فهرست مطالب

Health and Life Sciences - Volume:5 Issue: 2, 2019
  • Volume:5 Issue: 2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/04/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Arezoo Paliziyan*, Mahnaz Mehrabizadehonarmand, Arezoo Javadi Koma Page 1
    Objectives
    The present study examines the role of empathy as a mediator between callous-unemotional traits and bullying among students.
    Methods
    The present descriptive correlational study was conducted on 250 students selected from the 14th district of Tehran, Iran through cluster sampling in the academic year of 2017 - 2018. The subjects completed the inventory of callous-unemotional traits (ICUT), the empathy scale and the Illinois bully scale (IBS). The data collected were analyzed in SPSS-23 and AMOS-23 using statistical correlations and structural equation modeling.
    Results
    The present results suggested that the effect of callous-unemotional Traits on empathy is negative and significant (-0.44) and on bullying is positive and significant (0.48). Empathy also exerted a positive and significant effect on bullying (0.30). Callous-unemotional traits indirectly affected bullying with empathy as the mediator.
    Conclusions
    Authorities of schools and organizations are recommended to teach empathy to students to reduce the incidence of student bullying.
    Keywords: Callous-Unemotional Traits, Empathy, Bullying, Students
  • Mahsa Bameshgi, Seyed Ali Kimiaei *, Ali Mashhadi Page 2
    Background
    Different methods have been used to treat depression caused by marital relationships.
    Objectives
    The present study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the unified protocol for transdiagnostic treatment in decreasing depression associated with marital problems.
    Methods
    The present controlled clinical trial was conducted on a statistical population comprising all women with depression associated with marital problems presenting to psychological clinics in Mashhad, Iran. Thirty five of these patients were randomly selected and assigned to an intervention group and a control group. Twelve sessions of group therapy were held in the intervention group based on the unified protocol for transdiagnostic disorders, whereas members of the control group participated in a language course. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID), the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the communication patterns questionnaire were used to collect the data.
    Results
    The pre-treatment and post-treatment scores obtained from ANCOVA showed significant differences in depression (P < 0.05), the mutual avoidance of communication subscale (P < 0.05), the mutual constructive communication subscale (P < 0.05) and the demand/withdraw subscale (P < 0.05).
    Conclusions
    According to the obtained findings, the unified protocol for transdiagnostic treatment can be considered effective in improving the symptoms of depression associated with marital relationships.
    Keywords: Transdiagnostic Treatment, Depression, Marital Problems
  • Mohsen Nematy, Ayoub Tavakolian *, Abdolreza Norouzy, Mohammad Safarian, SaeedAkhlaghi Page 3
    Background
    Rice is considered a major source of carbohydrates in most parts of Iran and many other countries. The quality of carbohydrates expressed as glycemic index (GI) has been known to play a key role in chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular problems and even cancer. Determining the GI of different types of rice and the effect of cooking methods on this index is therefore crucial.
    Objectives
    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of two different cooking methods on the GI of Kalat rice as a popular rice in Iran.
    Methods
    Ten healthy male participants with similar activity levels, i.e. no exercise, were recruited from Mashhad University of medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. The participants consumed the test meal, steamed rice and boiled rice each in a different day. Blood glucose levels were measured at the time points of -5, 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyze the data.
    Results
    The GIs of boiled and steamed Kalat rice were respectively found to be 89.4 and 89.2, suggesting no significant differences. Moreover, the glycemic loads (GLs) of boiled and steamed Kalat rice were respectively found to be 23.01 and 23.87. The GI and GL of Kalat rice were therefore high compared to those of other types of Iranian rice.
    Conclusions
    Cutting down on Kalat rice is beneficial, specifically in individuals at risk for developing chronic diseases
    Keywords: Glycemic Index, Carbohydrates, Rice, Kalat
  • Mehdi Mirzaei, Alavijeh, Fatemeh Rajati, Naser Hatamzadeh, Laleh Solaimanizadeh, FarzadJalilian* Page 4
    Background
    Faculty members’ abilities directly affect academic performances.
    Objectives
    The present study was conducted to examine psychological empowerment and its relationship with professional variables among the faculty members of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.
    Methods
    This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 165 faculty members of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS) in 2018. The participants were selected through simple random sampling with probability proportional to size. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire and were analyzed in SPSS-16 by the independent t-test, the one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test at the significance level of 95%.
    Results
    The mean age of the participants was 40.16 ± 8.12 years, ranging from 26 to 60 years. The mean score of psychological empowerment was 47.44 [SD: 6.16]; that is, the participants obtained 79% of the maximum score for psychological empowerment. Age and work experience were significantly correlated with the meaning (P < 0.01) and impact (P < 0.05) domains of psychological empowerment.
    Conclusions
    The findings showed that the meaning and impact domains of psychological empowerment correlated significantly and positively with age and work experience among the faculty members. Developing programs to promote psychological empowerment in younger faculty members is thus recommended.
    Keywords: Academic Performance, Medical Education, Empowerment
  • Reza Ghanbari, Ehsan Mohammadi, Mohammad Mahdi Soori, Seyede Parvin Moussavi, RezaRostami, Razieh Sadat Hajimirmohammad Ali, Zohreh Naghdali, Milad Mousazadeh* Page 5
    Background
    Data collection tools used in literature to evaluate the degree to which study objectives are fulfilled should be standard to ensure the accuracy of data.
    Objectives
    The present study was performed to standardize and validate a questionnaire designed for investigating the concepts of a health belief model of the style and pattern of using disposable plastic containers.
    Methods
    A review of literature suggests few questionnaires are available on the style and pattern of using disposable containers. In the first step of the present study, the first draft of the questionnaire was designed and its reliability and concepts were evaluated using expert comments. In the second step, its understandability was evaluated in a pilot study on 30 subjects. In the third and fourth steps, the questionnaire reliability was respectively examined using the test-retest and lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) through calculating a Cronbach’s alpha in STATA.
    Results
    The questionnaire subscales included demographic information (8 items), perceived sensitivity (5 items), perceived severity (7 items), practical guidance (3 items), perceived benefits (9 items), perceived barriers (7 items), perceived self-efficiency (8 items), perceived pleasure (6 items) and interpersonal norms (4 items). The questionnaire was distributed among 20 individuals, and they were asked to examine its understandability. At least 80% of the items were acceptable as per quality assurance standards. After revising the questionnaire as required, it was presented to thirty samples. They were also asked to complete the questionnaire again within 15 days, and the results were evaluated for quality assurance. The items were then modified according to the degree to which the objectives were realized. Thirty participants ultimately completed the questionnaire, and the results were evaluated for quality assurance.
    Conclusions
    In a large body of literature, developing standard assessment tools has been considered the main step toward scientific research; nevertheless, standardizing a questionnaire in a way that it is made sensitive can be time-consuming. The present results confirmed the validity and reliability of the designed questionnaire for evaluating the health belief model of patterns of using disposable plastic containers.
    Keywords: Health Belief Model, Disposable Containers, Reliability, Psychometric Assessment
  • Shohreh Heshmati, Zahra Karamizand, Hadis Fattahi, Hooshyar Hossini* Page 6
    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are always accompanied by producing highly-reactive hydroxyl radicals (OH) with great potential for the decolorization and mineralization of organic compounds. Todays, dyestuff and pigments are considered a notorious concern for the pollution of aqueous environments. Proposing new methods to dispose of this problem is therefore essential. The present study was conducted to investigate the use of the Fenton process for removing crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of this method was influenced by several factors, including pH, initial concentration of the dye, different interfering ions and reaction duration. The residual concentration of the dye was determined using spectrophotometry at a maximum wavelength of about 586 nm. The data were analyzed and interpreted in Excel. The optimal pH was obtained as 3, and the optimal initial concentration and Fe/H2O2 ratio as 50 mg/L and 1:10 respectively. Given the effect of the contact duration, the minimum Fenton reaction duration was considered 30 minutes. In next step the effect of interference in the progression of the Fenton process were investigated for KCl, NaCl and NaHCO3. Moreover, the efficiency of CV decolorization was 96% under optimal conditions. Fenton can be therefore considered an appropriate process for removing CV from colored wastewater in textile industries.
    Keywords: ColoredWastewater, Fenton Process, CV
  • Fatemeh Hosaini, Shohreh Heshmati, Hiwa Hossaini*, Shiva Shokati Page 7
    Background
    Most students perceive a dormitory as their home. Research suggests that inappropriate conditions of dormitories can disrupt the psychophysical health and educational status of students.
    Objectives
    The present research was conducted in 2016 to investigate the status of the environmental hygiene and house dust mites (HDMs) in dormitories for the female students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. The status of dust in terms of HDMs was also examined in different areas of the dormitories, including the rooms.
    Methods
    To investigate the environmental parameters, a checklist comprising 14 sections was developed and completed through a field survey. To investigate the prevalence of mites, the samples collected from 1 m2 of the surface of the mattresses and carpets in the rooms using a vacuum cleaner were extracted and stained, and the mites were counted under a microscope.
    Results
    One sample positive for mites was identified in both Boostan and Taleghani dormitories, while no positive samples were found in Mofatteh dormitory. Moderate levels of environmental hygiene were also observed in Mofatteh dormitory and favorable levels in Boostan and Taleghani.
    Conclusions
    The results obtained from the present research suggest that the health status of the dormitories was moderate to high based on their overall score; nevertheless, the buildings oldness and the lack of a consistent management of waste collection and sewage disposal were among the factors that degraded the health status of all the dormitories.
    Keywords: HDM, Dormitory, Environmental Hygiene, Student, Dust