فهرست مطالب

Environmental Resources Research - Volume:7 Issue:1, 2019
  • Volume:7 Issue:1, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/05/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
  • Elma Mohammadi, Seyed Hamed Mirkarimi *, Marjan Mohammadzadeh Pages 1-8
    Tehran is the capital city of Iran and its inhabitants are suffering from air pollution.Green roofs can be one of the choices to deal with this problem. In this paper, ability ofgreen roofs in absorbing four air pollutants (PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO2) in Tehran wasvaluated. First, the potential of 1 m2 of a hypothetical green roof in Tehran in absorbingPM10 and SO2 during 1 year was estimated using a dry deposition model. Absorbingpotential of green roof for NO2 and CO2 was taken from other studies. Next, the reductionof each air pollutant was valuated using replacement cost method. Then, results weregeneralized to the total roof areas of the residential buildings in Tehran for the green roofslife span. Estimations showed that value of green roofs covering an area of 94,093,625 m2in reducing PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO2 during 50 years in Tehran will be 506,361,775 $.
    Keywords: Extensive green roof, Air pollution, Valuating ecosystem services, Replacement cost method, Dry deposition
  • Mohammad Amin Goudarzi, Ali Akbar Jamali, Atefeh Jafarpoor, Atefeh Gholami, Masoud Jafari Shalamzari * Pages 9-19
    Soil erosion is a global challenge, seriously threatening soil and water resources andenvironmental qualities. One of the important factors to consider in the process of runoffgeneration and soil erosion is the physical and chemical properties of soils under differentland-uses. The aim of this study is to estimate soil erosion and runoff in rangeland, rain-fedand abandoned rain-fed agriculture in Karafs Watershed (Sarduyeh) in Jiroft County usingrainfall simulation. The experiment was conducted in 2012 and three land-uses withuniform soil and lithology were considered. Simulated rainfalls were 46 and 88 mm.hr-1 ofintensity with 3 iterations, which totaled 36 samples. Soil samples were taken close to thelocations of rainfall simulation from the top 0-20 cm and transferred to the laboratory forfurther analysis. The results showed a significant effect of land-use on runoff and erosion indifferent rainfall intensities, so that the highest runoff was generated in the abandoned rainfedagriculture at the intensity of 88 mm.hr-1, with the least being generated in the rain-fedagriculture at the intensity of 46 mm.hr-1. Likewise, we found that land-use changes had alarge impact on soil erosion, with the highest levels at the abandoned rain-fed agriculturewhich resulted in the increased runoff generation. This factor could be explained by theincreased clay, silt, and lime content at the expense of the removal of sand from these areas.Increasing rainfall intensity to 88 mm.hr-1 led to respectively 14% and 47% higher runoffvolumes and sediment loads compared to the initial intensity.
    Keywords: Erosion, Runoff, Rainfall simulator, Land-use1
  • Ali Heshmatpour *, Saeedeh Pasand, Hossein Sabouri, Faramarz Rostami Pages 20-28
    The increase of nitrite and nitrate concentrations in surface and groundwater is a greatconcern in our lives nowadays. Nitrate and nitrite in drinking water normally originate fromagricultural operation and chemical fertilizers. Therefore, the present study aims toinvestigate the effect of nitrogen fertilizers used in rice cultivation and levels of nitrate andnitrite in farm wastewater and water quality parameters. The study was conducted in 2015using a randomized complete block design with three replications in the research farm ofGonbad Kavous University. The treatments included four levels of nitrogen (control, 37, 70and 150 kg ha with 46%urea). Urea fertilizer was applied to rice in two vegetative and earlyreproductive stages. Results showed that the effect of fertilizer on water pollution(concentration of nitrite and nitrate) is significant at the one percent level of confidence.Mean comparison of nitrogen indicated that the highest nitrate concentration (0.480 ppm)and the high nitrite (0.044 ppm) were related to treatment with high fertilizer application(150 kilograms per hectare) and the lowest nitrate concentration (0.083 ppm) and nitrite(0.014 ppm) were attributed to control treatment. Mean comparison of different stages ofsampling revealed that rice in the vegetative stage and early reproductive stage absorbedmore nitrogen while at the end of the growing period plant nitrogen uptake declined.
    Keywords: Nitrates, Nitrites, Water pollution, Agriculture1
  • Majid Jafari *, Yaghob Dinpashoh Pages 29-42
    Evaporation is an essential component of hydrological cycle. Several meteorologicalfactors play role in the amount of pan evaporation. These factors are often related to eachother. In this study, a multiple linear regression (MLR) in conjunction with PrincipalComponent Analysis (PCA) was used for modeling of pan evaporation. After thestandardization of the variables, independent components were obtained using the (PCA).The series of principal component scores were used as input in multiple linear regressionmodels. This method was applied to four stations in East Azerbaijan Province in the NorthWest of Iran. Mathematical models of pan evaporation were derived for each station. Theresults showed that the first three components in all four stations account for more than90% of the data variance. Performance criteria, namely coefficient of determination (R2)and root mean square error (RMSE), were calculated for models in each station. The resultsshowed that in all the PCA-MLR models, the R2 value was greater than 0.74 (significant atthe 5% level) and the RMSE was less than 0.52 mm per day. In general, the results showedan improvement in the results using combination of PCA and MLR models for panevaporation estimation.
    Keywords: Climatic data, East Azerbaijan, Pan evaporation, Principal component analysis, Regression models, PCA-MLR
  • Qadir Ashournejad, Farshad Amiraslani *, Majid Kiavarz Moghadam, Ara Toomanian Pages 43-54
    Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are areas controlled by specific legislations so as toattain economic prosperity. These zones are commonly established and controlled bygovernment officials and are primarily characterized by growing population and developingtransport infrastructure. One relevant case is the Pars Special Economic Energy Zone(PSEEZ) situated in the south of Iran, on the northern shores of the Persian Gulf. Thisparticular zone has been formed to extract, refine, and export gas. The coast of the PersianGulf has brought on further expansions in sea transportation, thereby increasing shippingactivities in the area. The chief mode of shipping goods and materials in the PSEEZ isMaritime transportation. Identification of areas where traffic is carried out requires thecollection of spatial data of ships. These spatial data are utilized in several applications formodeling of marine ecosystem. The central purpose of this research is to procure spatialdata required for the PSEEZ using optical remote sensing images. Thus, Landsat-8 andSentinel-2 images spanning from 2013 to 2018 were incorporated to identify ships in thestudy area. The threshold-based method was implemented for detecting the ships usinginfrared bands of 172 images, upon which a total of 3361 ships were identified. The map ofareas affected by ship traffic was prepared using Hot Spot analysis. The results specify thatmore than 80 square kilometers of the marine environment has been affected by ship trafficduring the years 2013- 2018.
    Keywords: Maritime transportation, Ship detection, Remote sensing, GIS, PSEEZ
  • Mehdi Nezhad Naderi *, Tooraj Fathie Pages 55-66
    Pool and weir is a type of fishway that provides a route for fish to migrate to damupstream. The effective parameters for fish swimming include velocity, water depth andturbulence. Several rubber dams have been under construction in Mazandaran Province, butthe necessary structures have not been built around them yet. When constructing these rubberdams, numerical models can be used to evaluate flow velocity and currently in Iran there isalso the possibility of comparing the results with field measurements at Karkhe-Hamidiehdam of Khuzestan Province. In this paper, the three-dimensional equations governing shallowwater in the weir and orifice fishway were solved using the suitable models of turbulence, andthe flow pattern and turbulence were calculated. The results of flow simulation and fieldmeasurements using Micromollineh were also compared. The final result showed that thevelocity lines in submerged and non-submerged modes with constant velocity were similar tothose estimated by Micromollineh - about 0.469 mps. We suggest it is not necessary to reducethe flow rate in a submerged state using devices such as baffles. The small Cyprinidae fishesare able to cross the fishway due to the slow flow of non-submerged state. In case of nonsubmergedstate, there is a need to reduce the flow rate.
    Keywords: Pool, weir fishway, Fish migration, Turbulence models
  • Mehran Fatemi, Mahdi Narangifard * Pages 67-78
    Remote sensing is increasingly used in studies of periodic changes of land use and landsurface temperature (LST) calculations. In this paper, the effect of change in the area ofMaharlu Lake on climatic elements, land surface temperature and vegetation cover in theareas surrounding the lake were studied. To this end, the ETM + & TM sensor data ofLANDSAT satellite on May 22, 1987, May 17, 2000, March 20, 1999 and March 18, 2009were used. The findings suggested that the average percentage of vegetation index in the10-km buffer of the lake in 1987 (wet year) compared to 2000 (dry year) had dropped by15% in the same month. In March 1999 and 2009, however, only a 3 percent decline wasrecorded. The minimum, average and maximum LST in the periphery of the lake registeredan increase on the same dates during the wet period, but the temperature pattern wasidentical in both periods. Most climatic elements increased in dry years compared to that ofthe wet years. Also, comparing the statistical features of climatic elements in synopticstations of Shiraz at the time of capturing images and for the long-term average (1956-2012) suggested a relatively lower increase in temperature during wet years compared tothe average long-term period. In most of the years when the precipitation was belowaverage (300 mm), the lake dried in May. In contrast, in years when the precipitation wasmore than 400 mm, the lake received abundant rainfall in all months. The heavydependence of the lake on rainfall, the small size of the catchment and the seasonality ofrivers flowing into the lake make conditions extremely sensitive, critical and rainfalldependent
    Keywords: Remote sensing, Satellite data, LST, NDVI, Maharlu Lake Shiraz