فهرست مطالب

Horticultural Science and Technology - Volume:6 Issue:1, 2019
  • Volume:6 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Khaled Elmeer *, Imene Mattat, Ameena Al, Malki, Al, Ghaliya Al, Mamari, Khaled Bojulaia, Aladdin Hamwieh, Michael Baum Pages 1-9
    In this study fourteen microsatellite primer pairs were used to study the genetic diversity of Shishi Date palm in Qatar. A total of 32 date palm (15 Shishi cultivar, 10 Khalas and seven male date palms) were collected from Qatar and 5 Shihi cultivars were collected from Saudi Arabia ‎for comparison. The Shishi set collected from Qatar was selected from ‎different regions to represent the ‎genetic diversity of this ‎cultivar. The results indicated 98 alleles produced from the 14 microsatellite markers, and the cluster analysis showed four major clusters corresponding o the geographical areas. Similarly, the structure analysis indicated four populations according to statistic K value. PCoA analysis showed three groups (A, B and C) ‎separating Shishi (from Qatar) in group A, ‎Khalas in group B and Shishi (from Saudi Arabia) in ‎group C and no clear group ‎separated the male genotypes. This indicates that the sexual propagation by seeds is the main source of variation in the date palm. This is the first study focusing on Shishi cultivar in Qatar and Saudi Arabia by using molecular markers.
    Keywords: Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, Microsatellite, Shihi, Khalas
  • Santosh Kumar Bose *, Shakil Ahmed, Prianka Howlader, Mohammad Ali Pages 11-25
    Guava is one of the most important commercial fruit crop in Bangladesh due to its high nutrient value, good taste and high health benefits. This study was conducted to investigate the flowering, fruiting behavior and nutritional quality of guava genotype suitable for coastal region of Bangladesh. Fifteen genotypes (PG 01 to PG 15) having satisfactory growth were selected for this study. One branch was randomly selected in each direction (North, South, East and West) to collect field data from each plant. Among the genotypes, the highest percentage (87.62%) of fruit setting and the maximum time (115.8 days) required for fruit maturation were recorded from PG 13 and PG 14, respectively. The PG 12 had the highest fruit weight (312.6 g) and the longest fruit (9.34 cm), whereas the highest diameter (26.28 cm) of fruit was recorded in PG 06. The maximum numbers of seeds (411.20) were counted from PG 10 whereas no seed was obtained in the PG 01 and PG 02. Maximum anthocyanin (0.17 mg/100 g FW), lowest pH (3.31), maximum vitamin C content (91.25 mg/ 100g FW), total sugar (6.56 %) and TSS (5.19 ºBrix) were also recorded in the seedless genotype (PG 01). Moreover, the quality characteristics, pulp percentage of seedless genotype (PG 01 and PG 02) was comparatively higher than the other genotypes. The genotypes PG 01 and PG 02 have shown important pomological traits for further study, variety improvement and selection as new variety.
    Keywords: Genetic variation, nutritional quality, Pomological trait
  • Maryam Abdipour, Mehdi Hosseinifarahi *, Sharareh Najafian Pages 27-38
    In sustainable agriculture, protection of the ecosystem and reduce chemical fertilizers are the main goals. Nowadays, sweet basil, one of the best general fragrant foliage, is considered as an industrial plant. In present study to compare different levels of cow manure biochar (CMB) and humic acid (HA) on vegetative traits and mineral absorption rate of green basil plants, an experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized block design with four replications in 2015. The treatments included different levels of CMB (0, 1%, 2%, and 3%) and HA (2.5, 5 and 7.5 g/L) in the culture medium. The traits that were analyzed were included: plant height, leaf number, leaf area, stem diameter, leaf chlorophyll concentration (LCC), fresh and dry weights of aerial part and root, concentration of potassium, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus. Results showed that fresh and dry weights of shoot and root were increased by application of 3% CMB and 7.5 g/L HA in the culture medium. Theuse of CMB and HA significantly affected most of the studied traits except LCC, stem diameter, and leaf area. Concentration of N, P, K and Ca was considerably increased by application of 3% CMB and 7.5 g/L HA in the culture medium. The highest concentration of nutrients was detected in the plants treated with 3% CMB. In conclusion, the use of 3% CMB and HA at 7.5 g/L in the culture medium can be recommended to improve the qualitative and quantitative traits of basil plants.
    Keywords: Cow manure biochar, Phosphorus, Potassium, Leaf chlorophyll concentration
  • Maryam Chavoushi *, Khosrow Manoochehri Kalantari, Mohamad Javad Arvin Pages 39-49
    Salinity stress is one of the main limiting factors for optimum agricultural productivity of safflower, Carthamus tinctorius L., in arid and semi-arid regions. It could leads to significant changes in plant biochemical, physiological, and growth traits. Salinity induced endogenous rise in jasmonic acid and its methyl esters (MeJA) has been reported. In the present study, effects of salinity stress (6 and 12 ds m-1) and the exogenous application of MeJA (0.1 and 0.5 mM) on the leaf number, shoot fresh weight, shoot length, chlorophyll a/b, soluble sugar, proline, and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were investigated in two safflower varieties (Isfahan and IL111). Salinity stress negatively affected the growth of both varieties. Lipid peroxidation was not observed in Isfahan variety, but it significantly increased in the salinity resistant safflower, IL111. Soluble sugar and proline as the important osmoprotectants and free radical scavengers were elevated by salinity stress. Exogenous application of MeJA to the salinity stress-imposed plants slightly improved the growth due to inductions in the rate of photosynthesis; however, MeJA application impaired the growth of non-stressed plants because of induction of stomatal closure and as a result reduced photosynthesis.
    Keywords: Carthamus tinctorius, Growth, Methyl jasmonate, Salinity stress, Physiology
  • Maryam Eslami, Fatemeh Nasibi, Khosrow Manouchehri Kalantari, Masoud Khezri, Hakimeh Oloumi * Pages 51-62
    Pistachio yield are often negatively affected by some physiological problems such as abscission of inflorescence buds and fruits, deformed or blank nuts, and non-split shells. In the present study the effect of exogenous application of arginine (Arg) (a substrate for nitric oxide (NO) synthase) and sodium nitroproside (SNP), as a NO-donor was investigated on yield production, fruit and inflorescence buds abscission, and physiological parameters of Pistacia vera. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with factorial structure in a commercial pistachio orchard. Factors were included two levels of Arg (0.5 and 1 mM), two levels of SNP (50 and 100 μM) and their combination applied at two distinct time; one week before full bloom (first stage) and five weeks after full bloom (second stage). Comparing to SNP-treated trees, Arg was more effective on growth and physiological parameters of shoots and on fruit and inflorescence buds abscission, and on fruit parameters such as split and non-split shells, blank nuts, number of nuts per ounce. Effects of these treatments were considerably depending on the time of application and the concentrations of applied compounds. It is proposed that the effects of Arg and SNP may be related to the NO signaling and polyamines production.
    Keywords: Fruit abscission, Inflorescence buds abscission, Pistacia vera, Nut splitting
  • Hamed Hassanzadeh Khankahdani *, Abdoolnabi Bagheri Pages 63-76
    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a monocot, dioecious and high longevity tropical plant greatly considered due to its high economic importance in Middle East. This investigation was carried out to detect genetic relations among 34 cultivars of Iranian date palm, both males and females, using ISSR markers. Accordingly, total DNA was extracted using CTAB method and was subjected to PCR amplification using 12 ISSR primers. Analysis of ISSR data indicated that PIC value varied from 0.3695 to 0.4998 with average of 0.4497. The highest PIC value belonged to (CT)10 G primer (0.4498). Totally, 112 alleles were recognized. According to morphological attributes and ISSR markers, the 34 studied date cultivars divided into eight main groups and different sub-groups, and no significant correlation between grouping made by morphological and molecular markers. Unlike ISSR markers that produced a clear-cut among male and female cultivars, no distinct border was seen among male and female cultivars using morphological attributes. Furthermore, PCA analysis confirmed the grouping made by ISSR markers. In conclusion, ISSR markers have been useful to separate date palm cultivars.
    Keywords: DNA, Date palm, ISSR, PIC, Iran
  • Abdulhamid Mohebi * Pages 77-88
    Irrigation is an inevitable part of agriculture which determines crop yield and thus food security. In modern era of agriculture, crop yield is determined on the basis of crop production per unit of water-use instead of crop production per land unit area. Deficit irrigation is introduced as a strategy for controlling water resources that leads to water resource preservation. Date palm requires regular irrigation after plantation at the primary growth stages. In the present study, the effect of applying superabsorbent polymers on required water for irrigation of date palm seedlings has been evaluated during 2011-2012. Treatments were 60%, 80% and 100% ETc irrigation and 0, 40, 80 and 120 g superabsorbents for each seedling. The experiment was conducted in RCBD and split-split plot experimental designs. Water requirement was calculated based on FAO pan method. Results showed that, percentage of establishment reduced significantly in all irrigation regimes including normal irrigation, mid stress, and severe stress. Moreover, using superabsorbents resulted in an increase in SOD activity under 80% irrigation deficit in comparison to full irrigation. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that superabsorbents significantly affected uptake of mineral nutrients and consequently resulted in a raise in seedling establishment.
    Keywords: Date palm seedling, Superabsorbent, Superoxide dismutase, Water use
  • Zahra Reaisi, Mehrab Yadegari *, Hamze Ali Shirmardia Pages 89-99
    This study aimed to evaluate effects of elevation and phenological stage on essential oil components of Teucrium polium L. and Teucrium orientale L. belonging to the Lamiaceae family. The aerial parts of the grown plants in two ranges of elevation including 2000-2500 and 2500-3000 m above sea level were harvested at three time-points, including end of vegetative, flowering, and seed filling stages. The main components in the T. polium oil were α-pinene (40.52 to 54.05%), β-pinene (17.36 to 23.3%), and limonene (10.10 to 15.19%) and the major constituents in the essential oil of T. orientale were α-pinene (0.00 to 25.10%), and β-caryophyllene (18.18 to 56.01%). Analysis of results confirmed the significant effects of phenological stage and elevation on the percentages of essential oil components. High elevation above sea level caused increase in aromatic compounds such as α-pinene and limonene from monoterpene hydrocarbons but decrease in sesquiterpene compounds such as β-caryophyllene contents. There was significant correlation between essential oil constituents under different elevations and phenological stages. In addition, harvesting time at different phenological stages affected the chemical compositions in the essential oils, in a way that the highest concentrations of α-pinene and β-pinene as volatile components (monoterpene hydrocarbons) and β-caryophyllene (sesquiterpene hydrocarbons) as important constitutes in pharmaceutical industry were obtained from flowering stage.
    Keywords: α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, β-pinene, Growth stage, Medicinal Plant
  • Bita Sharifi, Davood Naderi * Pages 101-112
    Tuberose is one of the most important aromatic cut flower among ornamental plants that its growth and quality is influenced by the type and percentage of mineral compounds in the substrate. This study was carried out on the basis of a randomized complete design to explore the impact of feldspar, talc, dolomite and tuff minerals at the rate of 10, 20 and 40% incorporated with garden soil and manure on some quantitative and qualitative traits of Tuberose plants. The results showed that the highest stem diameter, floret number, root fresh and dry weight were obtained from plants grown in garden soil + dolomite + manure at the ratios of 40:40:20% and 60:20:20%. The highest stem length, floret fresh weight, content of chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll were detected in the plants treated with garden soil + talc and manure (40:40:20%). Highest daughter bulb perimeter, total bulb weight, and floret dry weight were obtained from plants treated with garden soil + feldspar + manure (40:40:20%). Highest floret length and width were seen in plants grown in garden soil + tuff + manure (70:10:20%) and garden soil + talc + manure (60:20:20%). Plants that were grown in garden soil + feldspar + manure at the ratios of 70:10:20% and 60:20:20% had the highest chlorophyll a content and the lowest daughter bulb perimeter, stem length and width, floret dry weight, width and number of floret, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll content respectively. Highest root dry weight was measured in control (garden soil + manure 80:20%) and the lowest root fresh and dry weights and volume were recorded for plants grown in garden soil + tuff mineral soil + manure (40:40:20%). Overall, the use of talc, dolomite, and feldspar at the ratio of 40% as Mg and K supplying minerals can improve growth and biochemical parameters of the Tuberose plant.
    Keywords: Dolomite, Feldspar, Silicon, Talc, Tuff
  • Mohammadmehdi Norozi, Babak Valizadehkaji *, Rouhollah Karimi, Mohammadali Nikoogoftar Sedghi Pages 113-123
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of foliar applications of potassium and zinc on the fruit yield and quality as well as leaf nutrient concentrations of pistachio cv. ‘Chrokeh’. The experiment was conducted based on a completely randomized block design with nine treatments and three replications per treatment. Treatments were three levels of K2SO4 (0, 1 and 2%) and three levels of ZnSO4 (0, 0.5 and 1%). The nutrition solutions were sprayed on trees at two times (bud swell stage and green tip stage) in 2017–2018. Based on the obtained results, nutrient treatments especially 1% K2SO4+1% ZnSO4 and 2% K2SO4+1% ZnSO4 caused a significant increase in chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Application of K2SO4 and ZnSO4 significantly affected concentrations of P, K, Mg, Zn, Mn and Fe in the leaves of ‘Chrokeh’ pistachio, whereas nutrient treatments had no significant effect on leaf concentration of N. Nutrient treatments especially 2% K2SO4+1% ZnSO4 led to significant increases in the fresh (up to 65%) and dry (up to 67%) yield when compared with the control trees. Moreover, nutrient applications had a significant effect on the percentage of splitting (an 11 % increase) and blankness (a 26% decrease). It can be concluded that foliar application of K and Zn fertilizers is necessary for obtaining better fruit yield and quality in pistachio.
    Keywords: Blankness, Nutrition, Pistachio, Splitting, Yield
  • Shiva Zaferanchi *, Saeid Zehtab Salmasi, Seyed Yahya Salehi Lisar, Mohammad Reza Sarikhani Pages 125-136
    The present study was carried out to investigate biochemical responses of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) to Bio-organic fertilizers. Effects of co-inoculation of two plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) (Azotobacter sp.145PI and Azospirillum sp.AC49I), humic acid (HA) (10 kg ha−1), vermicompost (VC) (7 T ha−1) and combinations of these treatments were evaluated in two marigold cultivars [Isfahan double flower (DF) and single flower (SF)]. The biosynthesis of leaf protein, soluble and insoluble carbohydrate contents were increased in treated plants, while total free amino acid content was not influenced by treatments. Fertilizers also had positive impact on leaf and flower pigments, total flavonoid content, and total phenolic contents. Maximum amounts of anthocyanins were obtained in the DF cultivar treated by VC+PGPR and VC, which were 11.414 and 11.192 µmol g-1 FW, respectively. The SF cultivar treated by PGPR (36.11 %) and also the same cultivar treated by VC (33.39 %) had the highest antioxidant activities. In general, simultaneous application of fertilizers and also vermicompost were recognized as the best treatment for marigold plants. In conclusion, the findings of the current study confirmed that chemical composition and antioxidant activity of marigold can be positively influenced by Bio-organic fertilizers; therefore they can be used to obtain medicinal plants with improved quality during sustainable agricultural practices.
    Keywords: antioxidant activity, Biofertilizer, Marigold, Carbohydrates, Humic acid, Protein, Vermicompost
  • Akram Ansari, Ali Gharaghani * Pages 137-150
    By applying multivariate statistical analysis, this research aimed to estimate the heritability and find relationships between the vegetative and reproductive characteristics of Prunus scoparia and Prunus elaeagnifolia. Twenty genotypes of each species were selected randomly from cultivated populations and twenty-two traits including the tree, leaf, flower, nut and kernel attributes were measured. Results showed that there were high levels of genotypic and phenotypic variations among the genotypes of both species. Many of the measurements pertaining to the leaf, flower, nut and kernel, showed very high heritability (H2 >90%) in both species, whilst some traits such as shoot diameter in P. scoparia and kernel moisture in both species had very lower heritability (H2 <50%). Generally, the heritability of measured traits in P. elaeagnifolia were higher than those of P. scoparia, especially foreconomically important traits including yield (H2 = 94 and H2 = 54.61, respectively in P. elaeagnifolia and P. scoparia), nut weight (H2 = 97.83 and H2 = 85.39.61, respectively in P. elaeagnifolia and P. scoparia) and oil percentage (H2 = 75.55 and H2 = 61.43, respectively in P. elaeagnifolia and P. scoparia). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the most influential factors on yield of P. scoparia, were the fruit set, flower diameter and leaf length, whilst for the P. elaeagnifolia, the yield was mostly determined by fruit set and leaf area. The high genetic diversity and heritability of the studied traits, indicates high genetic potential of this germplasm to be utilized in future breeding programs.
    Keywords: Wild almond, Breeding, Stepwise regression, cluster analysis, Bi-plot