فهرست مطالب

مطالعات کتابداری و علم اطلاعات (علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی) - سال بیست و ششم شماره 1 (بهار 1398)
  • سال بیست و ششم شماره 1 (بهار 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/01/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • زاهد بیگدلی، منیجه شهنی ییلاق، زیور صباغی نژاد*، غلامرضا رجبی صفحات 1-22
    هدف
    هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی و دسته بندی نیازهای اطلاعاتی کودکان است. منظور از کودک، بر اساس پیمان نامه حقوق کودک، افراد تا سن 18 سالگی است.
    روش شناسی
    این مقاله به شیوه مروری تحلیلی انجام گرفته است. در بخش اول به مرور پژوهشهای داخل و خارج از ایران که به دسته بندی نیازهای اطلاعاتی کودکان پرداخته اند، توجه شده است و در بخش دوم، جمع بندی، پژوهشگران این اثر ارائه شده است.
    یافته ها
    پژوهش حاضر بر اساس پیمان نامه حقوق کودک (ژنو 1959)، دسته بندی جدیدی از نیازهای اطلاعاتی کودکان ارائه کرده است. بر این اساس نیاز اطلاعاتی زیر برای کودکان، قابل طرح است: نیازهای اطلاعاتی مربوط به بقا و حیات، تامین اجتماعی و ارتقاء کیفیت زندگی؛ حمایت از خود، جلوگیری از سوء استفاده؛ روابط شخصی و خانوادگی، دوست یابی؛ آزادی بیان و اندیشه؛ امور مذهبی؛ کتابها، منابع اطلاعاتی، رسانه ها و شبکه های اجتماعی؛ سلامت و بهداشت؛ آموزش اطلاعات تخصصی؛ اوقات فراغت و سرگرمی؛ عزت نفس و منزلت فردی و اجتماعی.
    نتیجه گیری
    توجه به ماهیت نیازهای اطلاعاتی کودکان، می تواند کمک بزرگی به کتابداران، بویژه کتابداران کتابخانه های عمومی، در راستای انتخاب منابع اطلاعاتی ویژه این گروه از جامعه نماید.
    کلیدواژگان: نیازهای اطلاعاتی کودکان، استفاده کودکان از اطلاعات، کودکان و اطلاعات، اطلاع یابی کودکان، پیمان نامه حقوق ‏کودک ژنو
  • پروین نجف پور مقدم*، زهره چراغی، فرهاد احمدی اصل صفحات 23-40
    هدف
    هدف از انجام پژوهش حاضر شناسائی عوامل ترغیب کننده و بازدارنده عادت به مطالعه دربین دانش آموزان دختر و پسر مقطع متوسطه شهرستان اهواز، می باشد.
    روش
    پژوهش حاضر به لحاظ هدف کاربردی و به لحاظ روش توصیفی و پیمایشی است.  نمونه این پژوهش را 380 نفر از دانش آموزان دبیرستانی شهر اهواز تشکیل می دهند که به روش تصادفی طبقه ای انتخاب شده اند. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات در این پژوهش، پرسشنامه محقق ساخته شامل 24 سوال بوده است.
    یافته ها
    براساس نتایج 8/62 درصد پاسخگویان را دختران و 2/37 درصد آنان را پسران تشکیل داده اند. یافته های پژوهش نشان داد که میانگین مطالعه درسی دانش آموزان در طول روز تقریبا 3 ساعت بوده و دختران به طرز معنی دار بیشتر از پسران مطالعه درسی دارند. میانگین مطالعه غیر درسی دانش آموزان نیز حدود 55 دقیقه در روز محاسبه گردید که از این نظر بین میانگین مطالعه دختران و پسران تفاوت معنی دار وجود ندارد. بر اساس یافته ها، رایج ترین راه کسب اطلاعات در بین دانش آموزان، رادیو و تلوزیون و اینترنت است. همچنین یافته ها نشان می دهد که بین تحصیلات والدین و مطالعه غیر درسی دانش آموزان در سطح 037/0 همبستگی وجود دارد.
    نتیجه گیری
    بر اساس یافته ها، از میان عوامل ترغیب کننده، عوامل آموزشی، عوامل اقتصادی و عوامل انگیزشی، بیشترین تاثیر را از نظر دانش آموزان، در ترغیب  مطالعه داشته است. در میان عوامل بازدارنده نیز باز هم عوامل فرهنگی، آموزشی و اقتصادی دارای بیشترین فراوانی در بین پاسخ ها بوده اند. در پایان پیشنهاداتی جهت ارتقاء سطح مطالعه ارائه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: مطالعه، عوامل ترغیب کننده، عوامل بازدارنده، دانش آموزان، دوره متوسطه
  • هاجر ستوده، کیانوش رشیدی* صفحات 41-56
    هدف
    بررسی برنامه های حفاظت وب جهان به منظور تعیین زمینه ی فعالیت و ویژگی های آنها به لحاظ سابقه فعالیت، پوشش مجموعه، گستره پوشش، نوع منابع، الگوی دسترسی و نوع جامعه تحت پوشش فعالیت های حفاظت وبی است.
    روش
    گردآوری داده ها به روش متن پژوهی انجام شد. برنامه های برتر حفاظت وبی از طریق جستجو در گوگل، مستندات، مقالات و راهنماهای معتبرشناسایی شد.
    یافته ها
    بررسی برنامه ها نشان داد که شمار برنامه های حفاظت در سراسر دنیا رو به افزایش دارد. این امر نشان از اهمیت حفاظت وب و آگاهی روز افزون در این باره دارد. این برنامه ها در دو دسته کلی تحقیق و توسعه در حوزه حفاظت وبی و نیز اجرای عملیاتی حفاظت فعالیت دارند.
    نتیجه گیری
    رویه های غالبی که در این برنامه ها مشاهده شد عبارتند از حفاظت از دامنه ملی و در نتیجه حفاظت از تلفیقی از انواع منابع و (تقریبا) همه موضوعات، و همچنین ارائه الگوی دسترسی آزاد به جامعه کاربری جهانی.
    کلیدواژگان: &quot، حفاظت دیجیتالی&quot، حفاظت وب&quot، طرح ها&quot، برنامه ها&quot
  • سلیمان شفیعی، امین زارع* صفحات 57-72
    هدف:
     فراتحلیل به عنوان یک پارادایم جدید و متفاوت از فراترکیب کیفی، فراقوم نگاری و مرور نظامند است. ذهنی بودن مطالعات اجرا شده، وجود ناهمگنی و تناقض در نتایج مطالعات، رابطه غیر موثر نتایج پژوهش ها با خط مشی ها، سیاست های کلان و امور عام المنفعه، تفسیری بودن نتایج در مقایسه با پژوهش های کمی، چند پارادایمی بودن پژوهش ها، استفاده از ابزارهای اندازه گیری غیردقیق دلایل شکل گیری روش فراتحلیل است. مراحل اجرا و روش های آماری مورد استفاده در فراتحلیل به گونه ای است که آن را از سایر روش ها متمایز می سازد.
    روش شناسی
    این مقاله با استفاده از روش کتابخانه ای و بررسی منابع نظری تهیه شده است.
    یافته ها
    نتایج پژوهش نشان داد بستر لازم برای اجرای مطالعات فراتحلیل در علم اطلاعات و دانش شناسی وجود دارد. فراتحلیل می تواند ابزاری قدرتمند برای پژوهشگران این رشته در یکپارچه سازی نتایج مطالعات، توسعه نظریه های موجود، خلق نظریه های جدید و ارائه تفسیرهای جامع از پدیده های مورد بررسی است.
    نتیجه گیری
    عمده ترین چالش های پیش رو و راهبردهای حل مسائل فراتحلیل عبارت اند از ناهمگنی انتشارات، عدم تجانس، داده های ناقص، موجود بودن و قابلیت دسترسی به مطالعات اولیه واجد شرایط و مطالعات به زبان دیگر است.
    کلیدواژگان: فراتحلیل، فراترکیب کیفی، بازنگری سیستماتیک، فراقوم نگاری، مطالعات علم اطلاعات و دانش شناسی
  • سمیه سادات آخشیک* صفحات 73-88
    هدف
    این مقاله با هدف تحلیل موضوعی پژوهش های منتشر شده در مجلات علم اطلاعات و دانش شناسی در حوزه مدیریت و شناسایی میزان انطباق آنها با مسائل و چالش های مدیریت در این رشته انجام شده است.
    روش
    این مطالعه یک پژوهش کاربردی است که با رویکرد ترکیبی و با استفاده از شیوه تحلیل محتوا انجام شد.
    یافته ها
    یافته ها نشان داد تنها بخش اندکی از مقاله های علمی-پژوهشی (17%) به مدیریت و موضوعات مربوط به آن پرداخته اند. موضوع پرتکرار مقاله های بررسی شده در این حوزه، مدیریت دانش و پس از آن کیفیت خدمات است.
    نتیجه گیری
    اولویت های پژوهش در حوزه مدیریت از دیدگاه خبرگان به مسائلی از قبیل تخصص در پست مدیریت، فنون مدیریت، برنامه ریزی برای توسعه خدمات و نگرش مدیران مرتبط است اما بین این موضوعات با موضوع های پرتکرار مقاله های این حوزه همخوانی چندانی وجود ندارد. به نظر می رسد مهمترین دلایل این امر به کاستی های کیفی و کمی پژوهش و نگارش، دشواری های پژوهش در این حوزه و پیروی از مدهای مدیریتی مربوط است.
    کلیدواژگان: مدیریت، مسائل، مدیریت کتابخانه ها، تحلیل مقاله ها، اولویت های پژوهشی
  • نحوه اجرای کتاب‏درمانی از دیدگاه متخصصان رشته علم اطلاعات و دانش‏شناسی و رشته روان‏شناسی با تاکید بر نقش کتابداران
    سهیلا خوئینی*، علیرضا نوروزی، فاطمه فهیم نیا صفحات 101-120
    شناسایی نحوه اجرای کتاب‏درمانی از دیدگاه متخصصان رشته علم اطلاعات و دانش‏شناسی و رشته روان‏شناسی با تاکید بر نقش کتابداران است.پژوهش حاضر پیمایشی-‏توصیفی است. جامعه پژوهش 61 نفر از متخصصان این حوزه در رشته‏های علم اطلاعات و دانش‏شناسی و رشته روان‏شناسی هستند. نتایج حاکی از آن است که به ترتیب روان‏شناسان، مشاوران و کتابداران و مددکاران اجتماعی از جمله افراد دخیل در اجرای کتاب‏درمانی بالینی هستند. مهمترین ویژگی‏های شخصیتی، اخلاقی و دانش و مهارتی کتاب‏درمانگران به ترتیب انگیزه و خلاقیت داشتن، رازدار بودن و گذراندن دوره‏هایی در حوزه‏های مرتبط هستند. مهمترین وظیفه یک کتابدار، شناخت منابع اطلاعاتی با میانگین 65/ 4 می‏باشد و به ترتیب مهمترین وظیفه سایر افراد (از جمله روان‏شناس، مشاور و یا مددکار اجتماعی) تایید سیاهه کتاب‏ها قبل از خرید توسط کتابداران با میانگین 46/4 و برقراری رابطه خوب با درمان‏جو با میانگین 44/4 است. کتاب‏درمانی خلاق و کتاب‏درمانی گروهی نیز از جمله مهمترین روش‏های اجرای کتاب‏درمانی هستند.
    کلیدواژگان: کتاب‏درمانی، کتاب‏درمانگر، کتابدار، روانشناس
  • شهناز خادمی زاده*، عبدالحسین فرج پهلو، اشرف حیدرزاده صفحات 121-138
    هدف
    هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی مقایسه ای وضعیت اشتراک دانش در میان اعضای هیات علمی دانشکده دامپزشکی و علوم پایه دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز و دانشکده علوم پایه پزشکی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی جندی شاپور اهواز بوده است.
    روش شناسی
    پژوهش حاضر از نوع توصیفی است که به روش پیمایشی انجام شده است. جامعه پژوهش را کلیه اعضای هیات علمی (167 نفر) دانشکده دامپزشکی و دانشکده علوم دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز و دانشکده علوم پایه پزشکی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی جندی شاپور اهواز در سال 95-96 تشکیل می دهند. جامعه پژوهش با روش سرشماری صورت گرفت. ابزار گردآوری داده های، با استفاده از پرسشنامه ای انجام شده است که بر مبنای یافته های پژوهش پورسراجیان، اولیاء و سلطانی علی آبادی (1392) و نیز پرسشنامه رضائی (1392) تدوین شده بود.
    یافته ها
    یافته های پژوهش حاضر نشان دهنده این است که از نظر اعضای هیات علمی دانشکده های علوم و دامپزشکی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز و دانشکده علوم پایه پزشکی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی جندی شاپور اهواز، زیرساخت های اشتراک دانش از جمله زیرساخت فناوری های اطلاعاتی و ارتباطی، زیرساخت فرهنگی، زیرساخت انسانی، زیرساخت راهبردهای رهبری و مدیریتی و زیرساخت ساختاری و اداری و تمایل اساتید به اشتراک دانش در وضعیت نسبتا مطلوب وجود دارد. در مقایسه وضعیت دو دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز و دانشگاه علوم پزشکی جندی شاپور اهواز از لحاظ زیرساخت فرهنگی تفاوت هایی مشاهده می شود و در سایر زیرساخت ها وضعیت مشابهی در هر دو دانشگاه وجود دارد.
    نتایج
    وضعیت زیرساخت های اشتراک دانش در دو دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز و دانشگاه علوم پزشکی جندی شاپور اهواز در حد متوسط قرار دارد. به نظر می رسد با پیاده سازی برنامه ریزی های دقیق تر از طرف بخش مدیریت دانش و نیز حمایت های مدیریتی در دو دانشگاه می توان وضعیت بهتری را در این رابطه رقم زد.
    کلیدواژگان: &quot، اشتراک دانش &quot، زیرساخت های اشتراک دانش &quot، کتابخانه های دانشگاهی، عوامل سازمانی&quot
  • بررسی تاثیر فرهنگ اطلاعات سازمانی بر استفاده ی کارشناسان دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر از نتایج اطلاعات
    محمدرضا فرهادپور*، مهرناز مرشدی یکتا، فریبا نظری صفحات 141-160
    هدف
    هدف بررسی تاثیر فرهنگ اطلاعات سازمانی بر استفاده ی کارشناسان دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر از نتایج اطلاعات است.
    روش
    پژوهش از نوع توصیفی با روش پیمایشی تحلیلی انجام شده است. تعداد 254 نفر از کارشناسان به روش نمونه گیری تصادفی طبقه ای از بین 750 نفر انتخاب و بین آنها پرسش نامه ی محقق ساخته دارای روایی صوری و پایا (82/0=α) توزیع و داده ها گردآوری گردید.
    یافته ها
    نتایج نشان داد که وضعیت ابعاد یکپارچگی اطلاعات (میانگین= 09/13)، شفافیت اطلاعات (میانگین=72/10)، اشتراک اطلاعات (میانگین=77/18)، فعالیت حرفه ای اطلاعات (میانگین=21/12)، غیررسمی بودن اطلاعات (میانگین= 55/8) و کنترل اطلاعات (میانگین=94/17) و بالاتر از سطح متوسط قرار می باشد. ضمنا، یکپارچگی اطلااعات، شفافیت اطلاعات، اشتراک اطلاعات و کنترل اطلاعات بر استفاده کارشناسان از نتایج اطلاعات تاثیر دارد ولی غیررسمی بودن اطلاعات بر آن تاثیر ندارد.
    نتیجه گیری
    فرهنگ اطلاعات سازمانی باورها، هنجارها و ارزشهای ناظر بر اطلاعات است، که توجه به آنها در سازمان می تواند بر محوریت اطلاعات در تصمیم گیری های خرد و کلان و استفاده از اطلاعات در انجام وظایف سازمانی تاثیر داشته باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: استفاده از نتایج اطلاعات، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی بوشهر، فرهنگ اطلاعات سازمانی، استفاده از اطلاعات
  • بررسی برون دادها و ترسیم شبکه هم نویسندگی محققان دانشگاه سمنان در نمایه های استنادی وب آوساینس
    حسین مرادی مقدم*، روح اله خادمی، حمید کشاورز صفحات 161-180
    هدف
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی بروندادهای علمی پژوهشگران دانشگاه سمنان از منظر شاخص های کمی (تعداد کمی تولیدات علمی، حوزه موضوعی، سال تولید) و شاخص های کیفی(تعداداستنادها و شاخص هایی نظیر H-Index محققان دانشگاه) انجام گرفته است. همچنین بررسی و ترسیم نقشه و الگوی هم نویسندگی پژوهشگران دانشگاه سمنان و نیز تعیین سهم دانشگاه سمنان از تولید علم ایران و جهان با استفاده از شاخص های مربوطه در نمایه های استنادی پایگاه وب آو ساینس طی سال های 1990 تا 2015 است .
    روش
    این پژوهش به روش توصیفی، با رویکرد علم سنجی و با استفاده از شاخص های تحلیل شبکه های اجتماعی انجام شده است. جامعه پژوهش شامل تمامی مدارکی است که دانشگاه سمنان را در وابستگی سازمانی خود ذکر کرده و در نمایه های استنادی وب آو ساینس و طی سال های 1990 تا 2015 نمایه شده اند. در مجموع  2106 مدرک توسط پژوهشگران دانشگاه سمنان در این بازه زمانی به ثبت رسیده است. نقشه هم نویسندگی با استفاده از نرم افزارهای، کوآتور، یوسی نت و نت دراو ترسیم و تحلیل شده است.
    یافته ها
    حوزه مهندسی (حدود 39 درصد)، فیزیک (حدود 5/19 درصد) و ریاضی (حدود 14 درصد)، موضوعاتی بوده اند که محققان دانشگاه سمنان پیرامون آن تولید علمی داشته اند. طی سال های مورد بررسی، محققان ایران 019,272 مدرک تولید کرده اند که در این بین سهم دانشگاه سمنان 2106 مدرک می باشد که جایگاه تقریبا 30 را در بین دانشگاه های کشور به خود اختصاص داده است. سهم دانشگاه سمنان از تولید علم جهان در بازه مورد بررسی، 0049/0 درصد است. محاسبه نرخ رشد نشان داد که، نرخ رشد تولیدات علمی محققان دانشگاه سمنان در نیم قرن اخیر  22/43  بوده  است که روند رو به رشد بسیار خوبی محسوب می شود. امجدی با اچ ایندکس 25، گرجی با 23 و اروجی با اچ ایندس 15 محققانی هستندکه بالاترین عدد این شاخص را به خود اختصاص داده اند. به لحاظ استناد، امجدی با 2126 استناد در رتبه اول قرار گرفته است. پس از وی، گرجی و اروجی هرکدام با 1341 و 629 استناد قرار گرفته اند. به لحاظ حوزه های موضوعی، بیشترین حوزه های مورد علاقه محققان دانشگاه سمنان برای انتشار مدارک علمی به صورت مستقل، حوزه ریاضیات بوده است.
    نتیجه گیری
    نتایج بررسی داده ها نشان داد که هرچند روند هم نویسندگی در بین محققان دانشگاه سمنان در چند سال اخیر دچار نوسان بوده است اما در طی دوره مورد بررسی محققان دانشگاه سمنان به سمت هم نویسندگی گرایش داشته اند و در مجموع نیز مدارک علمی سه نویسنده بیشترین نوع هم نویسندگی بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: دانشگاه سمنان، بروندادهای علمی، نقشه شبکه اجتماعی هم نویسندگی، علم سنجی
  • بررسی وضعیت امنیت ساختمان و نگهداری منابع و اطلاعات در کتابخانه مرکزی و مرکز اسناد دانشگاه اصفهان و مقایسه با برخی کتابخانه های ایران و جهان
    میترا پشوتنی زاده*، مریم اکبری صفحات 181-200
    هدف
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی وضعیت امنیت ساختمان و نگهداری منابع و اطلاعات در کتابخانه مرکزی و مرکز اسناد دانشگاه اصفهان و مقایسه آن با برخی کتابخانه های ایران و جهان انجام شده است
    روش
    داده ها از طریق مشاهده محیط و امکانات این کتابخانه و مصاحبه با مسئولین و کارمندان هر بخش، و ارسال پرسشنامه ای با سوالات باز برای مسئولین سازمان اسناد و کتابخانه ملی ایران، کتابخانه کنگره و کتابخانه بریتانیا و مطالعه سایت این مراکز اطلاعاتی جمع آوری شده است.
    یافته ها
    در این پژوهش، گزارشی از منابع موجود در کتابخانه و فعالیت های کتابخانه مرکزی و مرکز اسناد دانشگاه اصفهان، سازمان اسناد و کتابخانه ملی ایران، کتابخانه کنگره و کتابخانه بریتانیا برای حفاظت از مجموعه ها و منابع اطلاعاتی وژه ارائه و راهکارها و خط مشی ها و محدودیتهای موجود ببیان شده است.
    نتیجه گیری
    این پژوهش نشان داد که کتابخانه مرکزی و مرکز اسناد دانشگاه اصفهان تا رسیدن به سطح ایده-آل فاصله دارد. و در کتابخانه مرکزی دانشگاه اصفهان معیارها و استاندارها بطور کامل رعایت نشده است.
    کلیدواژگان: امنیت اطلاعات، حفاظت منابع اطلاعاتی، محدودیتها، کتابخانه های دانشگاهی، کتابخانه مرکزی و مرکز اسناد دانشگاه اصفهان
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  • Zahed Bigdeli, Manigeh Shehni, Zivar Sabaghinejad *, Gholamreza Rajabi Pages 1-22
    Abstract Background and Objectives
    Childhood conditions require special care and attention, believing that family, friends, environment, media could be all considered as environmental factors and motives that are related to the child and may affect all related affairs, activities, needs and other matters related to it. These factors can play a very important role in shaping, directing and meeting the needs of children. The child needs to grow in a normal environment, have the necessary support and assistance so as he/she can assume his responsibilities in society and prepare for living as a member of the community. In the process of the child’s learning, many adults are involved. They provide necessary information for the child, so they can play an effective role. The first and most important group is parents who are in direct contact with the child all the time and interact with him/her more than everybody and, of course, will play a greater role in this direction. By knowing children's information needs, they can try to provide children with the necessary information in a variety of ways.
    Methodology
    The main purpose of this research is reviewing and categorizing children information needs. According to the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC), children means up to 18 years old. This research use review-analytical method. First part reviewed researches which focused on children information needs. Much of the research is based on Maslow pyramid. Considering the limitations of access to foreign and international research database, extensive search was made at accessible databases. "information needs" was used as keyword and search was limited using "child", "children", "kids" and "young adult". The articles which paid attention to categorizing information needs of children were considered. Most articles were English and few were Persian. Some of articles which did not provide access to their full text, were requested through a document supply system, some of which were provided and studied. Some of articles were provided by contacting authors and received by email.
    Findings
    A limited number of articles were received by email to the corresponding authors. A few articles were not provided in the ways mentioned, so their study was not provided. These studies are divided into two groups: some of them have focused on children's information needs (for example Farrell (1974), Fourie (1995) and Palaniandy (1998) and the other part specifically defines the information needs of children in different classify. In 1973, a conference was held on the occupational needs of ethnic groups and other groups in the United States. One of the focuses of this conference was to consider the information needs of children and adolescents as a specific group. Walter (1994) went to California, Los Angeles and Santa Barbara to research about children's information needs. Because there is a presumption that the information needs of children are mainly examined by the elderly, the researcher decided to collect the required data from the elderly. Walter in this study found out that the results of his research were very much coherent with Maslow’s pyramid of basic human needs. Walter's findings suggest that children will experience the following information needs during their childhood: self-fulfillment, credit, love and belonging, security. Herman (2010), in his research on the information needs of children, offers the following categories of children's information needs: school related information needs, entertainment and leisure related information needs, personal information needs (problems that the person is involved in, medications, family conditions), information needs of specific individuals (such as children, intelligent children, people with disabilities, people with special problems, multilingualism, indigenous people who are not able to speak in the official language of that area). A review of the research that has been done so far has shown that most studies have focused on Maslow's basic needs for the information needs of children. One of the most important work that has been done to identify the needs of children on a global scale so far has been the Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted in Geneva in 1959. This article is based on Convention of the Rights of the Child and notify categories of children information needs which are related to: survival and life; social security and quality of life; self-support, abuse prevent; personal and family relationship, friendship; freedom of expression and thought; religious; books, informative sources, media and social networks; health; specialized training; self-esteem, personal and social dignity. Focusing on the nature of children information needs will help public librarians in collection development for children.
    Discussion
    This research showed that needs to know about survival and life, social security and quality of life is one of the most important needs of children, article 26 in CRC was mentioned it. It will be so necessary in puberty and adolescence age. Child needs Information about self-support (article 3 in CRC), abuse prevent (articles 32-37 in CRC) for better deciding about child labor and economic exploitation, drug dealing, children's sales and torture. Information need about personal and family relationship and friendship (articles 9 in CRC) are important for social relations and detecting friends. Children needs to know about freedom of expression and thought (articles 13 and 14 in CRC). Child needs to know about religious (article 14 in CRC) and so he will need religious book, people and place. Information needs about books, informative sources, media and social networks (article 17 in CRC) is important. They need to know about national and international information resources and how to use them. Child needs information about health (article 24 in CRC). Child needs to know about sickness, how we get sick, what should we do with sick people. They need information about specialized training (article 28 in CRC). So teachers can play an important role and school is the best information texture. Child needs some information about entertainment and leisure (article 31 in CRC). They need to know how entertain themselves and how spare their time. Having information about self-esteem (article 29 in CRC), personal and social dignity will help children to know that they are also worthy of respect and have the right to object.
  • Parvin Najafpour Moghadam *, Zohreh Cheraghi, Farhad Ahmadi Asl Pages 23-40
    Background and Objectives
    Studying as a social skill is the bed of advancement and development of each nation, and it can be said that there is a close relationship between the study and development of individuals in societies. The growth of the culture of studying and reading can directly and indirectly play an effective role in reducing the impact of social pests, such as addiction, etc. (Mardandoost, Torkian Tabar, Hasoomi, 2016). The need for children and adolescents to be interested in studying is not overlooked. The habit of reading and familiarity with resources that can help us meet our information needs is a great benefit and this habit is better to sprout from childhood (Mardandoost, Torkian Tabar, Hasoomi, 2016). The choice of teens for this study is important because they are in the early years of experiencing reading and this useful habit (reading), which should have been institutionalized since many years ago, is the basis for knowledge gaining and lifelong learning in them. The purpose of this study was to investigate and identify the inciting and preventing factors of habitual reading among high school students in Ahvaz.
    Methodology
    The present study was conducted in a survey, or field study, and descriptive method. The statistical population of this study consists of 380 of 40814 high school students of public schools in Ahwaz, which is calculated using the Cochran formula. Sampling in this research was carried out in a classified random manner. The data gathering tool in this research is a researcher-made questionnaire designed according to the factors related to the study (such as family, library, school, librarian, etc.), as well as the persuasive and dissuasive components. To assess the validity of the questionnaire, content validity was used. In order to determine the reliability of the data gathering tool, the final questionnaire was distributed in a group of 30 people. In the analysis phase, the reliability of the questionnaire was measured by calculating the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The reliability coefficient for measuring the study status was 0.75, for dissuasive factors was 0.943 and for the persuasive factors was 0.894. for descriptive statistics, indicators such as mean, frequency, standard deviation and percentages are used, and for inferential statistics, exploratory factor analysis, independent t-test, Spearman correlation coefficient have been used. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 22.
    Findings
    Based on the results, 62.8% of the respondents were girls and 37.2% of them were boys. The findings of the study showed that the average student's study period was about 3 hours a day and girls were significantly more likely than boys to study. The average non-syllabic study of students was estimated at 55 minutes per day. There was no significant difference between the mean study amount of girls and boys. According to the findings, the most common way to get information between students are radio and television, and the Internet. Also, findings indicate that there is a correlation of 0.037 between parental education and non-syllabus study in students. According to the findings, 75.1% of students during the day, in addition to textbooks, also study non-syllabus material; the average non-syllabus study time in students is about 55 minutes per day, and based on The test there is no significant difference between the non-syllabus study time of male and female students. Findings showed that students believe educational factors such as holding educational courses to familiarize them with reading, and then motivational, cultural and economic factors are the most important factors in getting them interested in reading. On the other hand, cultural, educational and economic factors are the most important factors preventing them from studying. Disscusion: Based on the findings, student believe that among the persuasive factors, educational factors, economic factors and motivational factors, have the most impact in encouraging students to study. These findings indicate that if adolescents are adequately trained in studying and familiarizing themselves with appropriate resources, and by institutionalizing appropriate culture from the behavior of their families and those around them since childhood, their interest in The study will be further. Among the deterrent factors, cultural, educational and economic factors were also the most frequent among the responses. At the end, suggestions are made to improve the level of study. As the findings show, from student's point of view the motivational factors have not been among the inhibitors, which means that in case of proper designing, adequate education and creation of facilities for book purchases, there is sufficient motivation for studying in teens and students. Therefore, according to the results, it is believed that the most effective ways to increase the adolescents' study rate and their interest in this culture are at first, development of related educational programs and then the attempt to guide the intellectual orientation and culture of Families towards reading and, later on, create easy access reading materials.
    Keywords: reading, Incentive factors, Preventive factors, students, Secondary school
  • Pages 41-56
    Background and Objectives
      Nowadays, we are passing through an era of transition from analog to digital format. Most valuable information is either digitally born or digitized which require digital preservation to ensure their safety and survival for long-term maintenance and access for posterity. Several web preservation programs have been launched around the world, each of which having its own properties and area of activities in line with policies and goals of the user organization. The present study aimed to explore the activities and properties of the existing top web preservation projects and programs in terms of their time coverages, scopes of preservation, and types of resources preserved, access models and authorized users.
    Methodology
    A documentary method was used to identify and analyze the relevant available literature such as papers, handbooks, web sites, etc. The programs’ people-in-charge were also questioned via a short questionnaire sent by Email. Top web preservation programs and projects were identified using Google Search, as well as analyzing the program interfaces and documents, directories and the related literature. After being verified and filtered, 61 top programs were selected to be studied.
    Findings
    The verification of the launching dates of the programs revealed that “Internet Archive” is the oldest one dating back to 1996.  Most recent programs were “Anarchism Web Archive” and “Web Harvesting Project of the German National Library”, of which the first was subject specific while the other was that of a specific nationality. While some programs cover a global scope as wide as the web, some others limit their borders to web resources published in a specific country, region, subject, organization, and/or document type. The first and oldest digital preservation program, i.e. “Internet Archive” has selected to cover the world-wide web as its preservation scope, thus its time coverage goes back to as far as 1996. For some programs, the time coverage is very limited and covers 2-9 years prior to their launching dates; examples are: “The Cyber Cemetery”, “LAC (Electronic Collection of Library and Archives Canada)” and “Portuguese Web Archive”. However, these programs are apparently depending on macro programs such as “Internet Archive” for the web resources published prior to their launching dates. It was also revealed that 50% of these programs run at national level and 13.4 % cover a specific subject. Politics, Culture, Religion, Science, Economy, Slavery, Government, Anarchism, Human Rights, Social Issues, Computer and Information Science are among the subjects that are most frequently dealt with by the programs. Some programs selected only one or two document types while others covered a combination of document types for preservation. Access to the archived version of the preserved documents ranges on a continuum from fully open, through semi-open to restricted access. Of all the programs the majority (39.1%) apply a full open access model; next comes those adhering to a restricted access model (23/9%). The semi-open access model had the least frequency (6.7%). Some programs offer their services to people throughout the world and do not limit themselves to specific users (6.3%) of which a prominent example is the “Internet Archive” that is open to all users around the globe. For some other programs (15.2%), access is restricted just for authorized users; for example, “Web Harvesting Project of the German National Library” and “AOLA (Austrian Online Archive)” are limited to students and researchers.
    Discussion
    The results of the present study revealed that the importance of web preservation is duly recognized all over the world so that a wide range of countries are found to be engaged in this endeavor. The programs under study can be classified into two main groups including R&D related and operational ones. Most of them are found to have chosen their national domains for preservation; this results in the perseveration of all document types in almost all subjects available in their cyberspaces. There are also many programs found to provide open access to the preserved contents for all kinds of users throughout the world.
    Keywords: &quot, web preservation&quot, digital preservation&quot, preservation projects&quot
  • Soleiman Shafiei, Amin Zare * Pages 57-72
    Background and Objectives
    Meta-analysis is a new paradigm different from qualitative, metaphorical, and systematic review. The subjectivity of the implemented studies, the existence of heterogeneity and contradiction in the results of studies and the interpretation of the results in comparison with quantitative research have been the reasons for the formation of the meta-analysis method. Some researchers believe that in 1970s the research in the area of social science and investigating the social and cultural issues faced some challenges in regards with methodology. These challenges could be raised because of subjectivity of research, ambiguities in the results of different pieces of research, ineffective relation between the results of studies and political guidelines, intercreativity of results in comparison with quantitative research are the main reasons of these challenges. Some researchers make a signs of the development of higher education and the explosion of research reports as the reason of re-thinking about new paradigm in the methodology of social science studies in 1970s. One of the solution for this problem, was the using of mixed methodologies for the integrating of results of related pieces of research.
    Methodology
    The aim of this research was to investigate the theoretical foundations of Meta-analysis methodology. This paper is an analytical overview that has been developed using the documentary methodology and theoretical sources. In this research, firstly, information resources and researches in the field of meta-analysis, including articles, theses, books and web pages were identified. Then, the collected data were studied and analyzed using a descriptive-analytical approach. Finally, the results of the study were analyzed analytically in comparison with information science and science researches.
    Findings
    The meta-analysis method was proposed in 1967 with the aim of integrating and integrating the studies carried out in the field of social, cultural and behavioral analysis using statistical methods. In addition, systematic review, metaphysics, transcendence, and metadata are equivalent meta-analytic terms, which are fundamentally different in nature and merely beyond which qualitative research is combined and their similarities and differences are compared, their findings are translated into each other and interpreted New from their collection. Research has shown that heterogeneity of publications, heterogeneity, incomplete data, availability and availability of early-qualifying studies and studies in other languages ​​are the most important issues and strategies for solving meta-analysis problems in information science and science, and meta-analysis in this field is rarely used. Is located. Studies in information science and science show that in terms of volume, statistical properties and quality, the necessary framework for the implementation of meta-analysis studies in this field is provided and the meta-analysis is an appropriate opportunity for scholars of this science to integrate the results of studies, develop existing theories, create new theories And provided comprehensive interpretations of the phenomena examined. The research also showed that there is no limit to the introduction of studies into the meta-analysis, and the number of studies included in the composition depends on the subject matter of the research and the goal, so that if a researcher examines a phenomenon based on the very personal experience of the subjects studied, Few studies are sufficient, but more studies are needed to measure more common phenomena.
    Discussion
    Information science and science as one of the branches of social sciences have a large amount of quantitative and qualitative research, and in practice there is a weak link between the results of these studies and its policies and policies. Studies in the field of information science and science have often been reviewed in the form of a meta-analysis. Researchers of this science use the systematic review method to collect raw data, to diagnose, integrate, and express simple and sequential expressions of research results. However, the number and quality of research done and the contradiction and heterogeneity in their results have made the use of the meta-analysis method more necessary. Considering that, on the one hand, the quantitative and qualitative researches carried out in the field of information science and science, taking into account the meta-criteria criteria, have been suitable conditions for entering meta-class studies, and, on the other hand, it is possible to employ a wide range of statistical methods in meta-analysis such as the size of the effect, Determining the significance level and deviation from the standard of effect size. Therefore, the field for researchers in this science is provided to integrate the results of studies, develop existing theories, create new theories, strengthen the certainty of cause and effect relationship, and provide comprehensive interpretations of the phenomena examined. Also, heterogeneity of studies, lack of consistency, incomplete data, access to early studies, and quantitative and qualitative data on the progress of knowledge and information science experts in the use of meta-analysis, should be addressed further.
    Keywords: Meta Analysis, Meta Synthesis, Systematic Review, Meta Ethnography, Information Science Studies
  • Somaye Akhshik * Pages 73-88
    Background and Objectives
    Subject analysis of the Management Research published in Knowledge and Information Science journals to identify their degree of compliance with management issues and challenges, as well as identifying the research gaps in this area.
    Methodology
    This study is an applied research that was conducted using a mixed method, approach applying content analysis techniques. The research population consisted of two groups: 1. Papers with the subject of management published in the scientific journals in the field of KIS (8 journals). The data collection tool used for this group was a check list; 2. Experts and professionals of KIS with management experience and expertise (7 people) who participated in the survey through a written interview.
    Findings
    The findings showed that only a small part of the scientific papers (17%) had addressed the management field and its related issues. Among the reviewed journals, most of the papers in this field had been published in two journals of Academic Librarianship and Information Research and Studies in Library and Information Science (24.5% and 22.5% of the total papers, respectively). The most repeated topics were Knowledge Management, and the Quality of Services. The discrepancy observed in the subjects addressed in the research in the field of management, the results of which have been published as research articles in scientific journals, and the tendency of these articles to the subject of knowledge management and its related sub-topics seems to be rooted in several issues: The first issue relates to the qualitative shortcomings of research in this field. Most research is done either in the form of theses and dissertations by graduate students, or as part of the requirements of some courses such as Planning in Libraries and Information Centers in the Ph.D. program, and Organizational Knowledge Management in the Master's program. The second issue is the shortcomings of research and writing about Management. Research itself and, in the broader context, writing in the field of Management in Information Science is not only qualitatively but also quantitatively deficient in quantitative terms. The third issue is rooted in the difficulties of research in the field of management. Of the challenge sources are the courses that deal with management of libraries and information centers in different levels of education from undergraduate to doctoral; courses such as:  Library and Information Centers Management, Organizational Knowledge Management, Management Information Systems and Planning in Libraries and Information Centers. Regarding the KIS Curriculum, the proportion of courses relevant to Knowledge Management is greater than other courses. This can be an important reason for boosting of the research in this field. From another point, however, the limited period of time allocated to post-graduate studies (normally 2 to 4 years) provides students with just the opportunity to familiarize themselves with managerial issues superficially, let alone the have the chance to grasp profound proficiency in theoretical and practical aspects of management, whether generally or specially in different levels of management. The fourth problem stems out from the continuous adherence of new findings to the wealth of knowledge available in this area, especially that which can be marked as managerial fads. Unfortunately, not only in this field, but also in many other areas, a large amount of research appears to have been undertaken due to following the momentary management modes as well as adherence to systems, models and styles that are almost entirely tailored to the needs and requirements of other countries. In experts' views, the most important issues in this area are: Inadequate skills, ill-managerial knowledge and expertise due to problems such as the paucity of employment of knowledgeable managers, unfamiliarity of managers with modern management in theory and practice,  neglecting management as an important specialization and the need for considering knowledge, expertise and personal capability of applicants for management jobs; organizational problems such as problems and deficiencies that exist in the organization chart against the demands of clients for their diverse desired services; decision-making issues in institutions that usually are rooted in deficiencies such as lack of stable and sustainable management and lack of strategic view towards the challenges of technology development in these centers.  In experts’ views, other challenge areas are: the issue of libraries' competition with other organizations, centralization and decentralization in library management, manpower management and interaction with library staff, service quality management approaches, creativity enhancement strategies, and, staff and teamwork. Review of numerous articles and comparison of their contents with research priorities as pointed out by experts indicates that, apart from the quality of services which is the most frequent subject discussed in most of the reviewed journals, there’s almost no agreement among the trio aspects, i.e., these articles, the important research topics suggested by management experts, and, issues set forth by experts in science and information science.
    Discussion
    The priorities of research in the field of management in experts’ views are related to issues such as specialization in management theories, management techniques, planning for the development of services, and managers' attitudes towards management challenges; however, there is little consistency between these topics and the duplicate topics of papers in this area. It seems that the most important reasons for this come from the qualitative and quantitative shortcomings of research and writing, the complications of research in this field, and following management fads.
    Keywords: Management, Issues, Libraries Management, Papers analysis, Research priorities
  • How to implement bibliotherapy from the perspective of information professionals and psychology professionals with an emphasis on the role of librarians
    Pages 101-120
    Purpose
    Identify how to implement properly the bibliotherapy from the perspective of information professionals and psychology professionals with an emphasis on the role of librarians.This applied research is survey-description. The research sample is 61 of professionals from in this area. The results indicate that the psychologists , counselors , librarians and social workers are the including of people that involved in the implementation of clinical bibliotherapy. The most important personality traits, moral and knowledge and skills of bibliotherapists in order to are to have motivation and creativity, confidentiality and spending periods in the related areas. The most important task of a librarian is to identify information sources, with an average of 4/65. The results shows that the most important task of other people (including a psychologist, counselor or social worker) and bibliotherapists are approved list of books befor to buy by librarians with an average of 4/46, and contact and good relationship with clients by an average of 4/44. The most important methods for implementation of bibliotherapy are creative bibliotherapy and group bibliotherapy
    Keywords: Bibliotherapy, Bibliotherapist, Librarian, psychologist
  • Shahnaz Khademizadeh *, Hossein Farajpahlou, Ashraf Haidarizadeh Pages 121-138
    The main aim of this research was comparison investigating of knowledge sharing status and factors affecting it among faculty members of the faculty of veterinary medicine and basic sciences of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz and faculty of basic Sciences of Jundishapur: The present research is a descriptive survey. The data collection has been done by using a questionnaire tool. The research population was all faculty members (167 peoples) in 2016-2017 Which is done by census method. The results of this research indicate that the faculty members are tendency to share knowledge and the knowledge sharing infrastructure of information and communication technology infrastructure is in good condition but other infrastructures such as cultural infrastructure, human infrastructure, leadership and management strategies infrastructure and the structural and administrative factors infrastructure are below of average condition. By comparing the status of two Universities, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz and Jundishapur University of medical sciences of Ahvaz in terms of the cultural structure there are difference and in the other structures a similar situation is observed in both Universities.
    Keywords: &quot, knowledge sharing &quot, infrastructure knowledge sharing&quot, universities libraries&quot, organization factor&quot
  • Investigating The Impact of Organizational Information Culture on Bushehr University of Medical Sciences Experts’ Using of Information Results
    Mehrnaz Morshedi Yekta, Fariba Nazari Pages 141-160
    Purpose
    This research investigate the impact of organizational information culture on Bushehr University of Medical Sciences experts’ using information results.
    Methods
    The analytical survey method -correlational approach- were used.The Research population includes 750 experts of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences and using simple random sample method the 254 item were selected. Data collected by researcher-made questionnaire that distributed among the research population. The reliability of tools confirmed using Cronbach's alpha Coefficient (α=0.82).
    Findings
    Findings about the status of organizational information culture dimensions show that mean of information integration is (m=13.09), information transparency (m= 10.72), information sharing (m= 18.77), information professional activity (m= 12.21), unofficial information (m= 8.55) and information control (m= 17.94). All dimensions’ conditions are above the average level. Also, information integration, information transparency, information sharing and information control impact on experts using information results but unofficial information doesn’t.
    Results
    As results, it is obvious that organizational information culture is believing, norm and values which supervise information. Considering that in organization, can affect on information focus in decision making and information using in organizational activities.
    Keywords: Using Information Results, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Organizational Information Culture, Information Use
  • Studying the outputs and mapping the co-author network of Semnan University researchers in the Web of Science Indexes
    Hossein Moradimoghadam *, Rouhollah Khademi Pages 161-180
    Aim
    The aim of this article was to study the scientific outputs of Semnan university researchers in term of quantitative indexes (number of outputs, research area, and year) and qualitative indexes (number of citations and H-Index). Mapping the co-author network of Semnan university researchers in the Web of Science database was the other purpose of the present paper.   
    Methodology
    The research was conducted based on scientometric methods. The research population included all the documents which mentioned Semnan University as their affiliation and were indexed in Web of Science from 1990 to 2015. Totally, 2106 documents were indexed in this timespan. The co-author network was mapped and analyzed by Coau.exe, Ucinet and Netdraw.  
    Results
    The results showed that Engineering (39%), Physics (19.5) and Mathematics (14%) were the subjects to which Semnan university researchers contributed. Totally, in the time span investigated, Iranian researchers produced 272019 documents out of which 2106 belonged to Semnan University. Therefore, this university ranked 30 among the Iranian universities. During the period studied, Semnan University produced 0.0049% of the universal scientific outputs. The results of the growth rate calculation indicated 43.22 for Semnan University researchers in the past fifty years that reveals a promising rising growth rate. Amjadi, Gorji and Orouji with 25, 23 and 15 H-Indexs ranked first to third, respectively. In term of citation, Amjadi ranked first with 2126 citations and Gorji with 1341 and Orouji with 629 citations were in the next ranks. Investigating the degree from among the centrality measurements was also calculated and the results showed that Gorji, Fereydoun and Asghari were in the top. The highest co-authoring rate occurred in 2005 which included 3 authors. As regards the fields of study, mathematics was the highest single-author subject.
    Conclusion
    The results of data analysis showed that, although the flow of co-authorship among the Semnan University researchers has fluctuated in recent years, during the studied period, the researchers of Semnan University have tended to write co-authorship. Generally, documents with three authors were the most co-authorship.
    Keywords: Semnan University, scientific output, co-author social network mapping, Scientometrics
  • Investigating the Status of the Building’s Security and Maintenance of Sources and Information in the Central Library and Document Center of the University of Isfahan and comparing it with some other Libraries within and outside Iran
    Pages 181-200
    Aim
    The aim of this paper is to investigate the status of the building's security and maintenance of sources and information in the Central Library and Document Center of University of Isfahan and comparing it with some other universities in Iran and abroad.
    Methodology
    The data has been gathered via observing the environment and facilities of the library as well as interviewing with the heads and employees of each section and sending a questionnaire with open questions to the heads of National Library and Document Organization of Iran, Congress Library, British Library and exploring their websites.
    Findings
    In this study, a report of the available sources in the library and the activities of these libraries and organizations for protecting the collections and special information resources is provided and, then, the strategies, policies and present limitations for maintaining the security of information are proposed.
    Conclusion
    This study implies that Central Library and Document Center of the University of Isfahan is distant from the ideal level and the standards have not been met completely in it.
    Keywords: information security, protection of information resources, limitations, Academic libraries, Central Library, Document Center of University of Isfahan