فهرست مطالب

Annals of Military and Health Sciences Research - Volume:17 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:17 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Farshad Ghazalian Page 1
    Background
    The intensity of the vibration load refers to frequency and amplitude.
    Objectives
    The present study aimed at reviewing the effects of high and low intensity whole body vibration training on inflammatory markers.
    Methods
    Overall, 30 healthy male patients were divided to three groups, including control (N = 8), high intensity (N = 11), and low intensity (N = 11) groups. Training included consecutive weeks, three times each week with low intensity (amplitudes of 2 mm), high intensity (amplitudes of 4 mm), and progressive frequencies. Blood samples were analyzed for concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibrinogen before and after completion of training. Paired sample t-test and One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the research findings (P ≤ 0.05).
    Results
    Whole body vibration training with low and high intensities had no significant effects on hsCRP and fibrinogen levels (P ≥ 0.05).
    Conclusions
    It appears that six weeks of low and high intensity vibration training has the same effects on CRP and fibrinogen.
    Keywords: Vibration Training, Amplitude, Inflammatory Markers
  • Sharif Najafi, Zahra Rezasoltani, Kamran Azma, Saman Nayeb Abbas, Mehrdad Aghaei, Ehsan Sanati* Page 2
    Background Osteoporosis is a common condition among postmenopausal women, and one of the main medications for treatment is bisphosphonate compounds.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the efficacy of the oral form (alendronate) with injectable form (zoledronic acid) of bisphosphonate compounds.
    Methods
    This retrospective cohort study was carried out over three years (2010 to 2012) on patients referred to Physical Medicine Clinic of Tehran, Imam Reza Hospital, and two private rheumatology clinics in the cities of Gorgan and Shiraz, Iran. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, 33 postmenopausal women were studied in each of the alendronate and zoledronic acid groups.
    Results
    Mean age and T-score of femur and lumbar spine before treatment showed no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.223, 0.321 and 0.953, respectively). After a year of treatment, the T-score had improved and this improvement was statistically significant in both groups; however this improvement was higher in zoledronic acid group (P = 0.019 for femur and P = 0.011 for spine).
    Conclusions
    The injectable form of bisphosphonates (zoledronic acid) compared to oral form (alendronate) has more effect on improving osteoporosis and T-score of postmenopausal women.
    Keywords: Alendronate, Zoledronic Acid, Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal
  • Abbas Sadeghi, Laya Ghahari *, Mitra Yousefpour Authors Information Page 3
    Background
    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) exerts toxic effects via the formation of oxidative stress on the brain. Antioxidants such as Vitamin E (Vit E) can affect free radicals.
    Objectives
    This study was conducted to decrease damage and oxidative stress against PVC products in rats’ brain by vitamin E.
    Methods
    In the current study, we used 24 male Wistar rats in four groups (N = 6 rats per group) as the control, Vit E, PVC, PVC plus Vit E. We orally administered vitamin E and PVC for 40 days. Then the rats were anesthetized and the brain was removed and transferred to a temperature of -70ºC in order to measure lipid peroxidation.
    Results
    our results revealed that oral administration of PVC decreased catalase and total antioxidant capacity levels, and increased malondialdehyde in PVC exposed rats. Vitamin E improved spatial memories by enhancing neurogenesis in the brain.
    Conclusions
    Exposure to PVC can produce oxidative stress enzymes and make brain damage. Vitamin E, as an antioxidant, can decrease the toxic effects of PVC and protect the brain.
    Keywords: Oxidative Stress, Polyvinyl Chloride, Vitamin E, Brain, Rat
  • Abdolazim Mortazavi Lahijani, Ramin Khaghani *, Hamidreza Hajiqanbar, Seyed Shahram Mirzamani Page 4
    Background Domestic mites (DM) refer to all indoor mite species such as house dust mites (HDM) and some of the storage mites that are able to induce IgE-mediated sensitization. These microscopic mites are one of the most known risk factors of allergies and respiratory diseases in homes and other indoor places.
    Objectives
    Considering the importance of DMs and lack of investigation on DMs in military areas of Iran, this study was designed to determine the fauna and biodiversity of DM in three military areas, North of Iran in 2017 - 2018.
    Methods
    It was a cross-sectional study. Each military area was divided into three sampling zones (lieutenant dormitory, soldier dormitory and administrative place). In each sampling zone, seven places were randomly selected and dust samples were collected using a vacuum cleaner for 2 minutes from 1 m2 of the surface. After collection, samples were weighted separately. The mites were counted by a Stereo microscope, mounted in Hoyer’s medium, and identified by standard keys. The data were analyzed using statistical SPSS software version 17 and Microsoft Excel software version 2013 software.
    Results
    A total of 648 dust samples were examined, in total 1043 mites were collected and identified that 741 mites were from six species of DM. The most abundant species were Dermatophagoides farinae (72.74%) and D. pteronyssinus (14.58%), and the less abundant species were Glycyphagus domesticus (0.94%) and Euroglyphusmaynei (0.54%). The most of DMs were found in the lieutenant dormitory (84.3%) and just 1.9% of DMs in the administrative place. The DMs were found almost throughout the year with the highest peaks in Jun. (11.1%), August (13.1%), September (14.7%), and October (11.1%), and the smallest peak in January (3.8%), February (4.2%), and March (3.2%).
    Conclusions
    The results of this study show that all military areas are contaminated by DMs. Although the density of DM did not exceed the risk thresholds (10 mg mites/gram dust or 100 mites/gram dust), in the first and third lieutenant dormitories were near the risk threshold from January to November. Therefore, we suggest the preventive measures, particularly in the lieutenant dormitories, should be more effective than the past.
    Keywords: Dust Mites, Domestic Mites, Military Area, Allergy
  • Mohammad Soleimani ORCID, Ramin Golestanian ORCID *, Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh ORCID, Rohallah Mirjani ORCID Page 5
     
    Background
    Diazinon is an organophosphorus pesticide extensively used to control pests. Although much evidence suggests that diazinon may have toxic effects in humans, it is still used in large amounts in many countries.
    Objectives
    The current study investigated the effect of diazinon on human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) and the possible protective effect of Sambucus ebulus methanol leaf extract.
    Methods
    We treated MRC-5 cells with 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μM concentrations of diazinon and analyzed the expression levels of two genes from phase I and phase II detoxification (cyp1a1 and gstm1, respectively) and two DNA damage sensor and apoptosis marker genes (pmaip1 and diras3, respectively) in treated cells. Furthermore, the effects of 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 μg/mL of the extract in combination with 50 μM of diazinon were investigated on the mRNA levels of the selected genes in MRC-5 cells.
    Results
    Diazinon could strongly upregulate cyp1a1 and diras3. The diazinon concentrations of less than 100 μM significantly induced gstm1 and pmaip1 expression in treated cells compared to controls. The mixture of diazinon and extract dramatically downregulated gstm1 and pmaip1 expression in treated cells but strongly elevated the mRNA levels of diras3 and slightly induced cyp1a1 expression in MRC-5 cells.
    Conclusions
    Based on the study, exposure to high concentrations of diazinon may induce DNA damage and apoptosis. In addition, S. ebulus extract had a high potential for free radical scavenging; however, the genotoxic effects of the extract were also observed.
    Keywords: Diazinon, Sambucus ebulus, MRC-5, cyp1a1, diras3, pmaip1, gstm1, gstp1
  • Mohammad Soleimani ORCID, Abolfazl Dashtbani Roozbehani, Keivan Majidzadeh Page 6
    Background
    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a cost-effective, rapid, and specific method for the detection of bacterial pathogens within a sample.
    Methods
    We designed and evaluated a new quantitative LAMP primer set specific to the ctxB gene for the rapid measurement of the load of toxigenic V. cholerae DNA in the reaction. Unlike the previously reported LAMP assays for V. cholerae detection, our LAMP primer set was able to detect and quantify toxigenic V. cholerae DNA with a detection limit of 2.8 pg of the ctxB gene equivalent to 8.3 copies of genomic DNA per reaction.
    Results
    Our LAMP assay was found to be highly specific with no amplification detected in non-toxigenic V. cholerae bacterial strains. Thus, the ctxB-based LAMP assay developed in this study can serve as a simple, sensitive, specific, and quantitative molecular tool for the monitoring and epidemiological study of cholera.
    Conclusions
    Overall, the low cost and simplicity of the LAMP assay can make it a preferable molecular method in the detection of pathogenic organisms.
    Keywords: Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification, Quantitative Detection, Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae
  • Ebrahim Hazrati, Ali Reza Alizadeh, Zahra Sadat Asadi * Page 7
    Background
    Attitude and decision-making about continuing the therapeutic interventions for the end-of-life patients are the essential skills required by the health care system creating many scientific, ethical, religious, and legal challenges, and sometimes making it difficult to make decisions.
    Objectives
    The present study aimed to investigate euthanasia attitude and its relationship with optimism among the medical and nursing students of AJA University of Medical Science.
    Methods
    In the present descriptive-analytical study, 150 clinical students were selected by census method. Data collection tool included demographic information, optimism questionnaire, and euthanasia attitude questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS with the usage of parametric and nonparametric tests. A significance level of 0.05 was considered.
    Results
    The mean scores of euthanasia attitude among nursing and medical students were 23.2 (2.31), and 23.72 (2.4), respectively. Mann-Whitney test indicated no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.22). The mean scores of optimism among nursing and medical students was 23.4 (3.81) and 24.6 (4.62), respectively, although no significant difference was found between the two groups (P = 0.07). Among all of the selected students, a direct and significant correlation was observed between optimism and euthanasia attitude (P = 0.007 and r = 0.219).
    Conclusions
    The students had an unfavorable euthanasia attitude while optimism was favorable. Thus, qualitative studies are suggested for the formation of euthanasia attitude and its relationship with personality traits.
    Keywords: Euthanasia, Optimism, Attitude
  • Mohammad, Reza Mirzaii, Dizgah, Mohammad, Hossein Mirzaii, Dizgah *, Iraj Mirzaii, Dizgah Page 8
    Background
    Precise and quick diagnosis of AMI is of main medical and pecuniary concerns.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to detect saliva total aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity -as an available guideline- in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
    Methods
    A case-control study was performed in 31 subjects as the control group and 31 ones as the AMI group. Saliva and serum total AST activities were measured in the first and second mornings following the AMI by IFCC method. Mann-Whitney U and Spearman rho tests were performed as statistical analyses.
    Results
    AST activities in both serum and saliva in the resting and stimulated conditions were significantly greater in the AMI than the healthy controls (P < 0.05). Furthermore, serum AST showed a significant partial correlation with resting saliva AST in both first and second mornings following the AMI (rho = 0.368, P =0.017 and rho = 0.352, P = 0.024, respectively) and also with stimulated saliva AST (rho = 0.331, P = 0.034, rho = 0.443, P = 0.003, respectively).
    Conclusions
    It presumes that saliva AST may be used as a biomarker in the patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction.
    Keywords: Acute Myocardial Infarction, Saliva, Aspartate Aminotransferase