فهرست مطالب

Advanced Herbal Medicine - Volume:5 Issue:1, 2019
  • Volume:5 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1397/11/09
  • تعداد عناوین: 5
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  • Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils and methanolic extracts obtained from wild and cultivated types of Thymus fedtschenkoi from East Azarbayjan, Iran
    Asad Kazemi, Faranak Elmi *, Alireza Moradi Pages 1-13
    Backgruon and aims
    The aim of this research was to compare the chemical composition and the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of wild and cultivated types of T. fedtschenkoi collected from East Azarbayjan, Iran.
    Material and Methods
     The essential oils (EOs) from aerial parts of wild and cultivated T. fedtschenkoi were investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Antibacterial activities of EOs and methanol extracts were tested against bacteria by disc diffusion method and determining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values by agar dilution method and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP assays.
    Results
    Twenty-two components were identified representing more than 99.20% of the total oil constituents. The major components in the oils of the wild type were; thymol (49.21%), p-cymene (15.20%) and Carvacrol (10.20%) and for the cultivated type were; thymol (62.33%) and carvacrol (7.12%). The MIC values of bacterial strains, which were sensitive to the EO of T. fedtschenkoi, were in the range of 2-128 μg/mL in wild type and 2-16 μg/mL in cultivated type.
    Conclusion
     Our data show that cultivation significantly affects the EOs’ chemical composition and antioxidant potential of T. fedtschenkoi. They signify a reasonable source of natural antibacterial substances that proved to be potential as a drug for use in pathogenic bacteria.The antibacterial activity by the presence of inhibition zone appeared from EOs in the cultivated type on all tested microorganisms significantly higher than that in the wild type, which can be attributed to the presence of high concentration of thymol (47.48%) against the wild type (29.96%).
    Keywords: Biological activity, cultivation, Essential oil composition, Thymus fedtschenkoi
  • Antibacterial activities and ciprofloxacin potentiation of Melissa officinalis extracts against some gram negative pathogenic bacteria
    Azizollah Ebrahimi *, Maryam Shahrokhi, Saied Habibian, Sharareh Lotfalian Pages 14-22
    Background and aims
    In bacteria using inhibitors of efflux pumps (EPIs) is one of several strategies to combat with bacterial resistance. It is well documented that most medicinal plants especially those with antimicrobial properties composed of elements (EPIs) that disturb the efflux pumps of bacteria. The current work was designed to evaluate antibacterial activities of ethanol and chlorophorm extracts of Melissa officinalis and also synergistic effects of the extracts with ciprofloxacin against some gram negative pathogenic bacteria. We also examined the inhibitory effects of the extracts on efflux pumps.
    Methods
    Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extracts alone or in association with ciprofloxacin or phenylalanine arginine β- naphtylamide (PAβN) were determined using broth micro dilution method. Effects of the extracts on efflux pumps of the examined bacteria detected by using ethidium bromide in well diffusion assays.
    Results
    The extracts from M. officinalis showed antibacterial activities against all examined bacteria in a range of 3125 to 25000 μg/mL as determined by MIC determination. The extracts from M. officinalis showed synergistic effects with ciprofloxacin on Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii PAβN had no effect on MIC of ciprofloxacin but the association of extracts decreased it. In S. enertidis and E Coli both extracts of M. officinalis increased the amount of ethidium bromide accumulation (i.e. reduced efflux).
    Conclusion
    The overall results show that associations of fluoroquinolones with extracts of M. officinalis may potentiate the antibacterial effects of fluoroquinolones.
    Keywords: Antibacterial activities, Melissa officinalis, Gram-negative bacteria, Efflux pumps
  • In vitro Antisickling properties, Free radicals quenching potential, protective properties against oxidative mediated ions toxicity of combinations of Theobroma cocoa beans (sterculaceae)
    Prosper Biapa *, Floriane Tammo, Jesse Tekumu, Prudence Nya, Lena Yembeau, Christian Kengne, Phelix Bruno Telefo, Anatole Pieme Pages 23-32
    Background
    Sickle cell anaemia induces an abnormal haemoglobin (Hb S) synthesis. Hb S undergoes polymerization and causes the red blood cell (RBC) sickling with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present work aims to determine the antioxidant and anti-sickling activities of the combination of Theobroma cacao (T. cacao) extracts from different regions in Cameroon.
    Methods
    The extract combinations (Santchou and Obala (CSOH), Bertoua and Mbalmayo (CMBH)) was prepared using water/ethanol (30v/70v; pH=3). Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH°) and 2,2'-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzo-thiazolone-6-sulfonic acid] (ABTS°) scavenging properties of extracts were determined for the antioxidant capacity. The liver homogenate protective activity of extracts was estimated by measuring Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Osmotic fragility reduction and anti-sickling properties of the combination were also investigated.
    Results
    CSOH and CMBH respectively revealed a high content of polyphenols (274.6±5.1 and 289±2 mg Eq of Quercetin/g of extract), flavonoids (3.8±0.1 and 4±0.2 mg Eq of cafeic acid/g of extract) and FRAP (119.83 MEAA/g of extract and 114.33 MEAA)/g of extracts). Extracts scavenged DPPH° and ABTS° radicals, respectively with IC50 values between 4.07 μg/mL and 13.15 μg/mL. CMBH showed the best anti-sickling reduction activity (54.56% and 70.07% after 2h30 and 24h respectively). The haemolysis percentage of erythrocytes decreased with an increase of the extract concentrations. Extracts combinations decreased and increased the MDA and GSH levels respectively as well as normalizing the enzymatic activities.
    Conclusion
    Cocoa extracts combinations especially CMBH are antioxidants and anti-sicklings.
    Keywords: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA), Oxidative stress, T. cocoa combination
  • A review of Smyrnium cordifolium Boiss , phytochemistry, pharmacological effects
    Sadegh Dodman, Keramatollah Saeidi, Zahra Lorigooini *, Mahmud Kiani Pages 33-40
    The use of plants for treating the diseases dates back to the mankind birth on earth. The use of medicinal herbs is traditionally common in different societies; in Iran, the general population also uses medicinal plants to prevent and treat many diseases. Smyrnium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Apiaceae. The local names are Smyrnium vanagi and penoma. Smyrnium is a perennial plant with a height of 80 to 120 cm. The genus is represented in the flora of Iran by only one species, Smyrnium indigenous to central Asia, Iran, Turkey, and western Afghanistan. all organs of the plant including stem, leaves, fruits and roots contain essential oil. curzerene and curzerenone are the major components Oxygenated sesquiterpens of the Smyrnium essential oil. Smyrnium cordifolium Boiss is used in treatments for internal organ edema, especially in bladder and kidney problems. Smyrnium has been shown to be a potent natural antioxidant source. The purpose of this article is not to have extensive and sufficient information about the Smyrnium plant. So far, little research has been done on this plant.
    Keywords: Smyrnium cordifolium Boiss, Phytochemistry, Composition
  • Phytochemical composition and antibacterial properties of the essential oil of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae)
    Asad Kazemi, Faranak Elmi * Pages 41-52
    aims
    The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Achillea biebersteinii essential oil (EO).
    Methods
    The chemical composition of samples obtained from Marand city in East Azerbaijan, was assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antimicrobial properties were evaluated by the disc diffusion method against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), other extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producing, as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of EO was assessed using the agar dilution method.
    Results
    In A. biebersteinii the major compounds were α-terpinene (41.42%), 2-carene (13.96%), m-cymene (13.41%) and 1,8-cineole(8.91%).The EO showed antimicrobial activity against ten microorganisms, especially Streptococcus sanguis, S. aureus (MRSA strain), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-producing strain), which was potentially better than tetracycline and kanamycin.
    Conclusion
    This study confirmed that EO of A. biebersteinii has in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, which has made it an alternative antibacterial agent.
    Keywords: Phytochemicals, Achillea biebersteinii, essential oil, GC, MS