فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue:3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 21
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  • Mehrdad Amir Behghadami, Ali Janati *, Homayoun Sadeghi, Bazargani, Masoumeh Gholizadeh, Farzad Rahmani, Morteza Arab, Zozani Pages 201-211
    Objectives
    To identify prevalent domains related to the concept of assessing preparedness of non-hospital centers to provide primary emergency care in order to develop a comprehensive framework.
    Methods
    Five databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of science, Barakat Knowledge Network Systems (BKNS) and Scientific Information Database (SID) were searched in English and/or Persian languages with no time limit until March, 2018. Manual search and grey literature were also done. According to the eligibility criteria, all the studies were independently tracked by two researchers. Studies were appraised using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). The findings were synthesized through directed content analysis method.
    Results
    Out of 3014 studies, 15 studies were included for data synthesis. The synthesis of literature resulted in the emergence of 13 domains and 25 sub-domains. Then, they were categorized based on Donabedian’s triple model and a conceptual framework was developed. In this framework, 6 domains were put in input, 6 in processes, and 1 domain in outcome. Of the 15 included studies, 1 study considered 10 domains and 14 other studies considered 4 to 8 domains out of 13 synthesized domains. The most prevalent synthesized domains were “medical supplies and equipment” and “human resources”, which were considered in 15 studies.
    Conclusion
    In this study, a conceptual framework was constructed that identifies elements that significantly affect the preparedness of these centers. This framework may assist managers to take a comprehensive approach to assess these centers.
    Keywords: Non-hospital health centers, Primary emergency care, Preparedness, Assess
  • Saber Azami, Aghdash, Homayoun Sadeghi, Bazarghani, Ramin Rezapour, Mahdiyeh Heydari, Naser Derakhshani * Pages 212-222
    Objective
    To compare the stewardship of road traffic accidents (RTIs) prevention in three pioneer countries and three similar ones to Iran.
    Methods
    In this descriptive comparative study, the United States of America, Sweden, and Brazil as the pioneer countries in RTIs prevention were compared to the India, Pakistan, and Turkey as the countries socioeconomically similar to Iran. Embase, PubMed, Scopus, IranDoc, IranMedex, SID, and MagIran were searched. Also a hand search conducted on websites and search engines using related keywords.
    Results
    In the pioneer countries in RTIs prevention there was a delegation to a particular organization. In the other three countries a part of the Ministry of Transportation had the overall responsibility of RTIs. In Iran there was uncertainty in the stewardship of RTIs prevention. There was little evidence on the role and activities of health systems in RTIs prevention.
    Conclusion
    It seems necessary to define a lead agency organization on RTIs prevention in Iran with sufficient authority and resources. This study also recommends conducting reliable studies to investigate the possible roles that the health system of a country can assume regarding the RTIs prevention.
    Keywords: Road traffic accident, Road traffic injury, Traffic-collision injuries, Policy, Stewardship, Decision making
  • Rebecka Ah, MB BChir, Yang Cao, Hakan Geijer, Kardo Taha, Sahar Pourhossein, Sarmeh, Peep Talving, Olle Ljungqvist, Shahin Mohseni * Pages 223-231
    Objective
    To evaluate the Portsmouth-Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity (P-POSSUM) in comparison with other risk factors for mortality including osteopenia as an indicator for frailty in geriatric patients subjected to emergency laparotomy. 
    Methods
    All geriatric patients (≥65 years) undergoing emergency laparotomy at a single university hospital between 1/2015 and 12/2016 were included in this cohort study. Demographics and outcomes were retrospectively collected from medical records. Association between prognostic markers and 30-day mortality was assessed using Poisson and backward stepwise regression models. Prognostic value was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.
    Results
    209 patients were included with a mean age of 76 ± 7.3 years. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, age, indication and type of surgery, hypotension, transfusion requirement and current malignancy proved to be statistically significant predictors of 30-day mortality. P-POSSUM mortality was statistically significant in the backward stepwise regression (incidence rate ratio=1.58, 95% CI: 1.16–2.15, p=0.004) while osteopenia was not. P-POSSUM had poor prognostic value for 30-day mortality with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.59. The prognostic value of P-POSSUM improved significantly when adjusting for patient covariates (AUC=0.83).
    Conclusion
    P-POSSUM and osteopenia alone hardly predict 30-day mortality in geriatric patients following emergency laparotomy. P-POSSUM adjusted for other patient covariates improves the prediction.
    Keywords: Emergency Surgery, Emergency Laparotomy, Geriatric, Mortality
  • Ana Maria Navio Serano, Joaquín Valle Alonso *, Gustavo Rene Piñero, Alejandro Rodriguez Camacho, Josefa Soriano Benet, Manuel Vaquero Pages 232-239
    Objective
    To investigate the prognostic value of clinical and laboratory tests in prediction of outcome in patients at day 30 post presentation to hospital with shock and to determine the prognostic value of mid regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) on mortality prediction at 30 days in the same patient cohort.
    Method
    This prospective multicenter cohort study analyzed data from patients who had presenting with shock to the emergency departments of eleven urban, tertiary-care University hospitals in Spain between March, 2011 and May, 2011. Recruitment of patients was via convenience sampling. Inclusion criteria included age between 14 and 100 years with clinical diagnostic criteria of shock on admission. Various patient parameters were analysed, such as age, sex, past medical history. Other clinical variables were measured on arrival to hospital, including sequential organ failure assessment score (score SOFA), blood pressure, oxygen saturations, capillary refill time and shock index (SI). Laboratory variables investigated included base excess, MR-proADM, lactate, C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT).
    Results
    There were 212 patients included in the study from the eleven hospitals involved. The mean age was 72.2 years old and 60.4% of the patients were men. In the discriminant analysis only age, MR-proADM and PCT remained in the final discriminant equation. The separate analysis of MR-proADM showed that, in the non-survivors group, MR-proADM levels are significantly higher than those found in the group of survivors (p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    Age, PCT and MR-proADM were useful to predict short-term mortality in patients presenting to the emergency department shock. This suggests that PCT and MR-proADM in combination with the most common prediction models will improve prognostic value.
    Keywords: Biomarkers, Shock, Patients, Prognostic tool
  • Rasoul Salimi *, Rasool Haddadi, Abbas Moradi, Farnoush Jalilvand, Farzin Firozian Pages 240-244
    Objective
    To compare the anesthetic effects of topical amitriptyline 2% with lidocaine 2% in isolated limb wound repair with suturing.
    Methods
    In a randomized clinical trial, 90 patients with a complaint of isolated ulcer and require a preliminary repair by suturing were selected from patients referred to emergency department of Beast Hospital in Hamadan.  First, the scars were washed and anesthetized with lidocaine 2%. If after the peak period effect of lidocaine, the pain score of patients did not decrease, they randomly assigned to two groups, Lidocaine or Amitriptyline gel. After the intervention and during the suturing, the patient's pain score was measured at the intervals specified time by the visual analogous scale (VAS) and results recorded on the checklist. Finally, the collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 20 at 95% confidence level
    Results
    In the lidocaine and amitriptyline group, the mean age of the patients was 29.08 and 27.34 years, and male gender frequency was 71.1% and 80% respectively. Both groups were matched for age and sex. Mean score of pain in both groups decreased from the score of 10 before the intervention to 7.33 in the lidocaine group and 0.53 in amitriptyline group. Based on the results of the ANOVA repeated measure test, there was a statistically significant difference between the mean score of pain in the two groups (p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    In patients with isolated limbs ulcers, requiring initial repair with suturing, numbness and analgesia effect of amitriptyline 2% gel, with dose 2 mg/kg is better than lidocaine 2%.
    Keywords: Anesthetics, Amitriptyline, Lidocaine, Wounds, Injuries
  • Masoud Hashemi, Payman Dadkhah, Mehrdad Taheri, Mahshid Ghasemi * Pages 245-250
    Objective
    To evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine in caudal epidural on controlling pain, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and quality of life in patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS).
    Methods
    The study was a single-blind clinical trial. From the total of 70 patients suffering from low back pain caused by a failed back surgery syndrome were referred to Akhtar and Imam Hossein Hospitals between the ages of 25 to 75 years with a history of back pain more than 12 weeks and a visual analogue scale (VAS) score of higher than 3, and 50 people were randomly selected and divided into two groups of dexmedetomidine and control. The control group received an epidural dose of 10 cc containing triamcinolone and bupivacaine, and the dexmedetomidine group received an epidural dose of 10 cc, containing dexmedetomidine, triamcinolones and bupivacaine with diluted normal saline. Epidural caudal injections were performed in the abdomen in a laid down position. Before starting the study and at the end of the fourth week, the two test groups were measured for visual analogue scale (VAS) and ESR and were asked to complete the quality of life questionnaire.
    Results
    Overall, 50 patients with FBSS were enrolled. The mean age was 53.88 ± 8.9 years (range 25–75); 54% (27/50) were men. The results showed that the injection of dexmedetomidine in epidural caudal was associated with decreased pain (p=0.001) and improved quality of life (p=0.022), while showed no significant effect on ESR (p=0.110).
    Conclusion
    Administration of dexmedetomidine in the epidural caudal is effective in controlling pain and quality of life in patients with failed back surgery syndrome.
    Keywords: Quality of life, Disability, Failed Back Surgery Syndrome, Spinal cord
  • Masoud Hashemi, Payman Dadkhah, Mehrdad Taheri *, Seyed Mohammdareza Haji, Seyed Abootorabi, Bahram Naderi, nabi Pages 251-255
    Objective
    To investigate the success rate (technical precision) of ultrasound-guided lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection, which was validated by conventional fluoroscopic technique.
    Methods
    A total of 20 patients with unilateral single-level lumbar foraminal disc protrusion causing radiculopathy were enrolled. Using transforming route, the needle location was determined by an axial (transvers) view of the ultrasound with fluoroscopic confirmation. We determined the needle placement accuracy of ultrasound- guided lumbar transforaminal injections approach. 
    Results
    The accuracy of ultrasound-guided interventions was 90% as confirmed by fluoroscopy. There were 2 failed cases at the L4-L5 level in the US-guided. The success rate in L5-S1 level was 100%, in L4-L5 level was 80% and in L3-L4 level was 100%. No complications were noted.
    Conclusion
    Ultrasound-guided lumbar transforaminal epidural injections are accurate and feasible in clinical setting with an accuracy of 90% and no complications.
    Keywords: Epidural injection, Fluoroscopy, Chronic pain management, Radiculopathy
  • Kam Lun Ellis Hon *, Szewei Huang, Wai Sang Poon, Hon Ming Cheung, Patrick Ip, Benny Zee Pages 256-262
    Objective
    To determine the mortality, morbidity, types of intracranial hemorrhages, and factors associated with length of stay (LOS) associated with accidental traumatic brain injury (TBI) at a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a regional trauma center in an Asian city.
    Methods
    This study is a retrospective review of types of head injury, mortality and morbidity demographics of patients admitted to a PICU with TBI. All patients with accidental TBI were included, namely road traffic injury (RTI) and fall, and their demographics compared. Non-accidental injuries (NAI) were excluded.
    Results
    95 children (78% males) were admitted to a PICU with RTI or falls from 2002 to 2017. They accounted for 3.7% of PICU admissions. Comparing with falls, victims of RTI were older (p<0.001) and more likely to suffer from skull fracture (p=0.017). There were 4 deaths with falls (6.8%) but none with RTI. Subarachnoid hemorrhages, extradural hemorrhages, the use of mechanical ventilation, inotropes and neurological supports were associated with longer LOS in PICU in these injuries (p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    A longer PICU LOS is associated with extradural and subarachnoid hemorrhages, usage of inotropes, mechanical ventilation and neurological supports in falls and RTI. Three-quarters of victims are males. Preventive health education should be especially directed to boys to reduce severe TBI in this Asian city.
    Keywords: Mortality, Length of Stay, PICU, Traumatic Brain injury, Falls, Road traffic injury
  • Mohammad Reza Rouhezamin, Ali Taheri Akerdi, Shahram Paydar, Babak Shekarchi * Pages 263-268
    Objective
    To evaluate the accuracy of internal jugular vein waveform to detect early stage of hemorrhagic shock
    Methods
    Forty-three volunteers enrolled in our study between November and December 2018. After blood donation of 450cc, the blood donors in the case group underwent color Doppler sonography of internal Jugular Vein. Besides, the clinical and laboratory indicators of shock were evaluated. The same clinical, laboratory and sonographic data was also obtained from the volunteers in the control group, then Chi-square and Student t-test were applied to make   comparison between mentioned groups.
    Results
    After excluding five volunteers, eighteen subjects were included in the blood donor group (mean of age: 35.81±8.05) and 20 healthy volunteers enrolled in the control group (mean of age: 34.95± 6.86). The Jugular pulsatility index was significantly smaller in the case group (0.47 ± 0.27 vs. 0.77 ± 0.52). The jugular pulsatility index above 0.91 excluded blood loss (sensitivity=100%). The combination of clinical, laboratory and sonographic data were also represented as two other indices; Jugular Pulsatility-Shock index and Jugular Pulsatility-Shock-Base Deficit index (JPSBDI). These indices were also accurate enough to detect early blood loss (p=0.011 and <0.001, respectively). JPSBDI below 0.38 was highly accurate to rule out blood loss. (Area under the curve: 0.868, sensitivity=95% and specificity=76.47%).
    Conclusion
    The internal Jugular vein waveform is accurate to detect early stages of shock. The combination of clinical, laboratory and sonographic data is more promising than each of them, separately.
    Keywords: Internal jugular vein, Doppler, Waveform, Hemorrhagic shock
  • Ahmad Alizadeh, Ehsan Kazemnejad, Leili, Vahid Monsef, Kasmaie, Seyed, Younes Moshirian, Roghieh Molaei, Langroudi * Pages 269-277
    Objective
    To investigate the risk factors that can be proper indications for performing brain computerized tomography (CT)-scan in patients with mild and moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) in order to avoid unnecessary exposure to radiation, saving on costs as well as time wasted in emergency wards.
    Methods
    Data of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) referring to Emergency Department with age ≥2 years and primary GCS of 13-15 were examined including focal neurological deficit, anisocoria, skull fracture, multiple trauma, superior injury of clavicle, decreased consciousness, and amnesia. Brain CT-scan was performed in all the patients. Kappa Coefficient was used to determine the ratio of agreement of the CT indications (+ and ⎼) and multiple logistic regression to determine the relative odds of positive CTs.
    Results
    Overall we included 610 patients. One-hundred and one patients (16.5%) had positive and 509 (83.5%) had negative CT findings. Of positive CTs, the highest percentage was dedicated to high-energy mechanism of trauma. High-energy trauma mechanism (OR=1.056, 95% CI, OR, 1.03-1.04, P<0.001), superior injury of clavicle (OR=1.07, 95% CI, OR, 1.03-1.1, P<0.001) and moderate to severe headache (OR=1.04, 95% CI, OR, 1.02-1.05, P<0.001) were positive predictors of CT findings. The combined mean of positive symptoms equaled 0.29 ± 0.64 in negative CTs, but 5.13 ± 2.4 in positive CTs, showing a significant difference. (P<0.001)
    Conclusion
    Abnormal positive brain CT in victims with mild TBI is predictable if one or several risk factors are taken into account such as moderate to severe headache, decreased consciousness, skull fracture, high-energy trauma mechanism, superior injury of clavicle and GCS of 13-14. The more the symptoms, the more likely the positive CT results would be.
    Keywords: Computerized tomography (CT)-scan, Traumatic brain injury (TBI), Criteria, Clinical, Brain
  • Alireza Pedram, Naghmeh Roshan, Fatemeh Asadian * Pages 278-283
    Objective
    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in pediatric acute appendicitis.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, 230 children aged 5-15 years with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis were studied. This study included the evaluation of demographic indices, ultrasound findings at diagnosis, and then comparing the results with the description of the patient's procedure and the pathology report of these patients. Patients who did not undergo ultrasound before surgery or their ultrasound did not include the evaluation of appendicitis or their pathologic report was not available were excluded.
    Results
    Overall, we have included a total number of 230 children with clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis among whom there were 121 (52.6%) girls and 109 (47.4%) boys with mean age of 11.44 ± 2.90 years. Preoperative ultrasound report showed that 51.3% were normal and 48.7% had acute appendicitis. 34.8% had normal appendix and 65.2% had a pathological diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound in these children were 58% and 68%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 77% and 46%, respectively. The area under curve (AUC) was 0.853 (CI 95% 0.788-0.917) indicating a test with moderate accuracy.   
    Conclusion
    According to the obtained results, abdominal ultrasonography is of acceptable diagnostic accuracy in pediatric patients with acute appendicitis. The use of auxiliary techniques in ultrasound would increase the sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children.
    Keywords: Ultrasonography, Appendicitis, Sensitivity, Specificity, Children
  • Abolfazl Abbaszadeh, Akram Tehmasebi, Foolad, Asghar Rajabzadeh, Nasim Beigi, Brojeni, Leila Zarei * Pages 284-291
    Objective
    The present study was aimed at assessment of effect of application of Chitosan/Nano Selenium biofilm on infected wound healing in rats
    Methods
    Sixty-eight male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups of 17 animals each. In group I (Normal) the wounds were created with no infection. In group II (MRSA), the wounds were infected with methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In group III (MRSA/CHIT), animals with infected wounds were dressed with chitosan biofilm only. In group IV (MRSA/CHIT/NS), animals with infected wounds were dressed with Chitosan/Nano Selenium biofilm.
    Results
    There were significant differences in comparisons of group IV and other groups, particularly in terms of cellular infiltration and neovascularization. During the study period, scores for neovascularization was significantly higher in group IV rats than other groups (P<0.05). Polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear (MNC) cell count and fibroblast cell proliferation in group IV were significantly higher than those of other experimental groups (P<0.05)
    Conclusion
    Chitosan/Nano Selenium biofilm resulted in significant improvement in histopathological indices in full thickness infected wound healing.
    Keywords: Infected wound, Chitosan, Nano Selenium, Biofilm, Rat
  • Ramin Nayebzadeh, Amir Ali Shahbazfar, Faranak Kazemi, Darabadi, Ezzatollah Fathi, Siamak Kazemi, Darabadi * Pages 292-299
    Objective
    To compare the effects of curcumin and nanocurcumin oral supplementation on the muscle healing rate of an animal model of surgical muscle laceration.
    Methods
    Thirty-two male adult rats were randomly divided into sham, control, curcumin, and nanocurcumin groups. Partial transection of the gastrocnemius muscle was made in the right limb of the control and treatment groups. The sham and control groups received normal saline, curcumin group received 500 mg/kg of curcumin and nanocurcumin group received 100 mg curcumin-loaded nanomicelles orally every day. They euthanized two weeks later and the specimens were stained by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Masson’s trichrome methods. Aspartate transaminase (AST) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were measured in blood samples.
    Results
    The percentage of collagen fibers in the nanocurcumin group was significantly lesser than the control and curcumin groups (p<0.001). Muscle fiber regeneration in the treatment groups was significantly higher than the control group (p<0.001). The blood vessels of the nanocurcumin group were significantly more than other groups (p<0.001). Plasma AST had a significant difference in the control group compared to the sham and nanocurcumin groups (p=0.026). The plasma CPK level of the control group was also significantly higher than other groups (p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    In conclusion, although oral curcumin supplementation has little effects because of its poor bioavailability, embedding it in nanoparticles could enhance its systemic effects in promoting the muscle healing process.
    Keywords: Muscle laceration, Curcumin, Nano particles, Rat
  • Milad Ahmadi Marzaleh, Rita Rezaee, Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Mahnaz Rakhshan, Gholamhassan Haddadi, Mahmoudreza Peyravi * Pages 300-306
    Objective
    To develop a national model for hospitals’ Emergency Department (ED) preparedness when facing radiation and nuclear incidents as well as nuclear terrorism in Iran.
    Methods
    This analytical study was carried out in 2019 via Delphi technique in two rounds and prioritization using a pairwise questionnaire. Using classic Delphi technique and pairwise comparison, the components were given to 32 specialists in emergency medicine, nuclear medicine, medical physics, nuclear physics, radiobiology and radiation protection, health in disaster and emergency, and passive defense. Finally, the national model was developed by holding two focus group sessions.
    Results
    The results from the two rounds of Delphi technique showed that 31 factors of preparedness were classified into three main classes, namely staff, stuff, and structure (system). Only three factors were excluded and the rest were agreed upon by the specialists. Given the weight of each class, it was found that staff preparedness and stuff preparedness had the highest and lowest priorities, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Comprehensive preparedness requires enhancing and promoting cultural, social, economic, and political levels. Indeed, all preparedness levels should be promoted in alignment with each other. Hence, governments should align their policies to manage such incidents.
    Keywords: Preparedness, Emergency department, Hospital, Radiation incidents, Nuclear incidents, Terrorism
  • Seyedmohammad Seyedbagheri, Majid Kazemi, Ali Esmaieli Nadimi, Tabandeh Sadeghi * Pages 307-314
    Objective
    To determine the effects of the implementation of the telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation (T-CPR) program on the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).
    Methods
    In this prospective study, Emergency Medical Service (EMS) dispatchers and all bystanders attending to patients with OHCA were included. The consensus sampling was carried out based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data collection tool was consisted of a demographic questionnaire for patients and bystanders accompanied by a checklist for CPR outcomes. Data were collected 6 months before and after the implementation of the T-CPR program and analyzed using SPSS version 18.
    Results
    The results revealed that the percentages of successful and unsuccessful CPR cases before the implementation of the T-CPR program were 28.1% and 71.9%, respectively. However, in total, 32% and 67.8% of the CPR cases were successful and unsuccessful, respectively, after the implementation of the mentioned program. The survival rate increased from 56.5% in the pre-intervention phase to 72.4% in the post-intervention one. In terms of the outcomes, brain complications decreased from 40% in the pre-intervention phase to 32.1% in the post-intervention one; however, the Chi-square test showed no significant difference in terms of CPR outcomes in the two time periods (p=0.797).
    Conclusion
    According to the results, it is recommended that T-CPR programs be developed and dispatchers be trained in the area of this research. The results could be regarded as a guide to EMS managers, healthcare professionals, and the basis for further studies on this subject.
    Keywords: elephone cardio pulmonary resuscitation (T-CPR), Dispatchers, Bystanders, Hospital cardiac arrest
  • Ali Jadidi, Behrooz Irannejad, Paria Bahrami, Yaser Moradi, Mohammadreza Zaker Tarzam * Pages 315-319
    Objective
    To evaluate the efficacy and preparedness of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in Islamic Republic of Iran to face Ebola.
    Methods
    The present study is cross-sectional and somehow descriptive. We used a standard questionnaire that was designed by “center for disease control and prevention”. This questionnaire was captioned “Emergency Medical Services (EMS) checklist for Ebola preparedness”. We collected a lot of data by studying that questionnaire and every manager in every province of Iran were informed about that info in 2016. This data was analyzed by using SSPP software version 16.
    Results
    Findings have showed the average score related to preparation level of EMS in facing Ebola in Iran was 63.73±12.77 percent. There was no significant difference between the country regions regarding the preparedness of to detect (p=0.975), protect (p=0.275) and respond (p=0.344) to ebola outbreaks.The highest score had been achieved by region number 5 and the lowest score belonged to region number 7.
    Conclusion
    Although the acquired average score in this study is higher than standards, considering the increased threat of breaking out biologic threats especially Ebola infection, using and practicing some measures in order to enhance preparation level of Emergency Medical Services counter this infection and similar infectious diseases is inevitable.
    Keywords: Preparation, Pre-hospital, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), Ebola, Bioterrorism, biologic agents
  • Mohammad Moshiri, Zahra Ataee, Parastoo Rahimi, Elham Ansari, Leila Etemad * Pages 320-323
    Ileus is a very rare complication of methamphetamine (MET) intoxication. We herein report a 15-year-old non-addict girl who ingested about 5 gr of MET. She suffered from bowel obstruction manifestations. She was treated by intravenous metoclopramide and erythromycin. On next morning, she became restlessness with tachycardia and sweeting that was treated by intravenous diazepam. Abdominal-pelvic computerized tomography (CT) scan confirmed generalize dilatation in small intestine and more prominent in colon with no ischemia or mechanical obstruction. It also showed some hyperdense collections in ascending colon, sigmoid and rectum. MET was detected in her urine. On the third day, the bowel obstruction signs resolved. On fourth day, the prokinetic drugs were discontinued and whole bowel irrigation by polyethylene-glycol was performed. She passed the drug packages, and was discharged in well condition on fifth day. MET intoxication can induce ileus, specially, in the higher doses of MET and physicians should mention this rare MET presentation.
    Keywords: Amphetamine, Catecholamine, Gastrointestinal, Ileus
  • Mohammad Sadegh Masoudi, Saber Zafar Shamspour *, Mohammad Ghasemi, Rad, Neda Soleimani, Abbas Rakhsha, Christie Lincoln Pages 324-329
    New onset seizures in pregnancy or the postpartum period can be of great importance and denote various underlying pathologies. Eclampsia and cerebrovascular accidents are common, and brain tumors are uncommon causes of postpartum seizures among others. Acute presentation of brain tumors in pregnancy or the postpartum period is extremely rare. Meningiomas are the most common benign intracranial tumors. Although 1.3 to 2.4% of these benign tumors may bleed, acute presentation of them with hemorrhage is quite rare. Herein, we report a rare case of a 36-year-old lady who presented with severe headache, seizure, and loss of consciousness in the postpartum period, five days after delivery of a full-term baby. Primary emergency evaluation revealed an extra-axial lesion with subdural hemorrhage. A Decompressive craniectomy was performed, hematoma was evacuated, and the tumor was totally resected. Histopathologic evaluation was consistent with a fibroblastic meningioma (WHO grade I). She was discharged in good general condition. Our case highlights the significance of complete evaluation of patients with new-onset seizures in pregnancy or the postpartum period. Although uncommon, brain tumors in pregnancy can have potentially devastating outcomes which may necessitate prompt surgical intervention.
    Keywords: Convexity Meningioma, Pregnancy, Brain Neoplasm, Hemorrhage, Seizure
  • Gülçin Aydin *, Bülent Bakar Pages 330-334
    Bonsai is a synthetic cannabinoid (SC) substance which can cause lung toxicity with chronic use. However,there are few case reports in literature related to bonsai-induced intracerebral hemorrhage in literature. A 25-year-old man presented at the Emergency Room (ER) with dyspnea,hemoptysis,agitation subsequent to bonsai use. He became unconscious in ER,was then intubated,admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The cranial computed tomography (CT) scan was non-specific,a thoracic CT scan revealed consolidation,the appearance of “ground-glass” in the lung,and therefore,development of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage was considered. The patient recovered consciousness on the second day of hospitalization,was extubated. During follow-up,he lost consciousness once again,on the cranial CT images,hemorrhage areas located in the left frontal,right posterior parietal regions were observed. Nevertheless,no surgical intervention was considered. The patient recovered consciousness three weeks after the second intubation,was transferred to the psychiatry clinic. In patients with synthetic cannabinoid substance abuse,life-threatening intracranial complications in the early and,or late phase should be kept in mind in addition to respiratory,systemic complications in the acute phase.
    Keywords: Cannabis, Intracranial Hemorrhage, Ground-glass appearance
  • Mazlum Kılıç, Rohat Ak * Pages 335-336
  • Mohammad Bagher Shamsi, Morteza Arab, Zozani, Maryam Mirzaei* Pages 337-338