فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:10 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Alireza Montzeri, Mehdi Pooladi*, Mohsen Odoumizadeh, Niloofar Nazarian, Soheila Karani Pages 1-9
    Introduction
    Stroke and heart attack are the most common causes of death among humans. Troponin I, Creatine Kinae-MB (CK-MB) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) are the diagnostic markers of heart attack which can also be used as high risk biomarkers. WiFi is a cheap common technology which exposes its users to a spectrum of electromagnetic waves. Can weak electromagnetic waves affect human health?
    Materials and Methods
    In this study, stroke in rats has been induced, and then they were exposed to WiFi waves (2.45  GHz) and finally were examined for the risk of heart attack through analyzing three enzyme biomarkers related to heart attack (Troponin I, CK-MB and LDH).
    Results
    This study’s results confirm WiFi’s biological effects and shows WiFi’s contribution in stroke. WiFi2.45GHz exposure affects three cardiac enzyme markers of heart attack (LDH, Troponin I and CK-MB), considering the current data on WiFi exposure effects on the brain, heart and related enzymes.
    Conclusion
    Some of the WiFi wave’s cellular targets include cell membrane, cellular proteins and enzymes. Despite all the data and reports on biological effects of electromagnetic fields, the range and rate of these effects has not yet been determined.
    Keywords: Stroke, Heart attack, Troponin I, CK-MB, LDH, WiFi
  • Enayatollah Keshavarz*, Ahmad Molaeirad Pages 10-17
    Introduction
    Biophotovoltaic cells have often been studied due to their properties and their potential applications in micro and nano equipments. In order to enhance the quality and versatility of these bio-photocells, flexible sheets such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have been widely used. In this study, ZnO nanoporous films were used for immobilization of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) due to the it’s great surface area, measured against titanium dioxide ( 15TiO2"> ). In addition to good conductivity, its superiority was proved by the arrangement of zinc oxide atoms at a suitable temperature.
    Materials and Methods
    In the present study, bacteriorhodopsin was immobilized on ZnO-PET surface through modifying the PET as a photoanode in (Dye-Sensitive Solar Cell) DSSCs. Furthermore, a non-toxicity protein, bR, was substituted for sensitizing ZnO–PET nanoparticles in DSSCs instead of the common expensive chemical-based dyes such as ruthenium-based or organic dyes. Atomic Force Microscopy technique was used to study the morphology of modified PET-ZnO & PET- 15TiO2">  surfaces before and after immobilization of bR
    Results
    AFM images show Signs of excellence in zinc oxide in the atomic arrangement. Finally, the typical I–V curves of the biomolecule-sensitized biosolar cell were obtained.  The results indicated that the overall conversion efficiency of the photocell is about 0.16 %, a solar cell flux (Jsc) of 0.45 mA cm−2, an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.57 V, and a fill factor of 0.62.
    Conclusion
    Atomic composition of nanoparticles of zinc oxide at a suitable temperature is better than titanium dioxide. This makes the cell more efficient in transporting electrons. the efficiency of the cell produced on the PET bed is appropriate but requires more scientific research.
    Keywords: Bio photovoltaic, bacteriorhodopsin, titanium dioxide, atomic force microscopy, PET
  • Hassan Emami*, Farkhondeh Asadi, Hamid Moghaddasi, Sara Ghalaneh Pages 18-25
    Introduction
    Worldwide prevalence of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is growing, and given the huge burden on the patient, the community and the healthcare system, prevention interventions and symptom management in order to improving the quality of life of these patients are of utmost importance. One of the most important strategies in this regard is providing the existence of an MS population-based registry. Accordingly, this research was aimed at providing a population-based MS registry model.
    Materials and Methods
    This is a qualitative study, carried out within the years 2016 and 2017. The population of the present study consisted of models of multiple sclerosis population registries. In this study, a model was provided using library resources, informational networks and information retrieval from databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, Springer, Science direct, and Wiley and also through studying the registry of developed countries. Then, this model using Delphi technique and questionnaire tool was validated and after data analysis, the final model was presented.
    Results
    In the present study, a demographic MS registry model including the following eight main criteria was proposed: registry goals, data sources, minimum data set, data set, data processing, various types of reports, quality control measures and patient follow-up procedures. 
    Conclusion
    Considering the prevalence of MS in Iran and the need for optimal data management, it is recommended that measures be taken to establish and use a national MS population-based registry and be one of the priorities of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education.
    Keywords: Multiple sclerosis, Registry, Data management, Population based registry
  • Atefeh Talebi*, Abolfazl Akbari, Mina Kashiha, Nahid Khokarami Pages 26-34
    Introduction
    Intrauterine device (IUD) is a safe, effective and reversible method of family planning. Unfortunately, IUD insertion causes anxiety and pain. The aim of study was to compare ridit analysis and Kruskal-wallis test in pain and anxiety intensity of IUD insertion in women referring to health centers of Karaj (Iran).
    Materials and Methods
    In this randomized clinical trial study, 150 eligible women candidate intrauterine device insertion entered the study and were randomly divided into three groups: chamomile, placebo and control groups. Data was collected from women who came to health centers in Karaj (Iran) in 2017. Data collection tools included demographic information, Spiel-Berger questionnaire and pain visual analogue scale. The intensity of pain and anxiety were measured afterwards. Finally, ridit analysis and Kruskal-wallis test were used to rank the intensity of pain and anxiety in patients. The R-3.4.3 and Microsoft's Excel software were used for statistical analysis.
    Results
    The results showed that the mean±SD of age in three groups was 29.7±7.01, 28.68±8.15 and 31.6±7.71, respectively. Ridit analysis and Kruskal-wallis test showed considerable decrease of the anxiety and pain intensity, induced by IUD insertion in Chamomile, Placebo and Control groups respectively. Ridit analysis and Kruskal-wallis test statistics are significant. The value of the ridit statistic was 15د‡2=20.23, P<0.001">  and the value of Kruskal-wallis test is 15د‡2=18.67, P<0.005">  in pain intensity. Moreover, the value of the ridit statistic is 15د‡2=3.92, P<0.001">  and the value of Kruskal-wallis test is 15د‡2=21.37, P<0.005">  in anxiety intensity.
    Conclusions
    The results of this study suggested that, there is less significant difference in ridit analysis than Kruskal-wallis test among the three groups in decreasing pain and anxiety intensity.
    Keywords: Ridit analysis, Pain, Anxiety, IUD insertion
  • Rajab Mardani*, Fatemeh Daneshmand, Fatemeh Haghirolsadat, Mehdi Kalantar Pages 35-42
    Introduction
    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) has been produced in different conditions and cell lines. Identification, isolation, and purification of this protein from various sources have pivotal role in clinical applications. Hence, Clinical trials should be carried out for the identification of purity and aggregation of biological EPO.  Moreover, the purification of EPO cooperates with various recommended processes has been manifested, but the strategies schemes (i.e., liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion exchange chromatography (IEX) are often used in combination. In the current study, the quality of purification, biological modifications and the stability of rhEPO using various chromatography methods including HPLC and IEX have been assessed.
    Materials and Methods
    rhEPO was expressed in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and purified by the general requirements for the quality control of biological products. For the assessment of the influence of IEX in the purity pattern of rhEPO, HPLC and biological analysis were performed for 3 samples.
    Results
    Our results revealed that the combination of 4 strategies represent confident methods for evaluating the quality of this biological medicinal product; moreover, purity and biochemical applications will yield to a relatively pure protein preparation. The activity of EPO was presented by monomeric isoform and high acid sialic purification in final product. Moreover, the determination of the biochemical reactions rate and their relationship tests were obtained by change in electrical conductivity with pH being 31.5 and 5, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Taken together, our results indicated that different purification process based on our results can increase the accuracy of rhEPO purification.
    Keywords: Recombinant human Erythropoietin, Gel filtration, IEX, HPLC, Purification
  • afsaneh Enteshari, moghaddam*, Anahita Zakeri, Abolfazl Atalu, Vahid Abbasi Pages 43-50
    Introduction
    Osteoporosis is called “silent  illness", in  which   the  bones  get  lost  without  any  signs  , with symptoms  of  pain  and  fracture  developing in advanced stages . According to the World Health Organization statistics, about 40% of women and 10%   of men are at risk of osteoporosis during their lifetime. Osteoporosis is more common among women than in men   and in Iran half of women over the age of 45 and 90% of women over 75 are afflicted with it. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of Ardabil medical university students toward osteoporosis.
    Materials and Methods
    This  is  a descriptive  cross-sectional  study  that has been performed over  258  students  of  Ardabil  medical university in different fields  of  study.  The data collection method was a research based questionnaire including demographic data and questions about knowledge of osteoporosis. Data were analyzed using statistical methods in SPSS version 16. P value of less than 5% was considered as significant.
    Results
      69.5 percent of students were female students and the rest were male. 31.2 percent had good knowledge, 61.3   percent average   knowledge and 7.5 percent poor knowledge toward osteoporosis. The most correct answer was “to have suitable  nutrition in preventing osteoporosis” and “high risk to older people  for  osteoporosis” which were  statistically  significant  and   the  lowest  correct  answer  (5.8%)  was  related  to “increase the  risk  of  osteoporosis by removing ovaries”.
    Conclusion
    Considering the high prevalence of osteoporosis and increasing the number of seniors over the past decades, the country should take necessary measures in order  to  raise  the  level  of  awareness  of  the  community  and  especially  students  about  osteoporosis such as the risk factors, prevention  and  complications  of  the  disease through  the  health  system  and  governmental or non-governmental organs .
    Keywords: Osteoporosis, Awareness, Students
  • Mohadeseh Shojaei Shahrokhabadi*, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Farid Zayeri Pages 51-62
    Introduction
    Although the precise estimates of healthcare expenditures are critical for health policy-makers, the right-skewed distribution and a substantial number of zero values of the measures of healthcare expenditure make such estimates challenging. The present study used conventional two-part (CTP) and marginalized two-part (MTP) models to handle the skewness and zero-inflation in expenditure distribution as two serious challenges. 
    Materials and Methods
    Data was used from the 2017 Households Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES; 38,252 households), a national cross-sectional study in Iran. CTP and MTP models were utilized to estimate the medical supplies, outpatient, inpatient and total medical expenditures. The rural-urban difference in total medical expenditures and other health services were also examined.   All data analyses were performed using SAS. For all tests, two-sided p-values <0.05 were interpreted as statistically significant.
    Results
    The mean (SD) out-of-pocket spending for total healthcare was $143 ($488) per capita, and $182 ($650) and $105 ($239) for urban and rural areas, respectively. The mean (SD) medical supplies cost per capita was $48 ($240), and the mean (SD) of outpatient cost per capita and inpatient cost per capita were $61 ($245) and $34 ($294), respectively. Both CTP and MTP models suggested that urban population spent more money on total expenditures than rural populations (p<0.05). Although both models gave the same set of parameter estimates, the AIC indicated that the MTP-GG model was a more appropriate fit.
    Conclusion
    The marginalized models provided better estimates in documenting inequalities/healthcare expenditures. Unlike the CTP model, the estimation of covariate effects on the marginal mean of the whole population via using the MTP model is straightforward. However, the MTP model may not outperform the CTP model in all cases. The applications of such models need to be considered in the future research to provide better estimates/documentations of healthcare expenditure and healthcare inequalities. In addition, these findings suggest a substantial inequality in healthcare expenditures between urban and rural areas. Considering the differences in urbanity and rurality can be of interest to health economists and policymakers.
    Keywords: Healthcare expenditure, Conventional two-part model, Marginalized two-part model, Inequality, Iran
  • Fatemeh Abdi*, Zahra Behboodi Moghadam, Mansoureh Yazdkhasti, Tayebeh Darooneh, Sahar Rostami Pages 63-77
    Context
     Thrombophilia is an inherited or acquired predisposition in developing thrombosis. The two common thrombophilia polymorphisms are factor V Leiden (FVL) and factor II/ prothrombin G20210A (PT) gene mutations which can contribute to negative pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, in-vitro fertilization (IVF) failure, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), placental abruption, stillbirth, and pregnancy-associated venous thromboembolism. This review study sought to describe the effects of FVL and PT mutations on pregnancy complications. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, a comprehensive search was performed on Iranian and international databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Sciences, Proquest and Google Scholar for articles published during 1996-2018. Out of 220 reviewed articles, 80 papers were ultimately selected.
    Results
    According to these 80 selected papers, the possible relations of PT and FVL with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) have been widely evaluated. Several studies indicated higher risk of recurrent early miscarriages, implantation failure and fetal loss after IVF among women with FVL and PT mutations.
    Conclusion
    Observational studies have suggested the benefits of screening patients for thrombophilic polymorphisms in identification of women with higher risk of developing thromboembolic events and other related pregnancy complications. Based on such screening programs, prophylactic therapy can be limited to a selected group of women who truly need it.
    Keywords: Thrombophilia, Factor V Leiden, Hyperprothrombinemia, Mutation, Pregnancy Complications