فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue:3, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • SATEESH BABU ARJA *, SIREESHA BALA ARJA, SAMIR FATTEH Pages 111-117
    Introduction
    There are two popular methods of clinical skillsteaching. One is Peyton’s method, and the other one is RobertGagne’s method. A hybrid model which is a combination ofboth teaching methods is developed and implemented at AvalonUniversity School of Medicine in Clinical Skills. The aim of thestudy was to evaluate the hybrid model of clinical skills teaching.
    Methods
    This is a quasi-experimental study where a controlgroup with a sample size of 26 was compared with two studygroups; one group included 24 participants, and as the other oneconsisting of 16 subjects selected without randomization. Allstudents in the class were included in the study, except for thosewithdrew voluntarily. The quantitative data were gathered in theform of a questionnaire on the Likert scale which was collectedas the end of course evaluations. The quantitative data for theresponses on the Likert scale was analyzed for descriptivestatistics: Mean, Median, and Mode. The quantitative data alsoincluded the students’ performance on assessments of clinicalskills which was analyzed using ANOVA test. The qualitativedata were gathered in the form of open-ended questions in theend of course evaluations. The qualitative data were also collectedfrom the faculty members who were the examiners for the clinicalskills course as the feedback taken from them.
    Results
    There was a significant improvement in the feedback ofstudents (end of course evaluations) after implementing the hybridmodel of clinical skills teaching which was shown by increasedMean, Median, Mode for the most pointers on the Likert scale.Also, there was a notable improvement in the performance ofstudents with a significant p-value (p<0.05) on ANOVA test.
    Conclusion
    The hybrid model is very effective in teaching clinicalskills. This teaching method can be evaluated by replicating thisstudy at larger institutions with more number of students.
    Keywords: Clinical Skills, Teaching, Learning, Assessment, Feedback, Evaluation
  • KAUSHIK MUKHOPADHYAY, SONALI MUKHERJEE, ARCHANA DHOK, CHANDAN CHATTERJEE, JOYA GHOSH * Pages 118-122
    Introduction
    Ever-expanding medical literature demandssuccessful amalgamation of huge information and clinical practicefor budding doctors. This study aimed to find the effectivenessof the concept map, a novel method of teaching to improveperformance among undergraduate pharmacology students.
    Methods
    The undergraduate medical students pursuingpharmacology in 2017-18 in our institute was divided into twogroups after stratified randomization based on the last semestergrades. After a session of didactic lecture on ‘Drugs affectingCalcium Metabolism’ and a pre-test, one group was taught usingtraditional tutorial methods and another group using the conceptmap method. Finally, a post-test was taken and feedback receivedfrom the intervention group.
    Results
    A significant improvement of student performance wasfound in both groups using validated questionnaire from pre-testto post-test. There was no significant difference in the percentageof improvement between the groups. This finding was consistentin both Low scorers and High scorers of the previous semesterexamination. Students found the new method better in terms ofunderstanding the concept and interactivity.
    Conclusion
    Concept mapping encourages the students to activelyparticipate and get a comprehensive and accurate overview of thetopic, but the improvement in performance in the test was notevident.
    Keywords: Concept map, Medical teaching, Feedback, Curriculum
  • SEDIGHEH MOMENI *, SHAHRAM YAZDANI, LEILA AFSHAR, MUHAMADREZA ABDOLMALEKI Pages 123-130
    Introduction
    Hidden curriculum plays a main role in professionallearning, formation of professional identity, socialization,moral development and learning values, attitudes, beliefs, andknowledge in learners, so it needs to be managed. Althoughthe majority of the theorists believe in the existence of a hiddencurriculum and its greater effect and sustainability compared tothe formal curriculum; none has proposed a comprehensive modelor approach for its management. This study aimed to design ahidden curriculum management model in medical education.
    Methods
    In this study, the authors used the theory or modelconstruction methodology to synthesize a hidden curriculummanagement model in medical education. According to Walkerand Avant; this methodology includes the following three stepsfor synthesizing the model: specifying focal concepts, reviewingthe literature, and organizing concepts into an integrated andefficient representation.
    Results
    The results of the study showed that numerous factorsaffected the hidden curriculum including environmental factors(professional, organizational), human factors (teachers, peers andstaff), and formal curriculum and learner’s influenceability filterwhich bear important messages for learners, staff and teachers. Tomanage the hidden curriculum, in addition to the above factors,it is necessary to manage knowledge and the learners’ learning inan educational institution.
    Conclusion
    This study revealed that to achieve the desiredperformance in students, the formal curriculum reform is notsufficient. Moreover, other factors such as environmental factors,human factors, learner’s influenceability filter, and knowledgemanagement should also be taken into account. The hiddencurriculum management model can be used for training andeducating the staff and students with the desired performance inany educational institution.
    Keywords: Hidden curriculum, Management, Medical education
  • SASAN DABIRI, AEEN MOHAMMADI *, RITA MOJTAHEDZADEH Pages 131-137
    Introduction
    In the test-enhanced spaced learning, educationalcontents are presented in small packages of well-developedtest questions with a defined frequency to the learners. It is notclear that applying this educational style might have a positiveimpact on the summative assessment. Therefore, in this studywe assessed the effect of the test-enhanced spaced learning onthe otolaryngology board and annual examinations of residencytraining.
    Methods
    In a quasi-experimental study with consecutivesampling, all forty-four residents of otolaryngology in four levelsof training in 2016 at Tehran University of Medical Sciences(TUMS) received daily-standardized multiple-choice questionswith a twice-repeated frequency of 10 days. Individual feedbackaccording to one’s response to each test was provided. The resultsof national board and annual exam were compared with the sameresults of all residents of other universities and previous yearTUMS’ residents for whom spaced learning were not applied andthey were considered as the control groups. The board exam hadtwo parts, multiple-choice questions, and computer-based clinicalexamination. The annual exam format was multiple-choicequestions. The total score for each one was 150. Student’s t-testand Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparative analyses.
    Results
    The mean of the board exam results showed statisticallysignificant improvement compared to other medical schools(113.6±10.7 vs. 102.9±13.4 in multiple-choice questions,p=0.048, 118.7±12.5 vs. 54.1±60.0 in the computer-based clinicalexamination, p<0.001), while similar comparison results in theprevious year did not show any significant difference.
    Conclusion
    Spaced learning with testing effect may be useful inthe clinical education setting to improve the learning outcomes.
    Keywords: Learning, Cognition, Internship, Residency, Otolaryngology
  • AFAGH AGHAJANI INCHE KIKANLOO, KATAOUON JALALI, ZAHRA ASADI, NASRIN SHOKRPOUR, MALIHEH AMIRI, LEILA BAZRAFKAN * Pages 138-143
    Introduction
    Emotional intelligence is a social skill thatcontrols stress and affects one’s ability to cope with the demandsand environmental pressures; it so can improve professionalcompetence in health care providers such as nursing students.Training on emotional intelligence increases the mental healthand influences the mutual relationships, stress, depression andaggression. This study aimed to determine the effect of emotionalintelligence skills training program on the stress and academicsuccess of nursing students in a higher education health complex.
    Methods
    This study is a quasi-experimental study with aneducational intervention. The participants included 100 studentsof nursing selected by stratified random sampling from bothgenders. They were randomly categorized into two interventionand control groups including 50 subjects, respectively. We usedMeyer and Salvia model in Emotional Intelligence training in theintervention group. During the training sessions in the interventiongroup, the control group did not receive any intervention. Academicstress and professional competence in both groups were measuredbefore and two weeks after the experiment. SPSS version 21 wasused to analyze the data, using Paired t-test, independent t-test,Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney and Chi-Square tests.
    Results
    The mean age of the participants was 20±2.14 yearsold. According to the results, the mean difference of the changesin the professional competence (p<0.001), total academic stress(p<0.001), and the four areas of academic stress such as emotionalresponse (p<0.001), physical response (p<0.001) and physiologicalresponse (p<0.001) were significant. The intervention group, ascompared with the control group, showed no significant effect onthe other factors of academic stress such as frustration, conflict,academic pressure, changes and self-imposed stress.
    Conclusion
    The education of emotional intelligence componentscan improve the efficiency of nursing care services and professionalcompetence due to deceased stress.
    Keywords: emotional intelligence, Stress, Academic success, Professional competence
  • ALISA WRAY *, FARAZ KHAN, JOHN RAY, ROBERT ROWE, MEGAN BOYSEN OSBORN, SHANNON TOOHEY, WARREN WIECHMANN Pages 144-148
    Introduction
    A cricothyroidotomy is an emergency procedurethat few emergency medicine residents see or perform duringtheir training. Therefore, there is a need for low cost, high fidelitymodels for training. In this study, we explore a new training modelfor cricothyroidotomies (the bleeding CRIC [cost-effective realisticinteractive cricothyroidotomy]) to determine if this new tasktraineris non-inferior compared to the current standard of training.
    Methods
    Authors conducted a randomized control noninferioritystudy. There were seventeen residents and medicalstudents enrolled by convenience sample to partake in the study.The participants were randomized by block randomization to betaught how to perform a cricothyroidotomy on either the newtask trainer or the current standard task trainer and then wereasked to perform the procedure on a pig trachea model. Primaryoutcome measures were scores on a previously validated objectiveassessment tool and secondary outcomes were comfort levels andrealism scores based on pre and post survey results which wereanalyzed with ANOVA.
    Results
    There was found to be no statistically significant differencebetween the groups in assessment scores, time to completion, orcomfort levels pre- and post-intervention. There was a statisticallysignificant difference in that the participants gave higher realismscores in post-test analysis to the Bleeding CRIC compared to theSimMan. Both groups demonstrated that they had significantlyimproved comfort levels from baseline post-intervention.
    Conclusion
    Overall, the new task trainer was rated by learnersto feel more realistic than the current standard. This studydemonstrates non-inferiority of the new task trainer and furtherstudies with larger sample sizes should be conducted to determineits true efficacy.
    Keywords: Graduate, Medical education, Simulation training, High fidelity simulation training
  • MOHAMMAD MIR *, MOHAMMED JEELANI, MOHAMMAD ALSHAHRANI Pages 149-153
    There has been a paradigm shift in the teaching strategies fromdidactic or teacher-centered to more vibrant student centeredapproaches. For the last five decades, small group teaching(SGT) has been a hallmark of this reorientation of educationalstrategies especially in medical schools, which use problem-basedlearning as a core educational tool. The key strength of SGT isthe continuous and active participation by learners which fosterslifelong learning skills. SGT has had a profound influence onthe motivation levels of students, self-confidence, self-directedlearning and fabric of teamwork. The role of the tutor as a facilitatorrather than knowledge provider is of paramount importance inthis process. However, there are challenges that ensue as a resultof heterogeneous teaching skills and attitudes of faculty membersfrom diverse backgrounds. Some of the tutors from traditionalbackgrounds find it difficult to adjust to switching roles from aconventional teacher to a facilitator and inadvertently defeat thevery philosophy of student-centered SGT. This article has beencomposed with this background in mind and ten general basic andpractical guidelines are offered which are expected to be usefulfor the successful transition from a traditional teacher to a SGTfacilitator.
    Keywords: Small group, Student, Teaching, Problem based learning
  • OMAR VISWANATH * Pages 154-155
  • SULMAZ GHAHRAMANI, FATEMEH SEDDIGH, ALI REZA TORABI JAHROMI, AAZAM KHANDEL, PARISA NEMATOLLAHI, ZAHRA HASHEMPOOR, AMIRALI RASTEGAR KAZEROONI * Pages 156-157
    Mentoring involves two-way communication, learning and progress. Students participating in this process receive guidance from senior students and professors on how to deal with challenges more effectively and yield suitable methods as to progress. Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) is one of the leading universities in the field of Mentoring. The main objectives of the Mentoring program include: providing educational and emotional support for mentees. Considering the successes of the Mentoring program in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences over the past three years, we have decided to account of some of the activities carried out by Mentoring teams of this university briefly and share this experience with the other Medical schools, through this short report.