فهرست مطالب

پژوهش های زبان شناختی قرآن - سال هشتم شماره 1 (Winter-Spring 2019)
  • سال هشتم شماره 1 (Winter-Spring 2019)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/02/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • Maryam Hossein Golzar *, Abolfazl Khoshmanesh Pages 1-12
    Fables of the Ancients? Folklore in the Qur’an is Alan Dundes’ first published work on an Islamic subject. The author introduces “Oral-Formulaic” theory and uses it to examine the Qur’an from a literary point of view with primary emphasis on oral and verbal (as distinct from written) aspects of language. Dundes uses general concepts of oral literature such as narration, transmission forms, recitation, divine origin and revelation. In Dundes’ account, there are specific features of oral literature, which can verify the folkloric nature of the Qur’an. These features include: proverbs, folk tales and ancient myths. The advantages of Dundes’ work as discussed in this article include: a new approach to understanding the terms “folklore” and “myth”, high accuracy in locating the repetitions in the Qur’an, accurate references to the similarities between the Qur’an and the Christian holy scripture and using the right order of chapters (Surahs) and Verses. The disadvantages of the book consist of: numerous typographical errors, wrong or incomplete references, insufficient use of Muslim writers’ works, incorrect interpretations, bringing up unnecessary theological subjects, making inconsistent statements, comparing three Qur’anic tales with Aarne -Thompson index and ignoring certain Islamic premises.
    Keywords: Alan Dundes, Fables of the Ancients, Folklore in the Qur’an, A Review
  • Muhammad Reza Sotoudehnia *, Mahdi Habibolahi Pages 13-26
    Muslim exegetes have long sought to discover the wise secrets, rhetorical points, and explicit or implicit messages embedded in the expressions and structures of the Quranic text. In addition to the common methods of using lexicological approaches, Arabic morphology and syntax, ancient Arabic poetry or narrating the exegetical sayings from the prophet''s Companions to literally interpret explicit meanings of Quranic words, they sometimes appealed to intellectual methods in order to extract implicit and implied meanings hidden in some Quranic verses. In modern times, most of these technics and methods have been classified and introduced in various branches of linguistics. One of the relatively new branches of linguistics which concerns inferring implied, and intended meanings out of the utterances is pragmatics. The present study aims at conducting a comparison between the newly developed elements of pragmatics and some of the medieval Quranic commentaries which applied those elements. In this regard, three much discussed elements of presupposition, entailment and conventional implicature have been selected and then a number of old Quranic exegetes in which these three elements have been indirectly used are introduced. The study indicates that Muslim commentators of the medieval era were aware of these technics and extensively used them in their works.
    Keywords: Quranic exegeses, Pragmatics, Presupposition, Entailment, Conventional implicature
  • Azadeh Nemati *, Rogaye Sheikhi Pages 27-42
    This paper aimed to study four translations of the Holly Quran using a comprehensive Appraisal theory approach by Martin and White (2005). In so doing, the Chapter Al-Munafequn (The Hypocrites) was considered as the source text and four English translations of the Holly Quran (Arberry, 1955; Irving, 1985; Shakir, 1999; Yusuf Ali, 1934) were considered as the target texts. The study used a corpus-based qualitative translation assessment design. The data collection was based on purposive sampling, and the data analysis was based on all the three sub-systems of Appraisal theory (Attitude, Engagement, and Gradation) based on a three point assessment scale namely ‘+’ meaning acceptable, ‘-’ meaning unacceptable and ‘≈’ meaning relatively acceptable. The study comprised two research questions: (1) What are the choices made by the four translations of the Al-Munafequn Chapter and how can the translations be evaluated individually? (2) Which of the four translations is most qualified in terms of Appraisal theory sub-systems? To answer the first question, data were collected from each source independently and then evaluated and tabulated based on the appraisal theory. Regarding the second research question the following results were obtained: TT1 (Arberry’s version) suggested acceptable translations in terms of the three aspects of Attitude, Engagement, and Gradation. TT2 (Irving’s version) showed a fairly acceptable translation quality by fulfilling most of the Appraisal features of the original verse with several shortcomings. TT3 (Shakir’s version) represented an acceptable translation as it dealt with many aspects of Appraisal in ST. Finally, TT4 (Yusuf Ali’s version) showed a highly acceptable transfer of Appraisals in its translation. As a result, from among the four translations, TT4 (Yusuf Ali’s translation) could be deemed as the most accurate version in translating the Appraisal sub-systems.
    Keywords: The Holly Quran, Appraisal theory, translation quality assessment, Attitude, engagement, gradation
  • Kaveh Valipoor, Hossein Heidari Tabrizi, Azizeh Chalak * Pages 43-52
    Translation of cultural-specific items (CSIs) has always been a challenge for translators. To overcome this problem, they employ different strategies. The present study focused on the role of CSIs in English translation of the Holy Quran by Irving and how he has used different strategies in rendering them. The design of the study was a descriptive one and the data were collected from the second surah of the Quran (Baqara). The theoretical framework was Venuti’s (1995) domestication and foreignization Model. This study analyzed the differences in the use of these two strategies through descriptive statistics by presenting frequency and percentage of each alternative.  The analysis of the data showed that Irving used domestication as the main technique to render CSIs. The findings of this study could be beneficial for both students of translation and the practitioners in the field to get familiar with the most influential strategies in rendering cultural specific items.
    Keywords: Cultural Specific Items, Domestication, English Translation of the Holy Quran, Foreignization
  • Mina Zand Rahimi *, Azadeh Sharifi Moghaddam Pages 53-64
    This study aimed at investigating the translation of address terms from Arabic text of the Quran (ST) into English as well as Persian translations (TTs) based on politeness principle. The purpose was to evaluate the two translations in terms of implementing proper polite address terms. The data were gathered from the Original Arabic version of the Quran as the ST and two different versions of its English translations (Gharib and Yusuf Ali) as well as two versions of Persian translations (Fooladvand and Makarem Shirazi) as the TTs.  In order to analyze the data, Brown and Levinson’s (1987) theory of politeness was used. The most frequent translation strategies were also identified according to Vinay and Darbelnet (2012) as well as Harvey and Higgins (1986) for rendering proper nouns. Moreover, the classification of address terms by Aliakbari&Tohi (2008) and address functions by Biber et al (1999) was also applied. To achieve the objectives, the following steps were taken: address terms were extracted from Arabic, English and Persian texts of the Quran. Then, they were classified to different types, after that politeness principles used in the Arabic text of the Quran and their rendering were compared and contrasted, and finally translation strategies applied to render Arabic address terms into English and Persian were identified. The results of the study revealed that all versions of English and Persian translations depicted the psychological distance between Allah and people as the Arabic version of the Quran. Also, the findings showed that in the translation of address terms from SL into TTs translators did their best to maintain the words of Allah by rendering the words literally.
    Keywords: address terms, Holy Quran, negative politeness, positive politeness, translation strategies, address types
  • Zahra Jannessari Ladani * Pages 65-82
    The story of the “fall” in Judo-Christian tradition, particularly the Bible, has functioned as a model for many narratives written by Christian poets such as John Milton. Since the Bible has been written by numerous writers and accumulated through centuries, it is obviously not the word of God, but man’s reproduction of it. The story of man’s fall and original sin, therefore, has been narrated from a human perspective, not a divine viewpoint. Thus, the biblical account of Adam and Eve’s fall carries the ideological strains bearing on anthropocentric knowledge and culture. In other words, this narrative bears prejudicial aspects which are transferred to later historical phases, and crystallized particularly in poetic traditions and narratives like Paradise Lost. Although Milton’s poem reproduces the biblical version of the fall by stylizing and modifying it for reasons pertaining to the socio-political context in which it was composed, still the work is informed with the biblical view of the fall. Compared to the fall narrative in the Bible and Paradise Lost, the Quran’s narrative is not only exempt from any ideological or prejudicial burden, but also renders the event in egalitarian and unbiased terms. Therefore, this essay will explore how Judo-Christian tradition diverges from the divine narrative of the fall by paralleling this tradition to the Islamic one in the Quran as the ultimate and undistorted book of God. Furthermore, the research seeks to show that the semantic divergences in the biblical and Miltonic narratives of the fall signal the essential differences between direct revelation (in the Quran), modified revelation (in the Bible) and poetic manipulation of revelation (in Paradise Lost). As for methodology, Bonn and Paris schools of semantics will be employed to carry out the investigation. This study is significant for it can help both teachers and students to differentiate between Judo-Christian and Islamic traditions while reading Paradise Lost.
    Keywords: Quran, Bible, John Milton, Paradise Lost, “fall”, Bonn, Paris Semantic Schools, Islam, Judo-Christianity, Revelation