فهرست مطالب

Health Policy and Management - Volume:8 Issue:8, 2019
  • Volume:8 Issue:8, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Naoki Ikegami * Pages 462-466
    Long-term care (LTC) must be carefully delineated when expenditures are compared across countries because how LTC services are defined and delivered differ in each country. LTC’s objectives are to compensate for functional decline and mitigate the care burden of the family. Governments have tended to focus on the poor but Germany opted to make LTC universally available in 1995/1996. The applicant’s level of dependence is assessed by the medical team of the social insurance plan. Japan basically followed this model but, unlike Germany where those eligible may opt for cash benefits, they are limited to services. Benefits are set more generously in Japan because, prior to its implementation in 2000, health insurance had covered long-stays in hospitals and there had been major expansions of social services. These service levels had to be maintained and be made universally available for all those meeting the eligibility criteria. As a result, efforts to contain costs after the implementation of the LTC Insurance have had only marginal effects. This indicates it would be more efficient and equitable to introduce public LTC Insurance at an early stage before benefits have expanded as a result of ad hoc policy decisions.
    Keywords: Long-term Care, Social Insurance, Eligibility Level, Benefit Package, Entitlements
  • Mihir P. Rupani *, Pathik M. Patel, Pooja R. Meena, Pooja P. Patel, Priskila A. Patel, Priya K. Paragda Pages 467-473
    Janani-Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK) and Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) were launched with the objective of increasing institutional deliveries. But, its knowledge among the post-natal mothers is not known. This research evaluated the knowledge of two national health programs among post-natal mothers and found out the predictors of good knowledge about the entitlements of these programs. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of consecutively recruited 339 post-natal mothers who had delivered in a tertiary care hospital of western India. Data were collected from November 2016 to February 2017 by interview method using a questionnaire with questions about knowledge regarding the entitlements of JSSK and JSY. Multivariable analysis was carried out for predictors of good knowledge. Among the 339 post-natal mothers, 30% had a good knowledge regarding JSSK. Only 24% had heard about JSSK; 54% knew regarding free transport to the place of delivery; only 22% and 13%, respectively knew about free inter-facility transport in case of complications for pregnant women and sick infants, while 96% knew regarding free drop-back facility. Only one-fourth of the mothers knew regarding monetary benefit under JSY, while 28% of them had actually received the benefit. The number of antenatal care visits, having an occupation and belonging to Hindu religion significantly predicts good knowledge among postnatal mothers regarding JSSK. Knowledge among the post-natal mothers regarding the entitlements of JSSK and JSY is less while comparing with published literature and needs improvement. Regular ante-natal care (ANC) visits might improve their knowledge of these programs. There is a need to create awareness among hospital staff for the provision of reimbursement of costs incurred by post-natal mothers. There is also a need to carry out demand generation activities among mothers regarding the entitlements of JSSK and JSY.
    Keywords: Antenatal Care, Knowledge, Janani-Shishu Suraksha Karyakram, Janani Suraksha Yojana, Western India
  • Obada Hasan *, Muhammad Adeel Samad, Hamza Khan, Maryam Sarfraz, Shahryar Noordin, Tashfeen Ahmad, Gul Nowshad Pages 474-479
    Background Approximately 1% to 2% of hospitalized patients get discharged or leave from the hospital against medical advice and up to 26% in some centers. They have higher readmission rate and risk of complications than patients who receive complete care. In this study we aimed to determine the rate of leave against medical advice (LAMA) and reasons for the same across different in-patient departments of a tertiary care hospital.   Methods Retrospective cohort study on patients admitted in all departments at our institute over a 1-year period. All patients who were admitted to an in-patient ward at the hospital and who left against medical advice by submitting a duly filled LAMA form were included. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models with forward selection methods were employed. Revisit to hospital within 30 days; to clinic or emergency department was outcome variable for regression.   Results From June 2015 to May 2016 there were 429 LAMA patients, accounting for 0.7% of total admissions. Females were 223 (52%) compared to males 206 (48%). Finances were quoted as the most common reason for LAMA by 174 (41%) patients followed by domestic problems 78 (18%). Internal medicine was the service with the highest number of LAMA patients ie, 153 (36%) followed by Pediatric medicine with 73 (17%). Of the 429 patients, 147 (34%) patients revisited the hospital within 30 days. Sixty-one percent of these ‘bounced-back’ LAMA patients had worsening or persistence of same problem, or new problem/s had developed. In unadjusted bivariate logistic model, patients who were advised for follow-up during discharge against medical advice were four times more likely to revisit the hospital. Patients who were married had an increased odd of revisiting the hospital.   Conclusion Financial reasons are the most common stated reasons to LAMA. Patients who LAMA are at a high risk of clinical worsening and ‘bouncing back.’ This is the first study from our region on in-patient LAMA rates, to our knowledge. The results can be used for planning measures to reduce LAMA rates and its consequences.
    Keywords: LAMA, DAMA, Morbidity, Developing Country
  • Zubairu Iliyasu *, Hadiza S. Galadanci, Alfa I. Oladimeji, Musa Babashani, Auwalu U. Gajida, Muktar H. Aliyu Pages 480-487
    Background Persons living with HIV often face discrimination in safe sex and reproductive choices, especially in lowresource settings. This study assessed fertility desires and intentions, risk perception and correlates of ever use of at least one safer conception method among HIV-infected women attending a tertiary health facility in Kano, Nigeria.   Methods Structured questionnaires were administered to a cross section of 328 of 427 eligible HIV-infected women. Fertility desires and intentions, risk perception and safer conception practice were analyzed. Logistic regression was employed to assess for predictors.   Results Of the 328 respondents, 150 respondents (45.7%) wanted more children. The proportions of respondents aware of their transmission risk during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding were 69.5%, 75.3%, and 78.9%, respectively. Further, 68.9% of respondents were aware of the prospects of bearing HIV-negative children without infecting their partners. About 64.8% of women were aware of at least one safer conception method. Safer conception methods everused by the participants include: antiretroviral therapy (ART) (36.7%), timed unprotected intercourse with (10.9%), and without pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) (17.2%), intravaginal insemination (7.3%) and intrauterine insemination (4.7%). Safer conception practice was predicted by marital status (married versus single, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.10-3.55), parity (2-4 versus 0, AOR = 12.1, 95% CI = 3.7-39.8), occupation (civil servants versus traders, AOR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.16-0.86), husband’s serostatus (seroconcordant versus serodiscordant) (AOR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.13-4.64), couple contraceptive use (users versus non-users) (AOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.16-5.83) and transmission risk perception (high risk versus low/no risk) (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.18-3.90).   Conclusion We found high levels of fertility desires and intentions and moderate risk perception among a cohort of HIV-infected women in urban Kano, Nigeria. The use of safer conception practices was not common. Our findings underscore the need for healthcare provider capacity building to enhance safer conception counseling and service delivery.
    Keywords: Safer Conception Practice, HIV, AIDS, Women, Northern Nigeria
  • Ali Kazemi Karyani *, Ali Akbari Sari, Abraha Woldemichael Pages 488-497
    Background The preferences of Iranians concerning the attributes of health insurance benefit packages are not well studied. This study aimed to elicit health insurance preferences among insured people in Iran during 2016.   Methods A mixed methods study using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) approach was conducted to elicit health insurance preferences on a total sample of 600 insured Iranians residing in Tehran. The final design of the DCE included 8 health insurance attributes. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression models.   Results The final model of this DCE study included 8 attributes, and the findings indicated statistically significant (P < .001) increase in the odds ratio (OR) of choosing health insurance at all levels of cost coverage except for the rehabilitation and para-clinical benefits, where at 70% cost coverage there was insignificant (P = .485) disutility (OR = 0.95). With the increase in cost coverage level, the probability of choosing health insurance was significantly (P < .001) the highest for the private hospitals’ benefits (OR = 2.82) followed by public hospitals’ benefits (OR = 2.02) and outpatient benefits (OR = 1.75), and the premium revealed statistically significant (P < .001) disutility (OR = 0.96).   Conclusion Our findings revealed that participants would be willing to choose health insurance plans with higher cost coverage of healthcare services and with lower premiums. However, the demographic characteristics, income, and health status of the insured individuals affected their health insurance preferences. The findings can contribute to the design of better health insurance policies, improve the participation of individuals in health insurance, and increase the insured individuals’ utility from the insurance benefits packages.
    Keywords: Preferences, Health Insurance, Attributes, Discrete Choice, Iran
  • David J. Hunter * Pages 498-500
    Bridging the ‘know-do’ gap is not new but considerably greater attention is being focused on the issue as governments and research funders seek to demonstrate value for money and impact on policy and practice. Initiatives like the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Health System Impact (HSI) Fellowship are therefore both timely and welcome. However, they confront major obstacles which, unless addressed, will result in such schemes remaining the exception and having limited impact. Context is everything and as long as universities and research funders privilege peer-reviewed journal papers and traditional measures of academic performance and success, novel schemes seeking to break down barriers between researchers and end users are likely to have limited appeal. Indeed, for some academics they risk being career limiting. The onus should be on universities to welcome greater diversity and nurture and value a range of academic researchers with different skills matched to the needs of applied health system research. One size does not fit all and adopting a horses for courses approach would go a long way to solving the conundrum facing higher education institutions. At the same time, researchers need to show greater humility and acknowledge that scientific evidence is only one factor shaping policy and practice. To help overcome a risk of ideology and opinion triumphing over evidence, attention should be devoted to encouraging citizens to get actively involved in research. Research funders also need to give higher priority to how policy can be made to stick if the ‘know-do’ gap is to be closed.
    Keywords: Embedded Researchers, Researchers in Residence, Evidence-Informed Policy Research, Impact
  • Kara Hanson *, Edwine Barasa, Ayako Honda, Warisa Panichkriangkrai, Walaiporn Patcharanarumol Pages 501-504
    Sanderson et al’s realist review of strategic purchasing identifies insights from two strands of theory: the economics of organisation and inter-organisational relationships. Our findings from a programme of research conducted by the RESYST (Resilient and Responsive Health Systems) consortium in seven countries echo these results, and add to them the crucial area of organisational capacity to implement complex reforms. We identify key areas for policy development. These are the need for: (1) a policy design with clearly delineated responsibilities; (2) a task network of organisations to engage in the broad set of functions needed; (3) more effective means of engaging with populations; (4) a range of technical and management capacities; and (5) an awareness of the multiple agency relationships that are created by the broader financing environment and the provider incentives generated by multiple financing flows.
    Keywords: Strategic Purchasing, Universal Health Coverage, LMICs, Health Financing, Provider Payment, Benefit Package
  • Taryn Vian * Pages 505-507
    Reluctance to talk about corruption is an important barrier to action. Yet the stakes of not addressing corruption in the health sector are higher than ever. Corruption includes wrongdoing by individuals, but it is also a problem of weak institutions captured by political interests, and underfunded, unreliable administrative systems and healthcare delivery models. We urgently need to focus on corruption as a health systems problem. In addition to supporting research to better understand the context and implications of corruption in health systems, this article suggests actions that public health professionals can do now to fight corruption.
    Keywords: Risk Assessment, Anti-corruption, Accountability, Transparency
  • Krycia Cowling *, Daniel Magraw Pages 508-510
    Building on Tangcharoensathien and colleagues’ description of four tactics used by the tobacco, alcohol, processed food, and breast milk substitute industries to interfere with the development and implementation of health policies, we present a fifth tactic: trade and investment disputes. We describe recent examples of trade and investment claims filed by the tobacco industry to challenge plain packaging legislation, which may serve as a model for future claims by this and other industries. Next, we clarify specific areas of potential conflict between non-communicable disease (NCD) control policies and trade and investment agreement (TIA) commitments, identifying possible vulnerabilities that may be exploited by industry to challenge the legality of these policies. We conclude with ideas to strengthen the position of health policies vis à-vis commitments in TIAs.
    Keywords: Non-communicable Diseases, Trade, Investment, International Law, Health Policy