فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:14 Issue:3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/05/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Esmaeel Ebrahimi, Alireza Kheirollah, Esrafil Mansouri, Hossein Babaahmadi, Rezaei, Ghorban Mohammadzade* Page 1
    Background
    Calendula officinalis, an aromatic plant and rich of various chemical compounds, has been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of different diseases.
    Objectives
    We investigated the effects of hydroalcoholic flower extract of Calendula officinalis on the biochemical and histological parameters in STZ-induced diabetic rats.
    Methods
    Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: healthy control, diabetic control, diabetic treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg of the hydro-alcoholic extract, respectively. The biochemical and histological measurements were assessed by standard methods.
    Results
    The oral administration of the hydroalcoholic extract of marigold flower resulted in a recovery of body weight and significantlydecreased fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P < 0.05). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin and total bilirubin concentration were significantly recovered after treatment with the extract (P < 0.05). Measurement of homeostasis model assessment for -cell function (HOMA- ) indicated that the reduction of serum insulin concentration after treatment with the extract may be due to the recovery of beta cell function. Moreover, the extract induced insulin secretion from the rat’s isolated pancreatic islets under a glucose-stimulated condition in a dose-dependent manner. The STZ-induced complications on the pancreas, kidneys, and liver were improved after treatment with the extract.
    Conclusions
    Our findings suggest that the potential protective effects of marigold flower extract against the diabetic-induced complicationsmaybe mediated by its effect on the reduction of blood glucose and its direct effect on the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.
    Keywords: Marigold, Streptozotocin, Insulin, HOMA-β
  • Neda Sistani Karampour, Ardeshir Arzi *, Anahita Rezaie, Marzieh Pashmforosh, Hamed Rad Page 2
    Background
    Betanin is the principal pigment and active phytochemical constituent of beetroot. The protective roles of betanin are documented in the heart, kidney, liver, and lung, but its potential gastroprotective effect is not assessed thus far. A number of studies demonstrated that betanin could inhibit lipid peroxidation.
    Objectives
    The current study aimed at investigating the gastroprotective effect of betanin in gastric ulcer induced by ethanol.
    Methods
    In the present study, a group of animals were treated with betanin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, orally) and the other group received ranitidine as a reference antiulcer agent. One hour later, the gastric mucosal ulceration was induced by oral administration of absolute ethanol and the rats were sacrificed one hour. The gastric ulcers were assessed by macroscopic and histopathological examinations. Also, gastric malondialdehyde (MDA) level and nitric oxide (NO) content were measured.
    Results
    Oral administration of betanin 100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight prior to receiving ethanol significantly attenuated the number and length of gastric ulcers as compared to the ethanol group. Moreover, pretreatment with betanin could significantly decrease stomach MDA level and maintain stomach NO content similar to that of the control group. Histopathological examinations indicated that ethanol-induced gastric ulcer was attenuated by betanin and no significant difference was observed between the betanin (200 mg/kg) and ranitidine groups.
    Conclusions
    The findings indicated that betanin has gastroprotective effects on gastric ulcers, which could be related to attenuated lipid peroxidation and reestablished gastric NO content.
    Keywords: Betanin, Ethano, l Gastric Ulcer, Oxidative Stress, Nitric, Oxide
  • Vahid Jomezadeh, Sima Sheibani, Alireza Tavassoli, Asieh Karimani, Mohammad Reza Zirak, Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour, Mohammad Reza Khakzad, Mohammad Afshar, Fatemeh Tavassol* Page 3
    Background
    Postoperative peritoneal adhesion occurs in more than 90% of intra-abdominal surgeries and can lead to intestinal obstruction, infertility, abdominal and pelvic pain. The extract of Malva sylvestris has shown to be safe and non-toxic with a wide range of biological activities.
    Objectives
    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of intraperitoneal nebulization of M. sylvestris in the healing process of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion for the first time.
    Methods
    For creating intra-abdominal adhesions, the rats were anesthetized to undergo surgery. Four lavage solutions including saline, ethanolic extract, hydroalcoholic extract, and aqueous extract of M. sylvestris were used for 2 min, and then the abdomen was closed. After 15 days, the rats underwent surgery and cecum and peritoneal samples were obtained for histopathological analysis. The severity of peritoneal adhesions based on the histopathological analysis and serum levels of TNF-α and Il-1β were compared in different groups.
    Results
    The aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of M. sylvestris decreased significantly microscopic and macroscopic peritoneal adhesion while the ethanolic extract just reduced it microscopically. The aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts were more potent than the ethanolic extract in the healing process. The concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers including IL-1β and TNF-α did not change significantly.
    Conclusions
    The extract of M. sylvestris could decrease the severity of peritoneal adhesion compared to the control group but it could not decrease the level of systemic inflammatory mediators.
    Keywords: Peritoneal Fibrosis, Malva, Peritoneal Lavage, Rats, Plant Extracts
  • Shokooh Karimi, Fereshteh Talebpour Amiri *, Ali Reza Khalatbary, Hamid Reza Mohammadi, Seyed Jalal Hosseinimehr Page 4
    Background
    Cisplatin (CP), as an anticancer drug, causes nephrotoxicity. Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZM), a medicinal plant, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
    Objectives
    The current study investigated the effects of ZM on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.
    Methods
    In the current experimental study, 22 male mice were randomly divided into four groups: the control; the ZM, 200 mg/kg during seven days via gavage; the CP, 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally on the 5th day of study; and the ZM + CP. Serum creatinine and urea levels, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and protein carbonyl (PC) levels in renal tissue of mice were histopathologically and immunohistochemically assessed to determine nephrotoxicity.
    Results
    CP caused a significant increase in serum creatinine and urea levels, increased oxidative stress in kidney tissue, caused histological changes, and increased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. ZM significantly mitigated the toxic effects of CP on the kidney tissue. In addition, treatment with ZM significantly reduced immunoreactivity of caspase-3.
    Conclusions
    The findings of the present study suggested that the ZM as a potential antioxidant compound with scavenging free radicals and anti-apoptosis property attenuated the nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin.
    Keywords: Cisplatin, Zataria multiflora Boiss, Nephrotoxicity, Caspase-3
  • Heibatullah Kalantari, Anayatollah Salimi, Shahrzad Molavinia *, Parvin Kheradmand, Mehdi Goudarzi, Pálma Fehér, Zoltán Ujhelyi, Azin Kalantari, Miklós Vecsernyés Page 5
     
    Background
    Microemulsion (ME) is a method that has been developed in the recent years for synthesizing the nano-sized drug, metal or non-metal particles. These systems offer various advantages for drug delivery, such as ease of preparation, complete stability, and high drug solvability in many pharmaceutical applications.
    Objectives
    This study aimed at evaluating the protective effect of sour cherry kernel extract microemulsion on methimazole-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.
    Methods
    Sixty‐four male Swiss albino mice were divided to eight groups; each group consisted of eight mice. Group 1 was served as control, received normal saline; group 2 received base of ME without extract for 10 days; group 3 received a single dose of methimazole (100 mg/kg, ip) as positive control only on the 10th day; groups 4 to 6 received ME extract orally in doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, respectively, during 10 days and methimazole (100 mg/kg, ip) on the 10th day; group 7 and 8 received ME extract and extract in dose of 1000 mg/kg for 10 days, respectively. Then, on the 11th day, serum samples were collected and used to determine the levels of serum creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). After removing the kidney, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were also determined.
    Results
    The results obtained from the present study indicated a significant increase in the levels of Cr, BUN and MDA, and decrease of GSH, GPx and SOD by methimazole administration. Pre-treatment with ME extract showed reduction in the levels of Cr, BUN, MDA, and increase of GSH, GPx, and SOD. In addition, these observations were confirmed by histopathological changes of the kidney.
    Conclusions
    The current study showed that the extract had a protective effect on methimazole-induced nephrotoxicity and this effect was more for ME extract.
    Keywords: Methimazole, Prunus cerasus L., Microemulsion, Nephrotoxicity
  • Majid Asadi, Samani, Mansoor Khaledi, Fatemeh Khaledi, Saeed Samarghandian, Abolfazl Gholipour* Page 6
    Background
    Plants have long served as a rich source of drugs. Given some microorganisms’ acquisition of resistance to the current antibiotics, there is a need for discovering new drugs.
    Objectives
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical properties and antibacterial effects of Salvia multicaulis Vahl., Euphorbia microsciadia Boiss., and Reseda lutea against Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus.
    Methods
    In this experimental study, hydroalcoholic (ethanol 70%) plant extracts were prepared by maceration. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined by CLSI broth microdilution and Müller-Hinton agar assay for each sample, respectively. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay and expressed in terms of gallic acid equivalent and total flavonoid content by aluminum chloride colorimetric method and in terms of rutin equivalent.
    Results
    Findings showed that 1, 4, and 1 mg/mL were derived as MICs and 4, 16, and 8 mg/mL as MBCs for S. multicaulis Vahl., E. microsciadia Boiss., and R. lutea, respectively, against S. aureus; 2, 8, and 2 mg/mL were derived as MICs and 16, 32, and 16 mg/mL as MBCs for S. multicaulis Vahl. R. lutea, and E. microsciadia Boiss., respectively, against A. baumanii. In addition, E. microsciadia Boiss. and S. multicaulis Vahl. were found to contain the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content, respectively.
    Conclusions
    The studied plants that were collected from Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province can be used to produce antibiotics due to their phenols and flavonoids and exert antibacterial effects on the studied bacteria.
    Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Drug Resistance, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, Minimum Bactericidal Concentration, Phytochemistry
  • Mina Eslami, Mohammad Sofiabadi *, Hossein Khadem Haghighian, Sanaz Jamshidi Page 7
    Background
    Consumption of herbal flavonoids instead of chemical drugs has increased in the recent years due to fewer side effects as well as affordability.
    Objectives
    In this study, the effect of luteolin was investigated on inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide in male rat’s serum by measurement of the proinflammatory factors of IL-1β and TNF-α.
    Methods
    Overall, 90 male Wistar rats weighing 180 to 200 grams were chosen and divided to control, Sham (solvent) and positive control (Dexamethasone 15 mg/kg. IP) groups, and also three experimental groups received doses of 5, 15, and 30 mg/kg of luteolin, intraperitoneally.
    Half an hour after injecting one of these compounds, lipopolysaccharide (30 μg/kg. IP) was injected. Then, at 4-, 12-, and 24-hour intervals, rats were anesthetized and blood samples were taken. Serum of samples were separated by centrifuging, and then, the samples were transferred to micro-tubes and were stored at -80°C. Measurement of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was conducted by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software, version 19.
    Results
    Pre-injection with luteolin in 30 mg/kg dose caused a reduction in IL-1β at 4 (P < 0.05) and 24 hours (P < 0.01) after the LPS injection compared to the control group. Also, luteolin significantly decreased TNF-α level at 12 hours (5 and 30 mg/kg; P < 0.05, 0.01, respectively) and 24 hours (15 and 30 mg/kg; P < 0.05, 0.01, respectively) intervals after LPS injection. Furthermore, IL-1β and TNF-α were significantly decreased by dexamethasone injection at all three time intervals compared with the control.
    Conclusions
    Luteolin caused a significant reduction in IL-1β and TNF-α of serum in acute inflammation induction. This impact is close to the dexamethasone effect as an anti-inflammatory steroid drug.
    Keywords: Inflammation, Luteolin, Dexamethasone, IL-1β, TNF-α
  • Maryam Ekhtelat *, Zeinab Bahrani, Amir Siahpoosh, Abdolghani Ameri Page 8
    Background
    Side effects of chemical preservatives and drug resistance have raised interests in the use of natural preservatives derived from plants.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to examine possible antibacterial effects of Mentha spicata L., Cuminum cyminum L. and Mentha longifolia L. essential oils (EOs) individually and in combination with sodium benzoate against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes.
    Methods
    In this experimental study, the EOs were obtained and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods were used for in vitro antibacterial screening in triplicate. Data analysis was performed by the SPSS software using ANOVA and independent sample t-test.
    Results
    Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between different antibacterial effects of EOs individually and in combination with sodium benzoate. Considering the individual effects of these factors, the antibacterial effect of sodium benzoate and Cuminum cyminum essential oil were the highest against E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes, respectively. These results are relatively consistent with the disc diffusion test. The antibacterial effects of sodium benzoate in combination with EOs showed significant differences in comparison to sodium benzoate effect individually in most situations (P < 0.05).
    Conclusions
    The results indicated that these EOs have a good antibacterial activity and combined with sodium benzoate could reduce the use of sodium benzoate as a chemical preservative in food, cosmetic, and drug products, which can decrease the possible side effects of it.
    Keywords: Antibacterial, Essential Oil, Sodium Benzoate, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes