فهرست مطالب

Epidemiologic Research - Volume:6 Issue:2, 2019
  • Volume:6 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/02/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Ehsan Shariat *, Ali Dalir Ghaffari, Somayyeh Mosavipoor, Somayyeh Namroodi, Javid Sadraie Pages 49-54
    Background and aims
    Toxoplasmosis is a very common disease in the world and has two types,including chronic and acute toxoplasmosis. In the chronic toxoplasmosis, the abnormality of tissuefunction is negligible, but in acute toxoplasmosis, the function of the reticuloendothelial system isinterrupted and the assessment of Toxoplasma antibody with tissue enzymes is very essential in thisstage. In addition, in some conditions, serum ferritin increases in the acute phase of the infectiousdisease. In congenital toxoplasmosis, the evaluation of biochemical factors and IgG avidity test isimportant for detecting the acute congenital toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. Based on theabove-mentioned explanations, the present study aimed to evaluate the biochemical factors inpatients with acute toxoplasmosis (congenital toxoplasmosis) among the Iranian population usingelectrochemiluminescence and IgG ELISA avidity.
    Methods
    The study was based on a comparative abundance study and was conducted from March toJune 2017. Material included 980 serum and amniotic fluid samples collected from human blood witha high level of IgG antibody against Toxoplasma gondii in Rajaie Center, Tehran, Iran. The standard andthe main tests included the ELISA assay and the measurement of the liver transaminases (i.e., SGOTand SGPT), along with/namely bilirubin and ferritin used to detect IgG antibodies and to evaluate theacute toxoplasmosis, respectively. Finally, the results were analyzed by SPSS software.
    Results
    The results showed that the level of liver transaminases, namely, serum bilirubin and ferritinincrease in some patients with a high level of IgG avidity antibody against Toxoplasma gondii. Forexample, the mean serum levels of SGOT was 108 IU/L in 120 patients with acute toxoplasmosis andthe mean serum bilirubin was about 5 mg/dL in 80 patients.
    Conclusion
    Overall, in acute congenital toxoplasmosis, the evaluation of IgG AVIDITY is regarded asthe first step and then the measurement of biochemical factors such as serum transaminases, serumbilirubin, and serum ferritin is important.
    Keywords: Toxoplasmosis pregnant women, Electrochemiluminescence, SGOT, SGPT, bilirubin, ferritin, IgG avidity
  • Mehri Rejali, Seyede Soghra Ahmadi * Pages 55-59
    Background and aims
    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI)among the pregnant women and the risk factors related to it in Shahrekord, Iran.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, 832 patients were examined during 26 to 30 weeks of pregnancyand their UTIs were studied. The required information was collected by examining the personalpregnancy health records and completion of the data registration forms. All statistical analyses wereperformed in SPSS software version 23.0 using chi-square and independent t test.
    Results
    According to the results of this study, out of 832 pregnant women, 109 were diagnosed withUTI; hence the prevalence of UTI was recorded to be 13.1% in this study. Moreover, there was asignificant relationship between UTI and variables of delivery, severe nausea and vomiting duringpregnancy (known as morning sickness), genitourinary disorders, infertility, and blood group.
    Conclusion
    According to the study results, it seems that screening and treatment of UTIs have beendone appropriately and in the right time, in health systems of the city of Shahrekord which have ledto the reduction of disorders in infants, as well as maternal diseases. Even in the absence of any UTIrelatedsymptoms, screening tests for UTI are recommended.
    Keywords: urinary tract infection, Risk factor, Pregnancy, Cross-sectional study
  • Fathollah Aalipour * Pages 60-64
    Background and aims
    Bread is considered as one of the important sources of sodium in the Iraniandiet and salt is the main source of sodium, which is used to produce bread. The assessment of dietaryintake is a reliable method that shows nutritional problems in the community. Therefore, the purposeof this study was to evaluate the intake of salt, sodium, and potassium through bread consumption.
    Methods
    In the present study, 451 samples of different types of bread were tested, sent to the FoodControl Laboratory for health control, and the amount of salt, sodium, and potassium was determinedby potentiometric and flame-photometric methods, respectively. In addition, the amounts of salt,sodium, and potassium intake were evaluated based on their average concentration in different typesof bread and per capita consumption of bread. Finally, the status of salt, sodium, and potassium intakewas investigated by comparing their recommended daily allowance (RDA) and sodium/potassiumratio and sodium to caloric intake.
    Results
    Based on the results, the concentrations of salt, sodium, and potassium were 1.95%, 769%,and 108% (mg per 100 g of bread), respectively. Furthermore, per capita consumption of bread was320 g/d and the average intake of salt, sodium, and potassium through bread consumption was 4.03g, 1588 mg, and 223 mg/d, respectively. Moreover, 79% of sodium RDA was received through breadconsumption. In these breads, the ratio of sodium to potassium, as well as that of sodium to caloriewas 12.07 (mmol/mmol) and 2 mg/calories, respectively.
    Conclusion
    In general, the results showed that the intake of sodium and salt by using bread is morethan that of their RDA. Accordingly, the ratio of sodium to potassium and sodium to caloric intakeis higher than the permitted limit in these conditions, which provides the basis for the incidence ofcardiovascular diseases. Therefore, strong monitoring of bread producing units is necessary.
    Keywords: Estimation of intake, Salt, Sodium, Potassium, bread
  • Maysam Rezapour, Zahra Khorrami, Raheleh Tabe, Narges Khanjani * Pages 65-69
    Background and aims
    Many workers face significant hazardous workplace exposures, especially indeveloping countries. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of occupational riskfactors and common occupational diseases in Kerman.
    Methods
    This study was based on data from occupational risk factor and disease monitoring systemsavailable at Kerman Province Health Center during 2011-2015. These data are gathered semiannuallyby occupational hygienists based on standard checklists provided by the Ministry of Health andMedical Education and these checklists include exposures and diseases related to the workplace.
    Results
    Based on the results, 292 (3.7%), 281 (3.58%), 261 (3.32%), and 115 (1.47%) cases werefound regarding occupational hearing loss, respiratory conditions, work-related back pain, andmusculoskeletal disorders, respectively, which were related to different occupational exposuresdiagnosed in Kerman during 2011-2015. Moreover, dust, work tools, wrong body position duringwork, and noise were the most common risk factors in this respect.
    Conclusion
    Overall, occupational hazards are considered as an important health issue in Kerman.Therefore, it is necessary to control exposure to these risk factors in order to prevent occupationaldiseases.
    Keywords: Prevalence, Occupational exposures, Occupational disease
  • Mansour Bahardoust, Marjan Mokhtare, Arash Sarveazad, Shahdieh Karimi, Atefeh Talebi, Arezoo Chaharmahali, Shahram Agah * Pages 70-75
    Background and aims
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the important public health diseases in Iran.Therefore, to control the prevalence of the disease, knowledge is required regarding the risk factor ofHBV. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of HB transmission.
    Methods
    A retrospective case-control study was conducted on the possible risk factors of HBVtransmission. To this end, a total of 171 patients with HBV infection and 171 controls from Rasoul-e-Akram hospital were investigated during 2015-2018. All subjects were directly evaluated using a faceto-face questionnaire about demographic aspects. Finally, HBV infection and its risk factors among thesubjects were detected using hepatitis B surface antigen test.
    Results
    Overall, 171 HBV patients including 77 (42%) males and 93 (58%) females were evaluated.The mean age of the participants was 40 ± 13 years. Univariate logistic analysis showed that HBVinfection in these cases was associated with addiction injection (odds ratio [OR] = 4.08, CI:1.3-9.57), family history (OR = 4.52, CI: 1.27-10.7), and having a history of blood transfusion (OR =3.16, CI: 1.52-5.37). There were no significant relationships between the liver function tests, alcoholconsumption, the history of dental visits, and HBV participants. In addition, the logistic-regressionmodel proved that patients with a history of HBV-infected parents (At least one of them) and addictioninjection were severely subject to HB infection. In other words, there was a significant associationbetween a history of HBV-infected parents and addiction injection and HB infection.
    Conclusion
    In general, HBV infection was strongly related to having a family member infected withhepatitis B, suffering from addiction injection, and having blood injection.
    Keywords: Epidemiology, Hepatitis B virus, Risk Factors, Iran
  • Shervin Assari * Pages 76-82
    Background and aims
    As suggests by the Minorities’ Diminished Returns (MDR) theory, educationattainment and other socioeconomic status (SES) indicators have a smaller impact on the health andwell-being of non-White than White Americans. To test whether MDR also applies to happiness, in thepresent study, Blacks and Whites were compared in terms of the effect of education attainment on thelevel of happiness among American adults.
    Methods
    General Social Survey (1972-2016) is a series of national surveys that are performed in theUnited States. The current analysis included 54 785 adults (46 724 Whites and 8061 Blacks). The yearsof schooling (i.e., education attainment) and happiness were the main independent variable and themain dependent variable of interest, respectively. In addition, other parameters such as gender, age,employment status, marital status, and the year of the survey were the covariates and race was thefocal effect modifier. Finally, the logistic regression model was used to analyze the data.
    Results
    Based on the results, high education attainment was associated with higher odds of happinessin the pooled sample. Further, a significant interaction was found between race and educationattainment on the odds of happiness, showing a larger gain for Whites compared to Blacks. Racespecificmodels also confirmed this finding (i.e., a larger magnitude of the effect of education forWhites compared to Blacks).
    Conclusion
    Overall, the MDR theory also applies to the effect of education attainment on happiness.Blacks’ disadvantage in comparison to the Whites in gaining happiness from their education may bedue to the structural, institutional, and interpersonal racism and discrimination in the US. Therefore,there is a need for economic and public policies that can minimize the Blacks’ diminished returns ofeducation attainment and other SES resources.
    Keywords: Blacks, Whites, Race, Ethnicity, Class, Socioeconomic status, happiness
  • Seyed Jalil Hosseinin Irani, Leila Riahi *, Ali Komeili, Reza Masoudi Pages 83-90
    Background and aims
    Patient safety, as one of the main components of the health care quality, impliesavoiding any injury and damage to the patient when providing health care services. In other words,patient safety means his or her safety against any adverse and harmful event when receiving health careservices. Based on the above-mention explanations, the present study was conducted to determine thepatterns of patient safety management.
    Methods
    A systematic review method was used to meet the objectives of the study. In order to accessthe scientific documentation and evidence related to the subject published during 1998-2018, Englishkeywords including “Patient Safety Model”, “Patient Safety”, and “Patient Safety of Management” weresearched in Medine, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases and Persian versions of these keywordswere also looked for in Jihad-e Daneshgahi’s Scientific Information Database (SID) and Iranian Journalsdatabase (Magiran).
    Results
    The findings of this study suggested that most of the studies on designing a model for patientsafety highlighted important dimensions including guidance and leadership, communication,organizing, information management, control and monitoring, participation and decision-making, aswell as planning and coordination.
    Conclusion
    In general, using patterns and frameworks designed for patient safety improves patientsafety against uncertain incidents since the human and financial consequences of such incidentsimpose overwhelming sufferings on patients.
    Keywords: inquiry, pattern, Patient Safety
  • Moslem Taheri * Page 91
    Dear Editor, I have read with great interest the article titled "The Relationship between Caesarean and Neonatal Hypothyroidism in Chadegan City" by Naderi et al[1]. Best regards and thanks to the authors, it is an interesting topic however these few points that I would entitled to highlight. First in the method section, that author mentioned the record 86 cases. This is not likely to have such high number in only one year, the highest prevalence in this area is two case in 1000 birth. [2, 3] Also , it is mentioned that individual and group matching has been used, in this situation conditional logistic regression or logistic regression should be used to adjusted confounders[4] Finally, there is inconsistency between value in the text & in the table2 for value of control group (176 vs 126). According to the results of this table, the odds ratio is equal to 0.56(CI 95%: 0.30-1.02), but in the results of another value was reported.