فهرست مطالب

Medicinal Plants and By-products - Volume:8 Issue:1, 2019
  • Volume:8 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/05/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Mehri Saeedinia *, Seyed Hamzeh Hosseinian, Farhad Beiranvand, Hassan Mumivand Pages 1-6
    This research was conducted to study of the essential oil content, some morphological parameters, crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and crop coefficient (Kc) of Summer Savory (Satureja hortensis L.) in the west of Iran (Khorramabad region) in 2017. Weighing Lysimeters (25 cm diameter and 30 cm height) were used to measure important morphological parameters, the evapotranspiration of grass (ET0) and Summer Savory (ETc.) for the first time (Three lysimeters for each plant that was considered as replication). Irrigation was performed by the weighing method. The results showed that the essential oil content was 1.083%(w/w), and the average of plant height, stem diameters, root length, root diameter, number of leaf per plant, leaf and flower dry weight, stem dry weight were 47cm, 3.13mm, 14.5cm, 2.26mm, 630.7, 0.866 g/plant, 0.890 g/plant, respectively. Crop coefficient (Kc) can be used in predicting exact water requirement of crops. The result indicated that seasonal ET0and ETcwere884.26 mm and 776.64mm. The best polynomial curve for Kc values as a function of the days after planting (DAP) was a third polynomial (). Likewise, the growth-stage-specific crop coefficient, based on FAO approach (FAO-56 Kc) was 0.45, 0.78and 1.3. Development of the regional Kc helps in irrigation management and water resources protection.
    Keywords: crop coefficient, Crop evapotranspiration, essential oil, Morphological parameters, Weighing Lysimeters
  • Mohammad, Bagher Rezaee *, Kamkar Jaimand Pages 7-12
    Plants of the family Anacardiaceae have a long history of use by various peoples for medicinal and other purposes. Cotinus coggygria, also known as the “smoke tree”, is one of the two species constituting a small genus of the family Anacardiaceae, viz., C. coggygria Scop. (syn.: Rhus cotinus L.) The Iranian smoke tree, plant material air-dried C. coggygria were collected in early stage of flowering on 12 July 2017  and seconed sample were extracted on late stage of flowering on 10 october 2017 in Research Institute of Forests and Ranglands. Both samples essential oil were extracted by water-distilled (Clevenger apparatus type) for 3 hrs. on early stage of flowering (75 gram) on 12 July 2017  and seconed sample were extracted on late stage of flowering (400 gram) on 10 october 2017 were 0.66% and 0.032% (V/W), respectively,  and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Main components from early stage of flowering were n-dodecanol (7.6%), spathulenol (7.5%), (2Z, 6E)-farnesyl acetate (7.1%), germacrene B (7%) and isolongifolol (4.7%), and for late stage of flowering were (Z )- β-ocimene (45.8%), (E )- β-ocimene (6.9%),  α- pinene (7.6%) and trans-sabienene hydrate (6.9%), identified . Commercial-grade ocimene is used as a starting material for the manufacture of a number of perfume chemicals, and it is also used occasionally as a perfume material since it creates  very pleasant effects with bay oil in modem spicy-herbaceous  fragrances.
    Keywords: Anacardiaceae, Cotinus coggygria, Main components, chemical composition
  • Morteza Ghorbany, Seyyed Hamid Reza Ramazani *, Hamid, Reza Fallahi, Seyyed Mousa Mousavi Koohi Pages 13-19
    The effect of four different levels of irrigation periods, including normal irrigation, irrigation after 100, 150, and 200mm evaporation, with three different bio-fertilizer including control, Mycorrhiza, and Rhizobium were investigated on morphological and yield traits of guar. The experiment was conduct in form of split-plot design with irrigation periods as main plots and bio-fertilizers as sub-plots with three replications in research farm of Sarayan agricultural college-University of Birjand in2016.The results of analysis of variance showed significant effect of investigated irrigation periods on plant height, wilting, root length, pod length, number of pods per plant, grain yield, and biological yield at 1% probability level, and on chlorophyll content, height of the first branch, stem diameter, number of secondary branch, number of seeds per pod, and harvest index at 5% probability level. The interaction effect of drought stress×bio-fertilizers of bio-fertilizers was significant on wilting at 1% probability level and on chlorophyll and pod length at 5% probability level. The results of means comparison analysis revealed that the highest mean of wilting was achieved in severe drought stress induction in control, and application of both Mycorrhiza, and Rhizobium bio-fertilizers. Increasing levels of drought stress led to significant reduction in grain yield and harvest index of guar. Application of Mycorrhiza, and Rhizobium bio-fertilizers did not show significant effect on yield traits of guar under drought stress condition; however the protein percentage of guar’s seeds was increased in moderate drought stress and inoculation with Rhizobium. Based on the results of simple correlation analysis biological yield and harvest index had the highest positive and significant correlation with grain yield of guar and can used as selection criteria under drought stress condition.
    Keywords: bio-fertilizer, Drought Stress, Guar, mycorrhiza, Rhizobium
  • Raheleh Rahbarian *, Elham Azizi, Assieh Behdad, Atena Mirbolook Pages 21-31
    Purslane(Portulaca oleracea L.) is a local plant in Iran that can easily breed. Chromium is a heavy metal that causes toxicity for the growth and development of plants. To study the effects of  potassium dichromate on growth, efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), cell membrane stability index (MSI), indexes of oxidative stress and antioxidant properties of purslane, an experiment was done in a completely randomized design of five levels (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm Cr per kg of soil) in  a greenhouse condition. After 60 days, the effect of different levels of chromium on growth parameters, Fv/Fm, MSI, total phenolic compound, flavonoid, H2O2 and malondialdehyde content and antioxidants enzymatic activity (catalase, peroxidese and ascorbate peroxidase) was assayed. Along With increasing concentrations of chromium, the malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 was increased, and followed by the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds (except APX) was increased to compensate the effect of oxidant compounds. But, Heavy metal negatively affected growth parameters such as dry weight and length of root and shoot, Fv/Fm and MSI in contaminated plants. Therefore, the destructive effects due to chromium stress with increases the activity of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system was minimized. It was noted that accumulation of chromium in the roots was higher than the shoots of the plants under treatment, significantly. Based on these results, purslane can be introduced as a good candidate for tolerance to chromium.
    Keywords: Chromium, Enzymatic antioxidants, Oxidants level, Phenolic compounds, Purslane
  • Mehdi Ghabooli, Majid Rostami *, Esmaeel Kaboosi Pages 33-40
    Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff. belonging to the Apiaceae family, is well known for its medicinal and nutritional importance, endemic to Iran. Seed dormancy is a major problem present in Kelussia odoratissima leading to low germination percentage; thus, improvement of seed germination and breaking seed dormancy is important. Piriformospora indica, a root-colonizing endophytic fungus, promotes plant growth, development and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to evaluate the effects of different treatments of P. indica on seed germination traits of Kelussia odoratissima, an experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications. The experimental treatments were application of fungal mycelium of P. indica (M), spore suspension of P. indica (S), the combination of Gibberellic acid and fungal mycelium (H+M), the combination of Gibberellic acid and spore suspension (H+S), and control (C). Based on the results the highest percentage of germination (75%) and the highest germination rate was related to spore suspension of P. indica. The lowest amount of germination uniformity (GU) observed in spore suspension of P. indica treatment. Among the different treatments, application of P. indica spore suspension resulted in lowest times for 10% germination (D10) and 90% germination (D90). The highest plumule and radicle length observed in spore treatment and in comparison with control, application of spore suspension of P. indica increasedplumule and radicle length by 16% and 32%, respectively. Based on the current results, it seems that spore suspension of P. indica was the best treatment for improvement of seed germination traits.
    Keywords: Germination uniformity, Medicinal plants, P. indica, Seed dormancy
  • Mohammad Ali Alizadeh *, Syed Sedighe Sajjadi Jaghargh, Rauf Seyed Sharifi, Mohsen Calagari, Mohammad Sedghi Pages 41-51
    Chamomile (Anthemis haussknechtii Boiss. & Reut. and Anthemis pseudocotula Boiss.) are annual, medicinal and aromatic plant belong to Asteraceae family. This two species have special important in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Current study was carried out to investigation of different pre-treatments for enhancement of seed emergence potential, rate of emergence and vigor in some populations of Anthemis haussknechtii and Anthemis pseudocotula For this purpose, a factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete design with three replications. The first were six populations and the second factor were six pre-treatments levels including osmopriming (0.5% and 1% of potassium nitrate (KNO3)), hormon priming (125 ppm and 250 ppm of gibberellic acid (GA3)), hydropriming (as control with distilled water) and moist chilling (4 °C) in greenhouse conditions. The results showed significant differences between population, treatment and their interactions (p<0.01). Priming improved means of manty traits in some populations. In comparing between populations, 19320-Zanjan population had higher seed emergence characteristics higher than the other five populations. It was concluded that giberellic acid and potassium nitrate had higher effects on emergence characteristics than moist chilling and control. It was concluded that hormonal priming and osmopriming as physiological treatment, enhanced seed emergence characteristics and seedling vigor in some populations of Anthemis in greenhouse conditions.
    Keywords: Anthemis haussknechtii, Anthemis pseudocotula, Emergence percentage, Hydropriming, Osmopriming
  • Mahdi Nikraad, Seyed Mohsen Hesamzadeh Hejazi *, Maryam Pezhmanmehr Pages 53-65
    The present study was conducted to investigate genetic diversity between and within of six populations with different individual numbers of cultivated and non-cultivated provenances of  Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori and Moringa oleifera Lam. using RAPD, ISSR and various combinations of RAPD and ISSR primers in one multiplex PCR (R-ISSR). 10 primers that produced clear and reproducible fragments after screening of 30 primers were selected for further analysis. A set of 10 primers generated 96 bands ranging in size from 150 to 1600 bp, corresponding to an average of 16 bands per primer and out of which 100 % were polymorphic among 26 individuals.  The PIC values ranged from 0.16 to 0.31 and MI values ranged from 2.16 to 4.65 per primer. The primer R-ISSR (H876+A17) had the highest PIC (0.31) and MI (4.65) values. A maximum and minimum genetic similarity values were observed between populations (I and V) in M. oleifera (0.98) and populations (III and IV) in M. peregrina (0.52) respectively. The Gst value was 0.7, indicating that 61% of the genetic diversity resided within the populations. Clustering analysis using average algorithm based on Nei's unbiased genetic distance, classified the Moringa Adans. populations into five major groups. The PCOA data confirmed the results of clustering. The results of this study revealed that R-ISSR markers could be efficiently used for genetic differentiation of the Moringa individuals. The primers used in this article are useful to detection of a high level of polymorphism and it can be used to guide future breeding studies and management of Moringa genus.
    Keywords: Moringa, Genetic diversity, RAPD, ISSR, R-ISSR
  • Ardalan Ghilavizadeh *, Esmaeil Hadidi Masouleh, Hamid Reza Zakerin, Seyed Ali Reza Valadabadi, Saeid Sayfzadeh, Mohsen Yousefi Pages 67-75
    The present study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of salicylic acid on growth, yield and macro-elements absorption of fennel in split-plot as base on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in Tehran, Iran. Irrigation regime as main plot was undergone in 5 levels that included: I1: full irrigation, I2: cut off irrigation at stem elongation stage, I3: cut off at budding stage, I4: cut off irrigation at 50% flowering stage and I5: cut off irrigation at grain filling stage. Foliar application of SA (0, 3, 6, and 8 mM) as sub plot was applied at stem elongation, budding and 50% flowering stages. Result indicated application of SA was resulted to increase biological yield in all irrigation regimes. However, application of 6 mM SA had the most biomass under water stress at grain filling stage. Interaction of water stress and SA demonstrated that application of 3 mM SA had the most grain yield under full irrigation, water stress at stemming and water stress at grain filling stages, while application of 9 mM SA had the highest grain yield under water stress at budding and 50% flowering stages.
    Keywords: Grain yield, Macro-elements, Medicinal herb, salicylic acid, Water stress
  • Fatemeh Parsa *, Soghra Mohebbian, Reza Azadi Gonbad, Ali Seraji, Mohammad, Bagher Rezaee Pages 77-83
    Every year lots of black tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) residue will produce in the factories. These residue are unusable whereas the bio active compounds can be extracted and used in the drag and food industries. Due to mentioned problems, this project was conducted years 2011 - 2012 with the aim to make a study on consecutive isolation of all bio active compounds from tea residue, that extraction of one compound won’t benefite to build a lateral products factory but isolation of all bio active compounds can increase productivity. In this survey, four compounds of caffeine, catechin, fiber and protein were be separated and measured from residue mixture in three steps from three sequential models. The isolation of caffeine and catechin were placed together in one step because the extraction condition was similar. Experiments was conducted with four replications and data was analyzed. The results indicated that effect of three sequence models was significant on extraction yield of caffeine, catechin, protein, and fiber (P<0/01). Comparison of yields indicated that the maximum amount of caffeine and protein was obtained from second sequence, also the maximum amount of catechin and fiber from third sequence. The economic comparison results among sequences indicated that the all sequences were economical however third sequence was introduced as the most economical model in terms ratio of benefit to cost due to high price of catechin and maximum rate.
    Keywords: Black tea (Camellia sinensis) residue, Consecutive separating, Bio active compounds
  • Samaneh Chiti, Shadi Basiri *, Ali Mortazavi, Akram Sharifi Pages 85-93
    Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is an important medicinal plant in Iran. Jujube fruit contains amino acids, polysaccharides and microelements.Ripened jujube fruits were collected at fully mature stage from two research collection of jujube at Khaf and Birjand centers in south Khorasan province, Iran, early in September, 2015.The physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity were investigated. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals (DPPH) scavenging method. The results were showed a significant difference between evaluated physicochemical parameters. The acidity and pHofKhafjujube were 0.72%, 4.37 and the acidity and pH of Birjand jujube were 0.37%, 4.65; respectively. Protein, fat, fruit moisture and vitamin C in Khaf jujube (3.92%, 0.72%, 0.75% and 137.59 mg/100gr fresh weight) were more than Birjandjujube(3.24%, 0.4%, 0.06% and 125.11mg/100gr fresh weight). Birjand jujube had more reducing sugars percent (35.93 %). Seed’s moisture, 100-grain weight and the antioxidant activity of Birjand jujube (0.156%, 151.03 mg, Ec50= 0.1704 mg/ml) was higher than Khaf sample (0.11, 103.06, Ec50= 0.3135 mg/ml). The viscosities of two jujube varieties werein shear thinning fluids category. The viscosity of Khaf jujube sample was higher than Birjand jujube in different durations and shear rates. The transparency of the color of the Birjand sample (18.21%) was higher than Khaf jujube (17.67%). Overall, thebased on sensory evaluation, physicochemical and consistency properties ofKhaf jujube were more suitable than Birjand jujube while the antioxidant activityofBirjand jujube was higher than Khaf sample.
    Keywords: antioxidant capacity, consistency, Iranian Jujube Fruit, Physicochemical properties
  • Nesa Jafary, Zohreh Rabiei, Sattar Tahmasebi Enferadi *, Reza Behruzi, Mario Scalet Pages 95-103
    Background
    Parthenolide is major sesquiterpene lactones present in Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip. (feverfew).  This compound is known as herbal active principals with potential use in pharmaceutical and medicine. In order to solubility improving, analogue of Parthenolide, aminopropyl theoxy silane -mesoporous silica of Parthenolide, was synthesized as well. In this study, it was extracted from fresh flowers of feverfew and was purified and identified by chromatography methods Cell death of breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 was assayed 24 hour after administration of normal and nanoparticle Parthenolide by Methylthiazol Tetrazolium test and Annexin-V-Flous kit and scanning electron microscopy. The results revealed that anti-growth effect of Parthenolide is independent of exposure time and induced apoptosis in cancer cells yet this effect on fibroblast cells as normal ones did not recognized which guarantees the use of this medicinal herb to treat cancers without promotion of other not interested side effect.
    Keywords: Cell viability, HPLC, mesoporous silica of PTL, Parthenolide, MTT test