antiandrogens for most adolescents with PCOS, particularly those with overweight or obesity.

    Conclusions

    This review emphasizes the use of standard diagnostic criteria for PCOS, developed for adolescents. Although early recognition and management of PCOS in adolescents can prevent long-term complications associated with this syndrome, clinicians should re-evaluate all such patients with features very similar to PCOS to avoid over/incorrect diagnosis using precise criteria, suggested for this age group.

    Keywords: Treatment, Diagnosis, Hyperandrogenism, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Adolescent
  • Liang Zhao, Meng Wang, Jun Li, Ye Bi, Minglong Li *, Jie Yang Page 3
    Context

    Recently, the relationship between branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has attracted worldwide attention. However, the results related to plasma BCAAs concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) lack statistical power due to the small sample size of a single article.

    Objectives

    This study quantitatively summarized current observational studies to evaluate the association between plasma BCAAs concentration levels and GDM.

    Methods

    A systematic search was performed to select eligible publications using PubMed and EMBASE databases until July 23, 2018. The references of relevant articles were also manually searched. The quality evaluation of included studies was according to the guidelines of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Data were analyzed with Review Manager 5.3 and STATA 14.0 software. In total, seven articles (including eight studies) involving 432 subjects were included.

    Results

    The results showed that all three-individual plasma BCAAs concentration levels in the GDM group were higher than those in the control group (leucine: SMD = 3.76, 95% CI: 1.70 - 5.82, P (SMD) < 0.001; isoleucine: SMD = 3.15, 95% CI: 1.42 - 4.87, P (SMD) < 0.001; valine: SMD = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.21 - 4.32, P (SMD) = 0.001), and the differences were statistically significant. In addition, subgroup analysis indicated that age, body mass index (BMI), publication year, and ethnicity were positively associated with plasma BCAAs concentrations in GDM.

    Conclusions

    Plasma BCAAs, as potential biomarkers, might be associated with GDM risk, which provides useful information for the prevention and early diagnosis of GDM.

    Keywords: Circulating, Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs), Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), Meta-Analysis
  • Mona Zamanian Azodi *, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani, Majid Rezaei Tavirani , Reza Mahmoud Robati Page 4
    Background

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is pregnancy-related diabetes with vital risks for both mother and the fetus. Molecular studies represent one of the popular approaches for investigating mechanisms associated with the disease nature. One of which is through interaction network analysis via Cytoscape V. 3.6.1.

    Methods

    In this study, the microRNA (miRNA) expression array of GSE98043 from gene expression omnibus (GEO) database was retrieved and screened. We identified 12 differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs (P ≤ 0.05) and nine target hub-bottleneck genes (disease score > 1) for GDM based on miRNA-target interactions created via plugin ClueGO + Cluepedia + STRING.

    Results

    MiRNA-target information showed that the miRNAs are mostly up-regulated and hsa-miR-145-5p and hsa-miR-875-5p targets the most genes. Among target genes, IL6, GCG, APOB, and ALB have the highest associations with DE-miRNAs. Gene ontology analysis based on biological processes identification via ClueGO + CluePedia, in addition, showed that target hub-bottlenecks are mainly related to metabolism functions and any changes in this regulatory network could impose fundamental alterations in these processes.

    Conclusions

    It can be concluded that via these introduced miRNAs and their targets, the molecular tests for diagnosis and treatment of GDM can be improved after applying validation approaches.

    Keywords: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, MicroRNA, Gene Expression Omnibus Dataset, Regulatory Network
  • Ameneh Barikani, Maryam Javadi, Sima Rafiei * Page 5
    Background

    Recent literature has mentioned that people with sleep disorder, experience insulin sensitivity reduction and accordingly higher levels of blood glucose.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep quality and blood lipid composition in patients with diabetes referring to Minoodar health center in Qazvin, Iran in 2017.

    Methods

    Sleep duration and quality were assessed in 347 patients with diabetes using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). The glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test was used to measure the glycemic control and total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were used to determine blood lipid composition of the patients. Multiple regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between sleep measures and HbA1c and lipid parameters using SPSS version 20.

    Results

    The patients in the poor sleep quality group had higher levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS) (146.07 ± 57.06 versus 132.8 ± 53.3 mg/dL, P = 0.02), body mass index (BMI) (29.1 ± 3.9 versus 27.6 ± 4.2 kg/m2, P = 0.005) and total cholesterol (209.9 ± 53.4 versus 193.4 ± 45.8, P = 0.02). Furthermore, the patients with short sleep duration had higher total cholesterol level compared with long sleep and medium sleep duration group (202.3 ± 50.2 versus 196.6 ± 47.7 and 195.7 ± 47.4, respectively, P = 0.05). Among different PSQI measures, subjective sleep quality was associated with lower TC and TG in unadjusted models (β = -0.0.1, P = 0.05). Furthermore, greater sleep disturbance was positively linked with higher levels of TC and TG (β = 0.1, P = 0.01 and β = 0.02, P = 0.05).

    Conclusions

    In an Iranian population with diabetes living in Qazvin city, sleep disorder is common and as study findings revealed sleep quality was recognized as an influencing factor on some of the lipid profiles, including TC and TG. Thus sleep assessment of patients with type 2 diabetes to find the early recognition of their sleep disorder should be considered an important part of the patients’ treatment.

    Keywords: Diabetes, Lipid Composition, Glycemic Control, Sleep Disorder
  • Marjan Mansourian, Sahar Sadeghpour, Ashraf Aminorroaya, Masoud Amini, Tohid Jafari Koshki * Page 6
    Background

    Diabetes is on the rise worldwide.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of various causes of death in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

    Methods

    In this cohort study on 2638 people with T2D, we applied cause-specific and sub-distribution hazards models to assess the impact of various factors on the risk of death. Moreover, we plotted a cumulative incidence curve to summarize cumulative failure rates over time.

    Results

    About 75% of individuals with T2D died from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cerebrovascular accidents (CVA). Death from CVD was associated with the increased risk of hypertension (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.37 - 2.46), hypercholesterolemia (HR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.17 - 2.14), and diabetes duration. The risk of death from CVA was related to hypertension (HR = 2.76, 95% CI: 1.67 - 4.55) and hyperglycemia (HR = 4.34, 95% CI: 1.75 - 10.79). The CVA risk in patients with diabetes duration of 10 - 20 years was higher than the risk in patients with diabetes duration > 20 years (diabetes duration of ≤ 10 years as the reference category). Diabetes duration of longer than 20 years was associated with a higher risk of death from cancer (HR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.05 - 6.68). The risk of death from foot infection and diabetic nephropathy increased in patients with longer diabetes duration after adjustment for sex, age, and body mass index.

    Conclusions

    Regardless of the cause, death rates in people with T2D increase over time and risk factors have different impacts on death from each cause. This should be acknowledged in risk management in individuals with T2D.

    Keywords: Diabetes, Mortality, CVD, CVA, Cancer, Competing Risks
  • Mansour Babaei, Reza Shamsi, Behzad Heidari *, Ali Bijani, Seyed Reza Hosseini Page 7
    Background

    Osteoporosis is associated with decreased antioxidant defenses and serum uric acid (UA) as an antioxidant may exert a protective effect on bone mass.

    Objectives

    This study aimed to determine the association between serum UA and bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly population.

    Methods

    All participants of the Amirkola Health and Ageing Project aged ≥ 60 years entered the study. BMD in the femoral neck (FN-BMD) and lumbar spine (LS-BMD) was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and osteoporosis was defined as BMD T-score < - 2.5 at either FN or LS. The patients were classified according to serum UA levels as < 4; 4 - 4.99; 5 - 5.99; 6 - 6.99 and > 7 mg/dL. In statistical analysis, the value of BMD as well as frequency of osteoporosis in each subgroup were compared with the control group (UA < 4 mg/dL).

    Results

    A total of 1080 patients were studied. By increasing serum UA from < 4 mg/dL to > 7 mg/dL the BMD at both measurement sites increased as well. The serum UA was associated with decreased risk of osteoporosis. In multivariate analysis, the odds of osteoporosis in the subgroup with serum UA levels between 4 - 4.99 mg/dL was significantly lower than the control group (OR = 0.66, 95% CI, 0.44 - 0.99). Age and female sex were associated with increased odds of osteoporosis (OR = 1.08, 95% CI, 1.05 - 1.10 and OR = 10.62, 95% CI, 7.53 - 14.97 respectively).

    Conclusions

    These findings indicate a negative association between serum UA and osteoporosis in the elderly population aged ≥ 60 years.

    Keywords: Serum Uric Acid, Elderly Subjects, Bone Mineral Density, Association
  • Fereidoun Azizi * Page 8