- Volume:11 Issue:2, 2019
- تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/09
- تعداد عناوین: 14
Pages 101-106Injuries to the bladder are infrequent and commonly result from blunt, penetrating, or iatrogenic trauma. Bladder injuries may be missed as they often present concomitantly with other abdominal
and pelvic injuries; however, early detection and treatment are essential as morbidity and mortality may be significant. Gross hematuria, especially in the setting of pelvic fractures, may be indicative of a bladder injury which can be confirmed with cystography. Extraperitoneal injuries are commonly managed conservatively with catheter drainage while intraperitoneal ruptures traditionally required surgical exploration and closure. Presented is a contemporary review which encapsulates the etiology, presentation, assessment, and management of bladder injuriesKeywords: Bladder, Trauma, Extraperitoneal, Intraperitoneal, Iatrogenic
Pages 107-122BackgroundA systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine the relationships risky driving behaviors (RDBs) have with the big five personality factors, sensation seeking and driving anger.MethodsThe PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Psychinfo, and the Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched. All original studies were retrieved that assessed the relationships RDBs had with the big five personality factors, sensation seeking, and driving anger. Heterogeneity between studies was examined using the Cochran Q statistic and I2 tests. After applying Fisher’s r-to-z transformation, the correlation coefficients (r) were summarized from each study and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated.ResultsOverall, 22 studies were included in the meta-analysis, which included 11211 participants. The results showed that RDBs had a significant negative relationship with agreeableness (r -0.27; 95% CI, -0.36, -0.19; P less than 0.0001), but significant positive relationships with neuroticism (r 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03, 0.29; P=0.584), sensation seeking (r 0.28; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.33; P less than 0.0001) and driving anger (r 0.39; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.64; P=0.002). Conversely, RDBs were not significantly related to extraversion (r -0.01; 95% CI, -0.08, 0.05; P=0.705), conscientiousness (r -0.05; 95% CI, -0.21, 0.12; P=0.584), or openness (r -0.06; 95% CI, -0.12, 0.00; P=0.065).ConclusionsTherefore, it appears that individuals most likely to engage in risky driving behaviors would be low in agreeableness, but high in neuroticism, sensation seeking and driving anger.Keywords: Personality-characteristics, Risky drivingbehaviors, Meta-Analysis
A systematic review of quality of reporting in registered intimate partner violence studies: where can we improve?Pages 123-136BackgroundReporting quality is paramount when presenting clinical findings in published research to ensure that we have the highest quality of evidence. Poorly reported clinical findings can result in a number of potential pitfalls, including confusion of the methodology used or selective reporting of study results. There are guidelines and checklists that aim to standardize the way in which studies are reported in the literature to ensure transparency. The use of these reporting guidelines may aid in the appropriate reporting of research, which is of increased importance in highly complex fields like intimate partner violence (IPV). The primary objective of this systematic review is to assess the reporting quality of published IPV studies using the CONSORT and STROBE checklists.
MethodsWe performed a systematic review of three large study registries for IPV studies. Of the completed studies, we sought full text publications and used reporting checklists to assess the quality of reporting.
ResultsOf the 42 randomized controlled trials, the mean score on the CONSORT checklist was 63.5% (23.5/37 items, SD 4.7 items). There were also 12 pilot trials in this systematic review, which scored a mean of 49.3% (19.7/40 items; SD 3.3 items) on the CONSORT extension for pilot trials. We included 12 observational studies which scored a mean of 56.1% (18.5/33 items; SD: 4.1 items).
ConclusionsWe identified an opportunity to improve reporting quality by encouraging adherence to reporting guidelines. There should be a particular focus on ensuring that pilot studies report pilot-specific items. All researchers have a responsibility to ensure commitment to high quality reporting to ensure transparency in IPV studies.Keywords: Intimate partner -violence, Spouse abuse, Transparency, Randomized -controlled trials, Pilot studies
Pages 137-147BackgroundAdolescent dating violence (ADV) is highly prevalent and can have serious health consequences, including homicides, and be a predictor of intimate partner violence in adulthood. This review aims to systematize the knowledge produced in recent empirical investigations in health that focus on the causes and consequences of ADV to subsidize new research and prevention programs.
MethodsReview of studies published in PubMed over the last five years through MeSH Database: “Intimate Partner Violence” AND “Adolescent” NOT “prevention and control” NOT “Adult”.
ResultsWe analyzed 35 papers, of which 71.4% were developed in the USA. Some studies have shown prevalence greater than 50% in both genders, both as victims and perpetrators, with more serious consequences for females. Three main thematic cores were identified in the studies: ADV-related vulnerabilities, circularity of violence and ADV-associated health problems. Data indicate that ADV is deep-seated in the patriarchal culture and is more frequent in connection with racism, heterosexism and poverty. It occurs in a circular way and is linked to other forms of violence in different contexts (family, school, community and social media). It is associated with health problems such as depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, alcohol and drugs abuse and unprotected sex.
ConclusionsThe knowledge produced in the studies reviewed reveals the urgency and importance of implementing early preventive actions in schools, involving families and the community. These should focus on the deconstruction of current cultural gender patterns, based on their historical origin, in order to support emancipatory and liberating pedagogical approaches.Keywords: Dating violence, Gender, Adolescence, Exposure to -violence
Road traffic injuries measures in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: findings from the Global Status Report on Road Safety – 2015Pages 149-158BackgroundThe Eastern Mediterranean Region has the second highest road traffic fatality rate in the world. This article presents the epidemiology of road traffic injuries and the preventive measures in Eastern Mediterranean Region taken by the different World Health Organization member states compared to the rest of the world.
MethodsThis is a secondary data analysis addressing the Global Status Report on Road Safety published by the World Health Organization in 2015. Data are from 180 countries covering 6.97 billion people of the world’s population, of which 21 Eastern Mediterranean Region of World Health Organization member states with about 595 million population were included and were analyzed. From 22 countries in the region, 21 are presented and Syria has not reported any data on road traffic injuries.
ResultsEastern Mediterranean Region member states contribute to 9.69% of all global fatal road traffic injuries (19.9 per 100 000 population compared to the same rate in the European region with 9.3), while these countries account for 7.4% of the world’s population and have about 5.6% of the world’s vehicles on their roads. More than 90% of the Eastern Mediterranean Region countries have passed mandatory seat-belt laws for both front-seat and rear-seat passengers and making helmet use obligatory; and only 27% have child restraint laws; half percent have an emergency room injury surveillance system. All countries have a national drink-driving law; and certain speed limits but there is no distinction between rural and urban areas, and the latter lack adequate speed restrictions.
ConclusionsAlthough the Eastern Mediterranean Region member states have some important preventive measures recommended by World Health Organization, considerable efforts are still needed to optimize the enforcement of existing road safety laws. The maximum urban speed limit should be reduced in many countries. Sufficient attention should be paid to the needs of pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists, who together make up about 50% of Eastern Mediterranean Region road traffic deaths.Keywords: Road safety, Epidemiology, Preventive measures
BackgroundAggression is the most significant psychopathological risk factor. It is a multifaceted construct and can affect students’ social, mental and physical health. The present study was conducted to investigate factors associated with aggression among elementary school girls and boys using the theoretical framework of Social Cognitive Theory in Kermanshah city, Iran.MethodsThe cross-sectional study was conducted on 900 students, including 445 girls and 455 boys, 563 parents and 104 elementary school teachers in the fourth, fifth and sixth educational grades in Kermanshah city in 2018. The proportionate stratified random sampling was used. The Adolescent Peer Relations Instrument (APRI) was used to measure aggression. To measure the variables of social cognitive theory, a researcher-made questionnaire was used. Data
analysis was conducted using descriptive and inferential statistics via the SPSS software.ResultsIt was showed that 29% and 10% of the students had moderate and high levels of aggression, respectively. Also, 30.6% of them were moderate victims and 45.6% were intense victims. Self-efficacy (p less than 0.001), perceived social norms (p=0.011), observational learning (p less than 0.001), outcome expectations (p=0.027), outcome expectancies (p=0.028) and perceived situational (p less than 0.001) were reported as the significant predictors of aggressive behaviors in the students based on the Social Cognitive Theory constructs. In total, they explained for 37.3% of changes in aggressive behaviors. Parents’ knowledge (p=0.005), parents’ attitude (p=0.012), teachers’ attitude (p less than 0.001), and teachers’ self-efficacy (p=0.021) had statistically significant relationships with aggression in the students.ConclusionsAggression among children and adolescents is getting alarmingly prevalent. The Social Cognitive Theory is the appropriate framework for the prediction of aggression behaviors in children and adolescents. Therefore, designing and implementing educational interventions based on this theory can help with the management of aggression in children and adolescents.Keywords: Epidemiology, Road safety, Preventive measures
Pages 171-178BackgroundChildren from low-income families experience a disproportionate number of unintentional injuries compared to their middle-income peers. Parents are well positioned to teach children about avoiding injury, yet little is known about parent-child safety conversations in low-income families. This study examined to what extent mother-child safety conversations differ between low- and middle-income families.MethodsMothers and their 8- to 10-year-old children from low- and middle-income families discussed and rated the safety of photos showing another child engaged in potentially dangerous activities.ResultsDyads disagreed over safety ratings on a third of trials, and both middle- and low-income mothers were highly successful in resolving disagreements in their favor. Middle-income mothers justified their ratings by referring to almost twice as many dangerous features than outcomes, whereas low-income mothers generated roughly equal numbers of dangerous features and outcomes. Middle-income children did not differ in their references to dangerous features and outcomes, but low-income children focused heavily on dangerous outcomes relative to dangerous features.ConclusionsDescribing how middle- and low-income families discuss safety is a first step in understanding whether similarities and differences contribute to how middle- and low-income children evaluate and navigate potentially dangerous situations.Keywords: Mother-child -communication, Unintentional -childhood injuries, Injury prevention, Low-income -families
Challenges of establishing a road traffic injury surveillance system: a qualitative study in a middle-income countryPages 179-188BackgroundEstablishing effective road traffic injury surveillance is an important priority for low- and middle-income countries since a large proportion of fatal road traffic injuries occur in these countries. A surveillance system can coordinate the activities and compile the data gathered by all road safety organizations. This study aims to explore the challenges of establishing road traffic injury surveillance based on the stakeholders’ experiences.MethodsThis is a qualitative content analysis study that was performed in 2018 in Iran. The study was conducted through interviews with 13 participants and employed purposeful sampling. Data generation was continued until concept saturation.ResultsFive main categories and 17 sub-categories were identified including: policy-making (legal authority, stakeholders, content policy and plan); process (collection and recording, analysis and interpretation, dissemination and feedback); resources and infrastructure (technology, staff, structure, finance); coherence and coordination (communication, dispersion, cooperation, consensus); and context (socio-cultural, political).ConclusionsBy creating a clear structure for a road traffic injury surveillance system, identifying data collection systems and stakeholders in the field of road safety and injury prevention, determining a clear goal for improving road safety, and formulating policies for the dissemination of road traffic crash data among stakeholders, it will be possible to overcome the obstacles to establishing a surveillance system for road traffic injury.Keywords: Qualitative study, Surveillance, Road traffic injury, Crash, Stakeholder
Red light violation and pedestrians’ modal salient beliefs about unsafe road crossing behavior: a qualitative studyPages 189-202BackgroundPedestrians are amongst the most vulnerable road users and their unsafe behaviors have a major impact on traffic injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the underlying psychological factors behind red light violation in pedestrians’ crossing behavior based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and to provide recommendations for preventive interventions.MethodsThis qualitative study was conducted in Tabriz, one of the metropolitan cities of Iran. 30 pedestrians were individually interviewed using semi-structured, open-ended questions to elicit salient consequences, social referents, and circumstances regarding pedestrians’ red light crossing behavior. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using directed content analysis followed by frequency analysis in order to detect modal salient beliefs.ResultsA total number of 115 sub-categories were identified which were then classified in the ten predetermined categories of the Theory of Planned Behavior: advantages, disadvantages, positive feelings, negative feelings, approving referents, disapproving referents, behaving referents, not-behaving referents, facilitators, and barriers. “Saving time” was elicited as the most important both the advantage and the positive feeling. “Getting injured” was identified as the most serious disadvantage. “Lowering the level of culture” was obtained as the main negative feeling. “Friends/Peers” comprise the most prominent group among both the approving and the behaving referents, whereas “Family members” constituted the most significant group both among the disapproving and the not-behaving referents. “Being in a hurry” was introduced as the most substantial facilitator and “The fear of accident” was identified as the most influential deterrent factor.ConclusionBased on the major findings, reducing pedestrians’ red light violations needs to focus: on the perceived negative and positive consequences and feelings of this behavior like getting injured, and saving time respectively; on the approval role of friends/peers, and the disapproval role of family; and on the fear of accident as a barrier, and rushing as a facilitating factor. More precise quantitative research is needed to determine the predictive power of these factors in such risky behavior.Keywords: Attitude, Theory of Planned-Behavior, Red light-Violation, Pedestrians
Factors related to cell phone use while driving based on the Theory of Planned Behavior among university students in Kerman, IranPages 203-212BackgroundThere is a paucity of research examining the pattern of and factors that influence cell phone use while driving in Iran. This study aimed to report the prevalence of and factors related to cell phone use while driving based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, among a sample of college students in Iran.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted in Kerman, Iran, in 2016. Participants volunteered to participate after the study was advertised. We used the Texting While Driving questionnaire (TWD) based on the theory of planned behavior for data collection and used SPSS 22 to calculate linear regression and Pearson correlation coefficients.ResultsTwo hundred and fifty-seven (n= 257) students completed the questionnaire. Participants were between the ages of 18 and 47 years; 54.4% were females; 52.1% were single; 47.1% were undergraduate students, and 47.9% did not work. There was a significant relationship between intention toward sending and reading text messages while driving and gender, attitude, subjective norm, Perceived Behavioral Control (PBC), and moral norm. Also, there was a significant relationship between willingness to send and read text messages while driving and PBC, subjective norm, group norm, and moral norm. For intention, personal factors were involved, and willingness was affected by both personal factors and friend/peer groups.ConclusionsTexting while driving is prevalent among college students in Kerman; and intention and willingness to do this, is affected by several factors. Our findings suggest needs for the individual and peer- group training, and increasing awareness about the dangers of using cell phones while driving among this sample.Keywords: Texting-reading, while driving, Cell phone use, Distracted driving, Theory of Planned, Behavior
Beliefs and performances of elementary school students to prevent road traffic injuries, using Health Belief Model: a study from Hamadan, IranPages 213-224BackgroundRoad traffic injuries (RTIs) are important health problems and increasing knowledge on their prevention-related issues can be credible. This study aims to assess beliefs and performances of students to prevent road traffic injuries and their related factors, using Health Belief Model (HBM).MethodsThis cross-sectional study carried out on a random sample of 500 fourth and fifth grades students of elementary schools in Hamadan city, west of Iran. The data gathering tool was a self-administered questionnaire designed on the basis of HBM constructs and also the knowledge and performance of the students in relation to prevent RTIs. To increase the accuracy of this study, the students’ road-crossing behaviors were observed in a simulated street in the school, using an observation checklist. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16.ResultsThe mean age of the participants was 10.51±0.50. About preventing RTIs, the mean scores of the students’ knowledge was 64.139, and regarding HBM constructs, the mean scores of their perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers and self-efficacy were 82.817, 82.453, 82.451, 89.917, 84.343 and 91.250, respectively. The mean score of the students’ self-reported performances about traffic injury prevention was 48.750 and the mean score of their observed road-crossing behavior in the simulated street was 45.000. The final model of multiple linear regressions showed that the students’ sex (p=0.001), their knowledge (p less than 0.001), perceived susceptibility (p=0.002), perceived barriers (p=0.032), self-efficacy (p=0.001), and their observed road-crossing behaviors (p=0.019) predict the students’ self-reported injury prevention performances.ConclusionsRegarding prevention of RTIs, knowledge and performance of the studied students are undesirable. The study findings can help designing more appropriate prevention programs for them.Keywords: Health education, School health -promotion, Students' injury -prevention
The relationship of severity of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress with sleep quality in earthquake survivors in KermanshahPages 225-232BackgroundEarthquake is one of the most common natural disasters. A 7.3" Richter earthquake happened at 5km from the town of Ezgeleh in Kermanshah province in 2017, which caused several physical and mental injuries. The present study was conducted to investigate the sleep quality and mental health difficulties of those affected by earthquake and predict sleep quality according to severity of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress in the township of Sarpol-e Zahab, which suffered the most damage.
MethodsA total of 999 earthquake survivors living in temporary tents and camps were assessed in terms of sleep quality and pattern using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and severity of psychological symptoms using Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale 10 days after the disaster.
ResultsAccording to the results, poor sleep quality was experienced by 20.61% of survivors, severe stress by 60.5%, and severe depression by 41.5%, and moderate anxiety by 74%. The subjective quality, efficiency, daily dysfunction, use of hypnotics, and total sleep quality had a positive and significant relationship with severity of experienced depression, anxiety, and stress. Sleep latency had a positive and significant relationship only with stress, and sleep disturbance with depression and stress.
ConclusionsSeverity of depression, anxiety, and stress can predict changes in total sleep quality of the those affected by earthquake. Stress can be considered as the sole predictor of total sleep quality and the only factor that can explain components of sleep quality. The implications of the present study are debatable.Keywords: Anxiety, Depression, Earthquake, Sleep, Stress
Pages 233-242BackgroundBicycle riding is a widely practiced mode of transportation, commuting, competition, fitness and recreation. We aimed to describe the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of Bicycle-Related Traumatic Injury (BRTI) in a Middle Eastern country.
MethodsData were extracted from a prospectively collected trauma registry over a period of six years (2010- 2015) from the national trauma center. Demographics and clinical characteristics of patients, and outcomes were analyzed.
ResultsThere were 150 patients with a mean age of 27.2±16.6 years, 98% were males, 86.6% were hit by a car and 8.7% died. The average annual incidence of BRTIs was 1.3 per 100,000 populations. The mean Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) and injury severity score (ISS) were12.7±4.0 and 13.6±9.8; respectively. Almost one-third of cases had an ISS of 9-15. The most commonly injured region was the head (47%) followed by a lower extremity (30%), chest (25%), upper extremity (21.3%), spine (20.7%), abdomen (18.7%) and (7%) pelvis.
ConclusionsBRTI is relatively uncommon in Qatar; however, it is characterized by a distinct epidemiology with a considerable mortality. Young male nationals, recreational cyclists and expatriate young commuter cyclists comprise the majority of victims and should be the focus of primary prevention efforts. Complementary prevention should aim at enforcing helmet laws to reduce fatal head injuries, and educating motorists of safer practices around cyclists.Keywords: Bicycle-related, Traumatic Injuries, Helmet, Risk factors, Qatar
Pages 243-254BackgroundDomestic violence against women can lead to short and long term health-related issues. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of domestic violence against married women and its correlates in southwestern, Iran.MethodsA population-based survey was carried out from February 1st to May 30th, 2018 in Shiraz, Iran. Currently married or recently separated/divorced women who visited healthcare centers were voluntarily interviewed. World Health Organization (WHO) standard domestic violence questionnaire was used to measure domestic violence. Hence, its prevalence and correlates were assessed. Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression.ResultsLifetime prevalence of overall, mental, physical, and sexual domestic violence were 54.5% (95% CI: 49.6, 59.4), 52.0% (95% CI: 47.1, 57.0), 18.2 % (95% CI: 14.4, 22.0) and 14.0 % (95% CI: 10.6, 17.4), respectively. Living separately, increasing spouse’s age, the higher number of children, rental housing, middle to low monthly income, and history of domestic violence in the family of husband and/or wife had a positive correlation with domestic violence in some categories.ConclusionsMore than half of the married women in southwestern Iran are experiencing domestic violence, and mental domestic violence is the most common type. Economic instability and witnessing domestic violence in childhood are the most correlates of domestic violence. Family violence preventive services and other population-based measures are highly necessary for this regionKeywords: Domestic violence, Public health, Women’s health