فهرست مطالب

  • سال هفتم شماره 2 (پیاپی 21، تابستان 1397)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/06/21
  • تعداد عناوین: 6
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  • علی اصغر فیروزجائیان گلوگاه*، مرضیه مجیدی صفحات 1-18
    نظم اجتماعی یکی از معرف های اساسی توسعه در هر نظام اجتماعی است؛چرا که بنیان جامعه و روابط اجتماعی به حساب می‏آید. در این میان، سرمایه اجتماعی به دلیل ماهیت و محتوایی که دارد می تواند به حفظ و دوام نظم (در سطح خرد و کلان)در جامعه و کاهش هزینه های کنترل رسمی در جامعه کمک کند. مقاله حاضر با هدف بررسی تاثیر فرسایش سرمایه اجتماعی بر بی نظمی در بین شهروندان تهرانی انجام شده است. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش پیمایش بوده و اطلاعات از طریق پرسشنامه جمع آوری شده است. برای این منظور 400 نفر از ساکنین شهر تهران با روش نمونه گیری خوشه ای چند مرحله ای انتخاب شدند. نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش،حاکی از آن است که میزان کل بی‏نظمی اجتماعی در حد متوسط بوده است. مدل نظری تحقیق از طریق تکنیک مدل‏سازی معادله ساختاری مورد آزمون قرار گرفت. همچنین مولفه‏های ذهنی (بی‏اعتمادی اجتماعی،مشارکت ذهنی ضعیف،احساس آنومی) و عینی (ضعف روابط رسمی و غیر رسمی و ضعف کنترل اجتماعی) فرسایش سرمایه اجتماعی با بی‏نظمی در دو بعد آن (فیزیکی-اجتماعی) تاثیر مستقیم (62/0=Beta) دارند. درکل سازه فرسایش سرمایه‏اجتماعی توانسته‏است 39 درصد از تغییرات بی‏نظمی را مورد تبیین قرار دهد.
    کلیدواژگان: فرسایش سرمایه اجتماعی، سرمایه اجتماعی عینی، سرمایه اجتماعی ذهنی، بی نظمی اجتماعی، تهران
  • حسین میرزایی*، سید احمد میر محمد تبار صفحات 19-36
    در دهه های اخیر موضوع حقوق و تکالیف شهروندی به یکی از پیچیده ترین مسائل سیاسی و اجتماعی تبدیل شده و توجه زیادی را به خود جلب کرده است. به دلیل اهمیت موضوع، پژوهش حاضر میزان آگاهی شهروندان مشهدی از حقوق و تکالیف شهری خود و عوامل موثر بر آن را بررسی کرده است. برای شناسایی مهم ترین متغیرهای موثر، نظریه های مرتبط همچون نظریه های مارشال، جانوسکی، پارسونز، هابرماس، ترنر و پژوهش های پیشین مطالعه شد. پژوهش به روش کمی و با استفاده از ابزار پرسش نامه انجام شد. جامعه آماری شهروندان بالای 15 سال شهر مشهد بود که از بین آنها 1200 نفر برای نمونه انتخاب شدند. روش نمونه گیری نیز خوشه ای چندمرحله ای بود. نتایج نشان می دهند میانگین آگاهی از حقوق و تکالیف شهری به ترتیب با 48/24 و 4/23 در حد بالا قرار دارد. متغیرهای مستقل به ترتیب حدود 58 و 14 درصد از واریانس متغیرهای آگاهی از حقوق و تکالیف شهری را پیش بینی کردند. قوی ترین پیش بینی کننده های متغیر آگاهی از حقوق شهری به ترتیب دین داری (بتا=744/0)، جامعه پذیری در خانواده (بتا=121/0)، مشارکت عمومی (بتا=060/0)، استفاده از رسانه خارجی (بتا=058/0) و استفاده از رسانه داخلی (بتا=053/0) هستند. این در حالی است که جامعه پذیری در خانواده (بتا=182/0)، دین داری (بتا=154/0)، استفاده از رسانه داخلی (بتا=093/0) و استفاده از رسانه خارجی (بتا=089/0) بیشترین تاثیر را بر متغیر آگاهی از تکالیف شهری داشته اند.
    کلیدواژگان: آگاهی، حقوق و تکالیف شهری، مشارکت عمومی، استفاده از رسانه، جامعه پذیری
  • صمد عابدینی*، حمیرا جعفری صفحات 37-52
    این مطالعه با هدف بررسی عوامل اجتماعی مرتبط با نابهنجاری های اجتماعی دانش آموزان در شهر خلخال انجام شده و روش مطالعه، پیمایشی و ابزار اندازه گیری پرسش نامه محقق ساخته بوده است. جامعه آماری دانش آموزان دختر و پسر سال نخست مقطع متوسطه تحصیلی در سال 94-93 شهر خلخال، برابر با 1664 نفر بوده و حجم نمونه با استفاده از فرمول کوکران 301 نفر تعیین شده و روش نمونه گیری طبقه ای بوده است. با استفاده از نظریه های کنترل اجتماعی، بیگانگی و خرده فرهنگ کج روی متغیرهای تحقیق استخراج شده اند. یافته های پژوهش نشان می دهد همبستگی متغیرهای مستقل، مانند معاشرت با دیگران ناباب با ضریب 515/، استفاده از رسانه های نوظهور 276/، ساختار تعاملات اعضای خانواده ازلحاظ اظهاری 219/0- و ابزاری 411/، و پایگاه اجتماعی 235/ و اقتصادی 139/، با گرایش به نابهنجاری اجتماعی معنادار است و مشارکت در امور مدرسه با گرایش به نابهنجاری با ضریب 102/0- معنادار نیست. همچنین، معاشرت با دوستان ناباب در تبیین متغیر وابسته بیشترین سهم را دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: نابهنجاری اجتماعی، ساختار تعاملات اجتماعی، رسانه های نوظهور، معاشرت با دیگران ناباب، مشارکت در امور مدرسه
  • امیرحسین منتظرحجت*، مسعود خداپناه، بهزاد منصوری، عذرا الیاسی صفحات 53-64
    امنیت پیش از آنکه مفهومی توضیح پذیر و تعریف کردنی باشد، امری ذهنی و درک کردنی است. با کاهش وقوع جرم، امنیت برقرار خواهد شد که به دنبال آن احساس امنیت در افراد پدیدار می شود. پژوهش حاضر کوشیده است پیامد برقراری امنیت یا احساس امنیت را در افراد ارزش گذاری کند. در این مطالعه، از میان مولفه های مختلف موثر بر احساس امنیت، سه مولفه امنیت مالی، امنیت جانی و امنیت اخلاقی انتخاب و به روش مدل سازی انتخاب ارزش گذاری شدند. این پژوهش به واسطه روش استفاده شده، در نوع خود منحصربه فرد است و بر پایه جستجوی پژوهشگران چنین پژوهشی در سراسر کشور دردسترس نیست. داده های موردنیاز پژوهش در شهر دزفول و طی ما ه های منتهی به سال 1395 گردآوری شد و درنهایت وارد نرم‎افزار STATA12 شد. پس از برآورد الگوی لاجیت با پارامترهای تصادفی، مقادیر تمایل به پرداخت نهایی شهروندان دزفول برای احساس امنیت در حوزه های امنیت مالی، امنیت جانی و امنیت اخلاقی به ترتیب برابر با 13794، 12889 و 24597 ریال به دست آمد.
    کلیدواژگان: احساس امنیت مالی، احساس امنیت جانی، احساس امنیت اخلاقی، تمایل به پرداخت نهایی، مدل سازی انتخاب
  • محمد بهزادپور*، ابوالفضل کربلایی حسینی غیاثوند صفحات 65-86
    پدیده سرقت، امنیت اجتماعی و اقتصادی شهروندان را تهدید می کند. این پدیده به نوعی با نظم و امنیت کشور در ارتباط است و به دلیل همراه داشتن لطمات روحی و جسمی برای مال باختگان، به ایجاد ناامنی در جامعه منجر می شود. یکی از راهبردهای پیشگیرانه از جرم و به تبع آن، سرقت «پیشگیری از جرم ازطریق طراحی محیطی[1]» است. هدف مقاله حاضر، ارائه مدل تحلیلی از شاخص های کالبدی موثر بر پیشگیری از وقوع جرم (سرقت) از ساختمان های مسکونی و مطالعه تطبیقی این شاخص ها در بافت فرسوده و جدید شهری قزوین و جامعه مدنظر پژوهش، منطقه یک (بافت فرسوده) و منطقه سه شهرداری (بافت جدید) است. روش تحقیق استفاده شده براساس هدف، از نوع کاربردی و براساس ماهیت، توصیفی تحلیلی است. جمع آوری اطلاعات در دو مرحله، شامل مطالعات کتابخانه ای و اسنادی و بررسی های میدانی صورت گرفته و همچنین، برای ارزیابی و اولویت بندی شاخص های ارائه شده، از تکنیک تحلیل شبکه[2] استفاده شده است. مطابق نتایج به دست آمده، درزمینه پیشگیری از وقوع سرقت از ساختمان های مسکونی از میان اصول پنج گانه این رویکرد «نظارت طبیعی» با وزن 32/0 و «کنترل دسترسی» با وزن 26/0 بیشتر از سایر موارد نقش دارند. نتایج نشان می دهد منطقه 1 شهرداری قزوین، ازنظر رعایت عوامل کالبدی برای پیشگیری از وقوع سرقت وضعیت نسبتا نامناسبی دارد که دراین بین، پهنه 1 با امتیاز 11/1 نامناسب تر است. منطقه 3 شهرداری وضعیت مناسب تری دارد و پهنه های 5،4 و 6 به ترتیب، 88/1، 75/1 و 61/1 امتیاز دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: امنیت، جرم، سرقت، پیشگیری از جرم ازطریق طراحی محیطی، تکنیک تحلیل شبکه (ANP)
  • بهزاد پورنقدی* صفحات 87-98
    شبکه های اجتماعی مجازی ضمن برخورداری از مزایا و امکانات گسترده، مسائل و مشکلاتی را در حوزه نظم و امنیت به همراه آورده اند که بر جامعه و دانشجویان تاثیر می گذارد. تحقیق ازنظر هدف، کاربردی و ازنظر روش، توصیفی و پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری اساتید و دانشجویان دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی کرج به تعداد 370 نفر بوده که به روش تصادفی ساده انتخاب شده اند و ابزار گردآوری داده ها پرسش نامه محقق ساخته با 40 گویه از طیف لیکرت پنج گزینه ای است. برای تجزیه وتحلیل اطلاعات از آمار توصیفی آزمون کلموگروف - اسمیرنف، تحلیل ماتریس SWOT و آزمون آماری t براساس تحلیل واریانس ANOVA استفاده شده است. آزمون فرضیه با مقدار همبستگی برابر 3.763 با سطح معناداری (001/0) است. نتایج نشان می دهد تهدیدهای نظم و امنیت در شبکه های اجتماعی مجازی برای دانشجویان، بحران هویت، هنجارهای اخلاقی، ترویج فساد، روابط غیراخلاقی، اعتیاد الکترونیک و کاهش انگیزه تحصیل و نقاط قوت و فرصت، گسترش آموزش های مجازی، توسعه ارتباطات علمی و تجارت الکترونیک است.
    کلیدواژگان: امنیت، شبکه های اجتماعی مجازی، دانشجویان، فرصت و تهدید فناوری
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  • Ali Asghar Firozjayan Galougah *, Marziyeh Majidi Pages 1-18
    Introduction
     Social order is indicator of development in every social system. Because, it is the base of society and social relations. Because of nature and content, social capital can help to maintenance and continuity of order in society and also to reduce costs of formal control. But erosion of social capital is named as Weak Intergroup objective and subjective relations in society can issue disorder. So this article explains effect of erosion of social capital on disorder in among Tehranian citizen.
    Social order is basis of development and stability in every society. the order base on social norms. The norms disregard by persons to different reasons. Whereas social relations is basis of social live, disturbance in social relations can issue social order. Therefore erosion of social capital is named as Weak Intergroup objective and subjective relations in society, can issue disorder or law evasion. So this article explains erosion of social capital effect disorder. In this research is used Putnam and fukuyama theory to analyses social capital erosion. The aim of this research is to study Erosion of social capital and disorder among Tehranian citizen.
    Material & Methods
    The methodology of this study is a survey research. Survey is one of the best way to obtain information on attitudes, beliefs, opinions, behaviors or characteristics of a group of members of a population. The statistical population of this study consisted of all citizen ( up to18years old) in the city of tehran, 400 of which were selected as the sample for the survey using Cochran Formula. In this research we sampled using probability sampling method and among different types of this method we chose cluster sampling. Data needed for the research was obtained in the field method and by means of a questionnaire. The first part of questionnaire consists of eight questions related to participant’s characteristics. The second part is composed questions which are designed to evaluate dependent and independent variables. Data analysis was performed using SPSS and Amos software.
    The main hypothesis in the research is that erosion of social capital affect on disorder. the erosion of social capital divide in tow type: weak subjective social capital and weak objective social capital.
    Disorder is as dependent variable in this research. Disorder is divided in tow types.Physical disorder and social disorder. Physical disorder correlate to social behavior that people do in the society .people doesn’t obey the law. Physical disorder correlates to environment. People dose work that nature is injured. Each one of the tow variable calculate with several questions.
    Discussion of Results & Conclusions
    the result represent that subjective indicators (social distrust, weak subjective participation, anomy feeling) and objective indicators(weak formal and informal relations, weak social control) erosion of social capital have meaningful and direct correlation with disorder in tow mentions(social and physical)…construct of erosion of social capital has positive and meaningful effect(Beta=0/62) with disorder. Generally, this variable explain %39 of disorder variable variance.So Disorder is one of serious injuries in Iranian society especially in urban space.it is influenced by different factors. But social bonding has key role in social behavior. The weakness of social bonding or erosion of social capital brings disorder in tow dimension of physical and social. But erosion of social capital is named as Weak Intergroup objective and subjective relations in society can issue disorder.
    What must to do? It is necessary to support positive social capital in society. Social bonding must reinforce between individuals in society. State and other organization must enhance trust and participation in society. Also it is necessary to power social control in society. Also it is necessary to increase social participation in society.
    Keywords: Erosion of Social Capital, Subjective Social Capital, Objective Social Capital, Social, Physical Disorder. Tehran
  • Hossein Mirzaei *, Ahmad Mirmohammadtabar Pages 19-36
    Introduction
    In recent decades, citizenship rights and duties have become one of the most complex political and social issues and attracted the attention of many social thinkers and politicians. Mashhad, as the spiritual capital of Iran, is a showcase of Iranian society that attracts millions of pilgrims and tourists annually. Also, the economic attractions of the city have caused extensive immigration from inside and outside the province. This situation has made Mashhad's management complex and difficult. Certainly, without constructive interaction between the citizens and the municipal authorities, management will be very difficult and costly. Of course, the creation of this interaction requires the observance of urban rights and duties by residents of Mashhad and urban managers and the basic prerequisite for respecting urban rights and duties is to be aware of these rights and duties. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the level of awareness of the civic rights and duties of residents of Mashhad and its related factors.
    For identifying the most important variables, some theories such as Marshall, Parsons, Habermas, Turner, and previous studies, were studied and analyzed.
    Material & Methods
    The present research is quantitative and has been done using a researcher-made questionnaire and interviews for gathering data. The statistical population was Citizens over 15 years in Mashhad in year 2016, 1200 residents were selected as samples. The Sampling method was multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. In this research dependent variable is the level awareness of civic rights and civic duties and independent variables are Religiosity level, social participation, media and socialization.
     Discussion of Results & Conclusions
    Findings show that 51.4% of respondents were men and 48.6% were women. The average age of the respondents is 39 years old and most respondents are married. 40% of the respondents were employed and 60% were non-employed. 35 % belonged to the low social class, 53 % to the middle class, and the rest to the high socioeconomic class. The average of the use of oversea media is low, the average use of inner media is moderate, the average participation rate is moderately upward, and the mean of socialization and religiosity variables were high.
    The results of the research show that the average awareness of civic rights is 24.48 and for civic duties is 23.4. Independent variables predicted about 58% and 14% of the variance of awareness of urban rights and duties. The strongest predictors of the awareness of civic rights are variables, religiosity (beta = 0.744), family socialization (beta = 0.121), social participation (beta = 0.060), use of oversea media (beta = 0.058) and use of inner media (beta = 0.053). However, family socialization (beta = 0.182), religiosity (beta = 0.154), use of inner media (beta = 0.093), and use of oversea media (beta = 0.089) have the greatest impact on the variables of awareness of civic duties.
    Based on the obtained results, the following strategies are proposed to increase the awareness of the civic rights and duties. Urban managers should provide more citizen participation in urban projects. The transfer of some urban affairs to the citizens contributes to the development of their participation in the development of the city, thereby increasing the awareness of their rights and duties towards the city and other residents. The introduction of associations, NGOs and their activities to citizens can lead to more active citizen participation in urban issues. Increasing community-based programs is another action that will make people more involved in urban affairs.
    Emphasizing the religious teachings that confirm the responsibilities and rights of individuals towards the community and the place of life. Simplifying religious teachings, and expressing them by religious advisers on different times and ceremonies.
    Today, with the growth of modern communication and information technologies, media is one of the most important means of raising awareness among people in different areas. City managers should use massive media capacities, especially modern media, such as the Internet and virtual networks to teach urban rights and duties. Updating the sites of various city organizations, using billboards, producing interesting programs on radio and television, producing clips, messages and short stories in this area will be very effective.
    Keywords: Civic Right, Civic Duties, Social Participation, Media, Socialization
  • Samad Abedini *, Homeira Jafari Pages 37-52
    Introduction
     The school institution is one of the main custodians of human resource mobilization. If in this center, abnormalities and deviations from the values of society occur
    First, it causes the community to disapoint about the functions of this institution, in other words, it will lose its trust; secondly, the student who commits acts contrary to one another will be disseminated among others. . And, consequently, the process of socialization will also be difficult.
    This study aimed to identify factors associated with students' tendency  towards social abnormality, according to the paradigm of functionalist (social control theory Hirsch, deterrence theory Rkls and the theory of alienation Seaman), the paradigm of symbolic interaction (theory subculture of deviance Cohen and cultural transmission Sutherland ) And the contradiction paradigm (Clovard and O'Hallen's Theory of Conflict of Cozher); seeks to answer the question: What are the sociological factors associated with the social anomalies of secondary school students?
    Material & Methods
    The method of data collection in this research is a survey and a researcher made questionnaire The statistical population of the study consisted of all male and female students in the first grade in the Khalkhal city in the academic year of 2015-2016. According to the education of Khalkhal, the number of female students is 820 and the number of male students is 844 in 12 male schools, 10 girls' schools and 6 mixed schools. The sample size of this study was first determined using the Cochran sample size estimation formula with a confidence coefficient of 0.95 for 301 people.
    The sampling method of this study was proportional sampling. The sample was selected in proportion to the number of schools and students, and 135 students were selected from boys 'schools and 90 pupils from girls' schools and 76 students from mixed schools. The validity of the research tool is based on formal credentials by referring to the specialists and the calculated alpha coefficient for the dependent variable and independent variables is higher than 70%, and this is due to the high validity and reliability of the indices.
    Discussion of Results & Conclusions
    The correlation of the subsequent expression of interaction suggests that with the rule of intimate relationship, coupled with respect and respect for the individual's personality in the family, the tendency to social abnormalities is reduced, and vice versa. Therefore, the claim is based on Chalabi's theoretical model and the theory of Diana Bauomind and Sediq Sarvestani "and the findings of Abbasi and Milky research (2008).
    Sutherland, Cohen and Grebner, on the basis of symmetrical interaction paradigm, believe that deviant behavior is learned through cultural transfer. The result of this study is that there is a meaningful relationship between the tendency toward social abnormalities and social deviations with others.
    There is also a significant positive correlation between the use of emerging media and the tendency toward social abnormalities. So one can claim that there is a correlation between the findings of the research field and the theory of Sutherland, Cohen and Grebner.
    By increasing the amount of participation in school affairs, the tendency towards social anomalies decreases. The style of interaction and the type of action of school principals with an adolescent who has a sensitive and influential mentality can be effective in his tendency to concurrency or cognitive behavior. Actions based on friendly and participatory links with strict and authoritarian interactions will have a different outcome in student socialization. With increasing interventionist and rigorous actions, the tendency towards social abnormalities decreases
    The social and economic status of the family also determines the way people are socialized. There is a meaningful relationship between the two variables of social and economic base with social abnormality. Therefore, according to Parsons and Merton, social status and family economic status play an important role in the upbringing of children and determine the abnormal level of individuals..
    The deprivation and degradation of the perpetrator in social interaction leads to conflict with the superior and as a result of social abnormalities. It is understood that the student's students experience the less distraction and humiliation in social interactions, the more they tend to deserve it. Theoretical deduction, among the various hypotheses related to this proposition, according to the purpose of the research, the hypothesis of tendency to abnormalities is different in gender, was tested by independent T test of two independent samples.
    Keywords: Social Abnormality Social Interactions, New Media, Unsuitable People, Participation
  • Amir Hossein Montazer, Hojat *, Masoud Khodapanah, Behzad Mansouri, Ozra Elyasi Pages 53-64
    Introduction
    This study seeks to valuate the sense of security which is a matter of subjective nature and interrelated to a multitude of economic, social, political, cultural elements that make it complex in nature. As security becomes more commonplace, citizens will incur fewer costs, which may include less moral, financial, and moral losses, depending on the type of crime (Brown, 2004, 340). Also, community members do not have to spend a lot of time in the police and the courts for their lost rights. These conditions make people feel more secure and their utility increases (Becker, 1974, p. 1,2). On the other hand, fewer feelings will reduce the person's desirability and the individual is willing to pay for it. In a simpler form, sense of security is valuable as a result of maintaining security for individuals, and this value is mentally evaluated and there is no market for it (Mayhew, 2003, p. 12). The lack of a market for security does not reveal consumer preferences in the market. Therefore, valuing it is important and depends on many factors.
    Material and Method
    In order to understand the issue of valuing, the sense of security and its importance should be emphasized on the role of economic value in the sense of security in policy decisions. The economic value of the sense of security provides the possibility of comparing cities from the perspective of its demanders; providing a cost-benefit analysis for public projects with positive and negative security implications through the internalization of these effects; the performance of organizations Security and justice in securing security and targeting the allocation of credits to these organizations based on their performance. Also, the sense of security of citizens represents an appropriate environment for development and a green light for managing capital to that city. So, it can be said that valuing sense of security can be used as a powerful tool in social policy and optimal community management. The figure obtained might somewhat reflect the economic value of establishment of security by police as well. Of all the factors that may affect sense of security, the trio of financial, life and moral securities were selected and their effects were investigated using choice modeling technique. The required data were collected from Dezfoul city in the late 1394 and fed into the STATA12 software package.
    Discussion of Results and Conclusions
    Once the logit model has been estimated using random parameters, citizens of the Dezfoul city’s marginal willingness to pay for the financial, life and moral securities were estimated to be 13794, 12889 and 24597 respectively. As shown, the numbers obtained for the willingness to pay people to establish security are significant. This indicates the value of a sense of security among the residents of Dezful and, in due course, shows their cooperation with any plans and policies that improve the security situation in the city. Therefore, planners and policymakers can be sure that any program that will be implemented to enhance the quality of the security components will be in the public domain and will increase citizens' satisfaction.
    The willingness to pay was highest for the moral security and the lowest for the financial security. This conclusion shows that citizens are most sensitive to improving moral or honor security. In other words, citizens are best placed to secure honor. Therefore, it is advisable to pay more attention to this issue in future programs of the police and the judiciary. Also, if the penalties imposed by the judiciary are more stringent for moral crimes, there will be more social satisfaction.
    The numbers obtained for the willingness to pay individuals highlight the high value of serving security by the police and other security institutions, such as the judiciary. Therefore, the results of this study can be used to allocate funds and the budget of these institutions is oriented towards efficiency. This means that the results of this study can be used as a benchmark for allocating funds for security-related devices based on their performance.
    One of today's country's needs is economic evaluation and cost-benefit analysis before implementing public policies and programs. Many of the schemes have external effects related to the security category, which are not included in the evaluation of projects and programs due to the lack of economic value and essentially the quality of the security category. The results of this study provide the basic and necessary information for policy makers and planners for such analyzes, which means that the numbers obtained from this study can be included in the assessment of security-related initiatives as revenue or cost and internalize the external effects associated with security.
    Every year, law enforcement and judiciary performance is assessed based on the frequency of crime, arrests and cases investigated in the judiciary, while the best reference for analyzing the performance of these two institutions is their demand for services, namely, people. The numbers obtained from this study could provide new literature on security system reports, to assess their performance based on willingness to pay for service providers.
    If the study is also conducted for other cities in the province, the numbers obtained from this study can be used to compare cities, and to rank them as clean, semi-clean and non-sensitive. This rating can be used to raise awareness about the security situation in the city of Dezful and affect the price of housing and capital management to the city.
    Keywords: Financial Security, Life Security, Moral Security, Marginal Willingness To Pay, Choice Modeling
  • Mohammad Behzadpour *, Abolfazl Karbalaei Hossini Ghiyasvand Pages 65-86
    Introduction
     The phenomenon of robbery threatens the social and economic security of citizens. This phenomenon, which is in some way connected with the security of the country, creates insecurity in the community in terms of bringing about physical and mental harm to those who are losing money. From decades ago, especially since the 1960s, there has been growing interest in studying the role of the environment in delinquency and in contrast to the impact of environmental conditions on crime prevention. This issue, along with the failure or limited success of the official policy of the criminal justice system in combating crime, has been important to prevent crime. One of the preventive strategies of crime and, consequently, theft, is "crime prevention through environmental design". The purpose of this paper is to present an analytical model of the physical indicators of crime prevention (robbery) of residential buildings and comparative study of these indicators in the new and old urbanized Qazvin context. The studied area is district one (worn-out texture) and district three (new texture) of municipality of Qazvin.
    Material & Methods
    The research method used in this research was based on the purpose of the applied and descriptive-analytical nature. The data collection in this research was carried out in two stages: firstly, by using library and documentary studies, the background of the subject and the theoretical framework of the research was known. In the next step, by using the obtained information, a five-level analytical model of the physical criteria for preventing theft was presented. Then, a questionnaire was developed by using the Super decision program and distributed among 15 experts from crime prevention experts, architects and urban planners. In the second stage, which was conducted as a field survey, the criteria which obtained in the first stage were evaluated in the sample population. To analyze the data from the questionnaires and determine the prioritization of the criteria and sub-criteria, and to evaluate the criteria obtained in the study area, the network analysis technique (ANP) was used.
    Discussion of Results & Conclusions
    Specific results for the number of robberies that took place in 1395, statistically (rather than the value of the stolen property), district one of municipality (worn-out texture) was superior to district three (new texture). The study of physical patterns also shows that most of the houses that were robbed have shortcomings in terms of observing the index introduced in the research. In this area, the indicators of "access control", "environmental quality" and "natural surveillance" need to be strengthened with weights (0.021), (0.333) and (040.0) respectively. In the new urban context, we saw fewer robberies but more valuable financial ones; perhaps we can include factors such as: lack of sense of belonging to residents and indifference to neighborhoods, permeability of a building, for example, the use of facade to penetrate into the house, the balcony, the roof, doors of buildings …, the cause of theft in the region. In this area, "natural monitoring" and "social support" are weighted (0.026), (0.444), and require more attention. The sub-criteria also showed that: " Impregnable", "proper monitoring of spaces", "proper lighting of spaces" and "the possibility of monitoring" with weights: (0.21), (0.14), (0.12), (0.12), respectively, have the greatest role in achieving these goals. The results show that the district one of Qazvin municipality has a relatively unfavorable position regarding the observance of physical patterns in order to prevent theft. In this case, zone one with a score of (1.11) has a worse condition. District three of Qazvin Municipality has a better situation. The area of 4, 5 and 6 have the privileges (1.88), (1.75) and (1.61).
    Keywords: Security, crime, theft, crime prevention through environmental design, Network Analysis Technique (ANP)
  • Behzad Pournaghdi * Pages 87-98
    Introduction
    Information and communication technology has led to many changes in human life and in this way it is the source of significant changes in the knowledge of human relations and norms. In the era of electronic communications, concepts have also changed. For example, the concepts of "identity" and "feeling of safety". Due to the widespread acceptance among Iranian users and young people of virtual social networks, studying and recognizing the opportunities of this technology among students and explaining the opportunities and threats provided to users is necessary. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to identify the challenges of security, opportunity and threat in virtual social networks for students. One of the domains affected by virtual space is public security and social security. Considering the necessity and importance of this issue, the present research studies the relationship between the functions of virtual social networks and public security among students.
    Materials & Methods
    The present research is a combination of document-based and survey methods, that is, descriptive, and analytical. In the first place the researcher, through exploration of related scientific sources, obtained various factors and variables through descriptive-analytic method and then to measure the extent of the impact of each of the variables on each other, the survey method was used based on questionnaire. Also, in order to identify and clarify the weaknesses, strengths, opportunities and threats (SWOT), a qualitative interview approach was used to interview the experts and professors of the university in in 1395. The statistical population of the research includes a number of experts in the field of media, virtual space, social sciences and culture with a sample of 15 individuals and in the quantitative section: male and female students of the Islamic Azad University of Karaj Branch with a statistical population of 370 subjects, who were obtained by Cochran formula and the error rate of 5% by simple random sampling method. The validity and reliability of the research questionnaires were approved by the experts. Also, in order to measure the reliability of the questionnaires, the Cronbach's alpha method was used and using SPSS software, the alpha for each dimension and the coefficient was equal to 0.81, which is a sign of high reliability. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normalization of variables, matrix analysis, t-test and ANOVA.
    Discussion of Results and Conclusions
    In line with the research hypotheses, the relationship between the opportunities and threats of virtual social networks with the components of security, identity and virtual ethics of the students was investigated. The results of the analysis show that the most important threats and weaknesses of the field of security in virtual social networks for students are: identity crisis, declined ethical norms, increase in corruption, unethical relationships, electronic addiction, reduced motivation for education, and the most important points, strengths and opportunities include: the development of virtual training, the development of scientific communication, and e-commerce. Based on this, we conclude that the level of threats and weaknesses in virtual social networks for students is greater than the amount of opportunities and strengths. As a result of weakening of social security and virtual ethics, students are more affected by technological threats. It also stimulates the virtual social networks, thoughts and dreams of individuals. However, because this technology enables the exchange of information, the establishment of communication and the global dissemination of the ideas and views of users happens.
    Keywords: Security, Virtual social networks, Students, Opportunity, Technology Threat