فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/30
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Reza Afshari *, David Bellinger Pages 30-33
  • Adnan Turk *, Asım Kalkan, Şeref Emre ATİŞ, Mehmet Ali Topal, Bora Çekmen, Öner Bozan, Hakan Topacoglu Pages 34-38
    Background
    Several drug intoxications can affect both pulmonary and cellular respiration. We therefore think that assessing blood lactate levels can provide information about prognosis. Blood lactate levels have provided information about prognosis in several diseases involving hypoxia at the cellular level, such as sepsis and trauma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is any relation between blood lactate levels and mortality, morbidity, and prognosis in patients presenting to the emergency department with drug intoxication.
    Methods
    This retrospective cross-sectional study involved patients admitted to the emergency department due to suicidal drug intoxication over a one-year period (January to December 2016). The primary outcome measure was the relationship between serum lactate concentrations and patient discharge or hospitalization, and if hospitalized, the duration of stay. The secondary outcome measure was the relationship between serum lactate concentrations and toxic dose intake in single-drug intoxication.
    Results
    We enrolled 372 patients, of whom 192 were analyzed after exclusion criteria application. The mean blood lactate level in the total patient group was 2.6±1.46, and 2.7±1.9 in the single drug group and 2.5±1.3 in the multidrug group. Also, blood lactate levels in the overdose group and toxic dose group were 3.4±3.0 and 2.4±0.9, respectively. No significant differences were determined in the lactate level, discharge, hospitalization and the length of hospital stay between the single drug and multidrug groups. In the toxic dose group, patient ages and number of admissions to intensive care unit were significantly higher than in the overdose group. The number of discharges was significantly lower in the toxic dose group. No correlation was determined between the serum lactate level and the length of hospital stay.
    Conclusion
    Lactate level is not a useful parameter for predicting hospitalization in drug intoxication patients.
    Keywords: Drug Toxicity, Hospitalization, Lactic Acid
  • Nadeemullah Khan *, Naveed Ahmed, Faysal Subhani, Salima Kerai, Nukhba Zia Pages 39-44

    Introduction
    Poisoning is an important public health issue globally. There are very few poison control centers in Pakistan with a very limited capacity to deal with poisoning emergencies. The aim of this study was to identify non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working for poison control and prevention in Pakistan and to assess their capacity and role in control of poisoning in Pakistan.
     
    Methods
    A cross-sectional study was conducted between October and December 2017. NGOs were identified through web-based search. They were contacted through telephone and emails. The data was recorded on a predesigned structured questionnaire. The questions were related to major areas including poison information, advice service, infrastructure, human resource and availability of clinical services.
    Results
    We found 408 healthcare NGOs, of which 168 responded either via phone call or email. Eight out of 168 were found to have some role in the field of prevention and control of poisoning. Of these, complete information was available for only six organizations. All were involved in some aspect of environmental poisoning with a focus on pesticide poisoning mostly for farmers. Almost all organization referred cases to local hospitals when necessary. However, they did not have any official referral system in place and links with any tertiary level facilities.
    Conclusion
    The study highlights that very few NGOs have some focus on the poisoning control and prevention. There is a window of opportunity for non-governmental sector to strengthen poisoning prevention and control for other forms of environmental poisoning for example caused by medicines, household chemicals, drug misuse, etc.
    Keywords: Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Pakistan, Poisoning
  • Indira Madhavan *, Rakhin Kareparambil Balan, Balaram Neeratty Asokan, Andrews Mekkattukunnel Andrews, Aswin Valliot Pages 45-49
    Background
    The National Crime Records Bureau of India reported a decline in suicide rate from 2010 through 2014. We conducted this study to know whether our hospital data reflects the national data and to know the age and gender specific differences in selecting methods of suicide.
    Methods
    We conducted a retrospective analysis of autopsied cases in Department of Forensic Medicine in a tertiary care hospital in central Kerala, India. Data on age, gender, cause of death of autopsied cases with alleged history of deliberate self-harm (DSH) were noted.
    Results
    Mean age of study population was 43.4±24.4. There were 59.3% males and 40.7% females, but young females outnumbered young males. Majority of cases were hanging (n=1325), followed by poisoning (n=1169), burns (n=809), drowning (n=626) and others (n=401). Hanging and poisoning were the common methods chosen by males while burns and poisoning were the common methods by females. The number of DSH cases was 1,040, 866, 771, 837 and 826 in each year from 2010 to 2014, respectively. Number of poisoning cases was declining steadily from 350 to 163 while non-poisoning suicide was not showing any steady changes (690, 578, 514, 657, and 663). Pesticides were the most common agent recorded in the autopsy sheet while corrosives, plant toxins, cyanide, toxic alcohol and drug overdose were less common. Quinalfos, chlorpyrifos and carbofuran were the commonly identified pesticides on chemical analysis.
    Conclusion
    There is a decrease trend in the number of suicides over the 5 years from 2010 through 2014 with a decrease in suicide due to poisoning. Though there is minimal increase in suicide due to hanging, it did not affect the total number of suicides.
    Keywords: Burns, Drowning, Pesticides, Poisoning, Suicide
  • Lincy Juliet Kolandai Samy, Prashant Adole *, Vinay Pandit, Kolar Vinod Pages 50-55
    Background
    Human serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) hydrolyzes organophosphate (OP) compounds and so significantly alters an individual’s susceptibility to the toxicity of these chemicals. The study was designed to assess the serum PON1 activity in a series of patients with OP poisoning.
    Methods
    Suspected OP poisoning patients presented within 6 hours of consumption at emergency department were recruited. Demographic information of patients, clinical findings, treatments given, complications, length of hospital stay and clinical outcome were collected into datasheets. Patients were graded into moderate and severe poisoning. Serum PON1 was measured by ELISA method and serum cholinesterase by butyrylthiocholine method.
    Results
    Mean serum PON1 level in patients with severe poisoning was significantly lower than those with moderate poisoning (426 ± 179 U/L vs. 868 ± 79 U/L, P < 0.001). Serum PON1 significantly correlated with serum cholinesterase levels (r = 0.400, P < 0.001) and negatively associated with total length of hospital stay (r = -0.338, P < 0.001), total atropine dose (r = -0.826, P < 0.001), serum amylase (r = -0.331, P < 0.001), lipase (r = 0.260, P = 0.011) and total creatinine kinase (r = -0.456, P < 0.001). Serum PON1 and cholinesterase levels were significantly lower in expired patients and those who required ventilation assistance as compared to recovered patients who did not require ventilation assistance.
    Conclusion
    Lower PON1 activity was significantly associated with lower serum cholinesterase and poorer outcomes. PON1 activity may be considered as an indicator of prognosis in OP poisoning.
    Keywords: Cholinesterase, Organophosphate Poisoning, Pesticides, Paraoxonase 1
  • Atefeh Raesi Vanani, Alihassan Rahmani *, Samaneh Parsa Payam Pages 56-60
    Background
    Drug abuse is one of the major socio-medical problems of our time with a global scope. Abusing street drugs is on the rise among adults and is considered as a public health concern. In addition, limited studies are available in this regard. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of street drug poisoning in the Razi Hospital of Ahvaz in Iran during 2008-2013.
    Methods
    This is an epidemiological cross-sectional study based on hospital information. All admitted cases with street drug poisoning were included during 2008 to 2013 (70 patients). Data were analyzed by SPSS software using descriptive statistics and Chi-square.
    Results
    In the current study, out of 70 cases aged 13-53 years old, the highest frequency of abusers was related to 30 years of age, and male/female ratio was 4 to 1. Among the drugs used, methamphetamine accounted for the highest rate. In this study, 55.7% of the cases needed to be admitted to the intensive care unit and 2 deaths were observed. The most common symptom among poisoned patients includes loss of consciousness and the least common symptom is respiratory distress.
    Conclusion
    According to the results, it can be concluded that the poisoning will be rarely fatal in case of dangerous exposure, if they are under supervision of emergency medical attentions, including the careful management of airways and respiratory failure, hypotension monitoring, seizure and impaired management of body temperature.
    Keywords: Addiction, Drug abuse, Methamphetamine, Marijuana, Poisoning
  • Marjan Emzhik, Pouran Makhdoumi, Nasrin Milani, Bita Dadpour * Pages 61-64
    Background
    Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical syndrome that results in releasing myoglobin content from damaged muscle cells into circulation and often causes acute kidney injury (1). Different mechanisms are considered to be responsible in rhabdomyolysis and renal failure. However, free radical generation is the most important mechanism resulting in kidney injury. Thus, the effect of various antioxidants has been investigated. Acetaminophen, with antioxidant ability in therapeutic dose, has shown a considerable protective effect on kidney after muscle injury. The investigations have shown that acetaminophen enhances renal function, decreases renal damage and reduces oxidant injury. The aim of this review was to summarize proven evidences for etiology to renal injury and abilities of acetaminophen in reducing it.
    Methods
    Articles published from 2010 to 2017 in PubMed and Google Scholar were covered in this review. The articles investigating the role of free radical in renal injury following Rhabdomylosis were searched using the keywords Rhabdomyolysis, kidney and oxidative stress. The keywords used to find articles regarding antioxidant ability of acetaminophen were antioxidant and acetaminophen.
    Conclusion
    With assessment of evidences form antioxidant capacity of acetaminophen and mechanism of renal failure in Rhabdomyolysis, this drug can be useful for prevention and treatment of kidney injury especially following rhabdomyolysis.
    Keywords: Acetaminophen, Kidney Injury, rhabdomyolysis
  • B Saroj Prusty, Kiran Kumar Ramineni, Majed Momin *, Krishna Mohan Reddy, Safina Perveen Pages 65-67
    Background
    Organophosphorus compound ingestion is one of the most common modes of deliberate self-harm in developing countries like India. Neurological complications are known in acute, intermediate and delayed phases following organophosphate poisoning. However, extrapyramidal manifestations are rarely reported.
    Case presentation
    A 30-year-old male patient was brought to the emergency department with history of consumption of unknown amount of monocrotophos 36%. At the time of presentation, he was in cholinergic crisis. He was managed with intravenous satropine, pralidoxime and mechanical ventilatory support. By day six, he improved significantly and was extubated. On day eight of illness, he developed extrapyramidal syndrome (EPS) characterized by reduced facial expression, tremors of all four limbs, rigidity and intermittent opisthotonic posturing. In addition to supportive care, he was treated with oral amantadine and trihexyphenidyl. He was discharged on day fifteen and by eight weeks improved significantly and became independent for all activities of daily living.
    Discussion
    Organophosphorus compounds are cholinesterase inhibitors which act primarily by blocking active site on the cholinesterase enzyme by forming a covalent bond. Extrapyramidal syndrome is a rare complication during intermediate phase. Increased susceptibility of the basal ganglia nuclei to the toxic products in the absence of efficient detoxification pathways may  be responsible. Brain imaging may reveal characteristic signal changes or can be completely normal.
    Conclusion
    This case highlights the importance of careful observation and meticulous neurological examination for the diagnosis and appropriate management of the rare extrapyramidal syndrome due to acute organophosphate  poisoning.
    Keywords: Extra Pyramidal Syndrome (EPS), Intermediate Syndrome, Organophosphorus Compound