فهرست مطالب

مطالعات هنر اسلامی - پیاپی 33 (بهار 1398)
  • پیاپی 33 (بهار 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/05/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Azar Rasouli, Omid Ali Masoodi, Ali Delavar Page 1
    During the Qajar era, after establishing a relative calm during the reign of Fath Ali Shah and Nasir al-Din Shah Qajar, the headstock was made for the production of exquisite Persian rugs. In this era, European travelers attracted the attention of businessmen and people of Europe and the United States to Iran's handmade rug. In the mid-19th C.E. / 13th A.H. centuries, an evolution in the production of Persian rugs for the supply of the world market occurred and foreign companies were interested in investing in Iran's rug production and trade. Following these developments, some of the countries that had the advantage of handmade carpet industry were thinking of developing this industry and entering into the field of competition in international trade. This competition grew in the global market since the First International War, and large carpet manufacturers have always been competing to takeover global markets, especially the European and American markets. The countries of China, India and Turkey were among the most important rivals of Iran, which in the last years of the Qajar era were able to increase their share of the international carpet market. By studying news, content and media ads over the past times, we notice that during the Qajar era, especially during Ahmad Shah and Mohammad Ali Shah, the issuance of Iranian carpet was relatively high compared to the rival countries. A review of the press of this time has confirmed that part of the press has been introducing and helping to overcome the problems facing Iran's rug. The sovereign look and the issues that journalists of that period endorsed is notable. That's why the problem in this research is that, how has been the content of ads, news and the process of presenting these ads and reports and that how were the issues raised and discussed, and perhaps the strategies ahead in that era, so by using that information can codify a strategic plan in the field of media as well as in the field of executive work of the country's rug. Research Objectives 1. Qajar era policies on Iranian rug. 2. Review of cultural and artistic policies of the Qajar era. Research Questions:1. What orders did the rulers give during the Qajar era regarding the export of handmade carpets? 2. What were the executive policies on the subject of rug art during this period?z
    Keywords: Culture, Rug, Qajar, Art, Iranian
  • Chakameh zamiri, Kamran afshar mohajer Page 24
    In different domains of developing societies like Iran, traditions and how to deal with their traditions, had significant challenges. In arts and specially handicrafts occupies an important position in order to view the different approaches in this field. Iran Carpet urban areas compared to rural carpets under the influence of various factors such as historical events, dealing with art and Western culture. Modernity and the growth and development of rural communities has changed And this is especially Qajar period given the developments of modernity in Iran and spread the influence of Iranian art from the West and has taken more quickly. This study intends to peruse the mentioned areas changes in the traditions and the main indicators in designs, motives and colors handmade carpets as well as the factors affecting these areas check possible changes. This research is descriptive-analytical. Also data collection is done in a library and field research. The results of the studies shows that Tabriz is exposed to the most of transformations in designs of motives, colors and all structure of designing. In the way that keeping traditions of designing seems so hard in Tabriz. After Tabriz, Kerman and Isfahan are in the next grades. Research objectives: Study of the contrast between tradition and modernity in the design and color of the Iranian handmade carpet research questions:  1. what kind of changes The urban handmade carpet has undergone in facing with growing development of urban communities in its original and traditional features? 2. Which areas of handmade carpets (Isfahan, Tabriz, kerman or mashhad) are more adhering to traditions and which ones are less?
    Keywords: Tradition, modernity, hand-woven carpet, carpet history, qajar
  • Kobra Hassangholinejad Yassori, Seyed Majid Mofidi Shemirani Page 44
    In this research, according to the studies of samples of hot and dry climate rating systems in the world and also hot and dry climate in Iran, all of the issues that are available in this field are studied and the purpose of this article is to answer this question that whether these studies can be used to formulate sustainability standards at the vernacular level of Iranian architecture as well, and how we can extract and design sustainability indicators and variables of hot and dry climate based on these texts. Based on this, examples of sustainable standards in the world for hot and dry climate, such as rating systems (GRIHA, NABERS, GREEN STAR, SAGREEN STAR, ESTIDAMA, QSAS), as well as hot and dry climatic condition indicators and sustainability strategies in this climate are investigated and it is concluded that regional, vernacular , architectural and urban standards in such systems are quite influential among selected hot and dry climate systems and we can not necessarily use the world's outstanding systems for hot and dry climate in Iran. So, to provide a sustainable and vernacular system for this climate, we should take into account the climatic and regional conditions and priorities as well as other standards and patterns that are developed and implemented in Iran. Research objectives: 1- Feasibility study on the development of sustainability standards in Iranian native architecture based on the studies on the assessment of the sustainability of warm and dry climate in the world. 2- Understanding how to extrapolate or design indicators and sustainability variables of Iran's hot and dry climate based on studies on the assessment of the sustainability of hot and dry climate in the world. Research questions: 1- Can we use the study of samples from warm and dry climate sustainability assessment systems worldwide to develop sustainable standards in Iranian native architecture? 2. How can we extrapolate and design the indicators and variables of Iran's warm and dry climate based on the studies of samples from the warm and dry climate sustainability assessment systems around the world?
    Keywords: sustainability indicators, warm, dry climate, sustainablearchitecture, sustainable buildings rating, regional criteria
  • Negin Laripour, Abolghasem Dadvar Page 70
    Symbolism is one of the old principles of human thought that has been shown in the works of art since the beginning of its periods of life, and according to Islamic views, the symbol is the apparent and secular aspect of spiritual nature. The religious artist in the expression of concepts and the giving of material means to them is the use of the language of allegory. Among the positions of the appearance of symbols in Iranian art is architecture. Considering the meaningful capabilities of the mosque architecture, using the semiotic method, we will analyze the symbolic concepts and spiritual meanings of these artistic works. The elements that are considered as symbols are considered to be functional and have become symbolic over time. The method of research is descriptive-historical, with a semiotic approach based on the theory of "Charles Saunders Pierce" to examine his pattern in the secondary implications of decorative motifs and the architecture of the mosque in the Vakil mosque of Shiraz, as part of a semiotic study and try to It is to examine the decorative elements and physical elements of the mosque and the effect they have on translating their meanings and concepts. At first, using the method of shooting and observing the amount and type of signs used and in the next section, we will analyze and review each of their images and symbols in the architecture of the mosque attorney. This research shows that in the art of Islamic times less iconic signs are used, and in cases where these signs are present, the artist frees it from the implication of similarity and gives it a semantic meaning. Also, attention to the relationship that the artist makes between the signifier and signified can reveal his artistic visions. It can be said that the motifs and signs of the Vakil mosque of Shiraz lawyer were somewhat Iconic, and somewhat Indexical. During the time, the signs were developed towards symbolic and contractual terms, or in other words, compared with real signs or symbols, the Index became diminishing to some extent, and the Icon went even further into decline. Symbolism is one of the old principles of human thought that has been shown in the works of art since the beginning of its periods of life, and according to Islamic views, the symbol is the apparent and secular aspect of spiritual nature. The religious artist in the expression of concepts and the giving of material means to them is the use of the language of allegory. Among the positions of the appearance of symbols in Iranian art is architecture. Considering the meaningful capabilities of the mosque architecture, using the semiotic method, we will analyze the symbolic concepts and spiritual meanings of these artistic works. The elements that are considered as symbols are considered to be functional and have become symbolic over time. The method of research is descriptive-historical, with a semiotic approach based on the theory of "Charles Saunders Pierce" to examine his pattern in the secondary implications of decorative motifs and the architecture of the mosque in the Vakil mosque of Shiraz, as part of a semiotic study and try to It is to examine the decorative elements and physical elements of the mosque and the effect they have on translating their meanings and concepts. At first, using the method of shooting and observing the amount and type of signs used and in the next section, we will analyze and review each of their images and symbols in the architecture of the mosque attorney. This research shows that in the art of Islamic times less iconic signs are used, and in cases where these signs are present, the artist frees it from the implication of similarity and gives it a semantic meaning. Also, attention to the relationship that the artist makes between the signifier and signified can reveal his artistic visions. It can be said that the motifs and signs of the Vakil mosque of Shiraz lawyer were somewhat Iconic, and somewhat Indexical. During the time, the signs were developed towards symbolic and contractual terms, or in other words, compared with real signs or symbols, the Index became diminishing to some extent, and the Icon went even further into decline. Objectives:  1. study Vakil Mosque of Shiraz based on Semiotics methodology 2. Examine the meaning and the concepts of designs of mosques in Shiraz. Questions: 1. What is the meaning and nature of the symbolism of Vakil mosque? 2. Pierce the division based on symptoms, signs and elements Vakil Mosque What is the position?
    Keywords: Semiology, Form, Meaning, Mosque architecture, Vakil mosque
  • Mahbobeh Batyar, Gholamreza Hassani Page 98
    Gorgan (astarabad), the area from which Quajarid dynasty was originated contains valuable buildings from this era. One type of art existing in some of the buildings is Shir-sar (The parts of under-ceiling) painitngs which like an illustrated book provide an arena to reflect the ancient beliefs and thought. The various motifs used in these Shir-sars have non- religious motifs and are considered to be a treasure of local and folk arts. Although they are not of a high artistic and visual quality, they are very useful when studying cultural atmosphere dominating astarabad`s inhabitants living in Quajarid era. In the present research, which was done in the field, the effective cultural and social factors to form the motifs were studied to identify the various types of the designs used on the Shir-sar and to analyze their motifs. As a result of the research, it has been clarified that the decorations in the buildings were completely depedent on the inhabitants` cultural elements, beliefs, social status, lifestyles and economic levels. In addition, since such motifs as Goodess, mythological animals and plants which are related to rain and fertility are portrayed in Shir-sar, we can find a meaningful relationship between these artistic works with Shir-sar`s functions.
    Keywords: Motif, shir-sar, Quajarid buildings, Astarabad
  • Hashem Hosseini Page 124
    Ilkhanid period is particularly important in the history of Muqarnas decoration, because of its unique features and the formal arrival of plenty of Far East art components that were not previously experienced in the Iranian Islamic art,. Muqarnas decoration drastically developed during this period as innovative technical and decorative methods appeared. This paper studies some innovations of Ilkhanid Muqarnas decoration in four typical Ilkhanid buildings including Jami Mosque of Oshtorjan Jami Mosque of varamin، Sheikh Abdossamad complex in Natanz and Bayazid complex in Bastam. Towards this end, the study has attempted to examine the traits and inspirational resources of Muqarnas designs during this special period. The findings of the study show that Ilkhanid Muqarnas designs have been made under the influence of china’s art specially in cases of naturalism (butterfly and Spider web designs) and application components of china’s designs (as dragon). Amongst the most prominent decorative motifs that were common with the impact of Chinese art in the Ilkhanid era is dragon that is often displayed on pieces of colored tiles in non-religious buildings. As a rule, the use of animal motifs in religious buildings such as mosques and tombs regarding to the prohibition of the use of these designs was impossible, thus Iranian artists used those types of designs that matches with the spirit of Islamic Art. Plant motifs influenced by the movements of the dragon can be considered as the pioneers of new Islamic arabesques in the field. In other words, Iranian Muslim artists of Ilkhanid period have been able to bridge between the designs of Islamic architectural decorations and decorative motifs of Chinese arts. Research objectives: 1. Understanding the innovations of Ilkhanid Muqarnas decoratiions In the field of form and especially design of motifs 2. Identifying the potential sources of innovations of Ilkhanid Muqarnas decorations.  Research Questions: 1. What are the most important innovations of the of Ilkhanid Muqarnas decorations in terms of form and in particular the design of motifs? 2. What are the most important sources or potential sources of inspiration for the Ilkhanid Muqarnas decorations?
    Keywords: Islamic architecture, Muqarnas decoration, Chinese art, Ilkhanid period
  • Javad Dahdahjani Page 148
    This research seeks to identify and explore the teaching methods and development of entrepreneurship in handicrafts. The methodology of this research is based on the descriptive-survey nature and is among applied research. In analyzing data, descriptive and inferential statistics have been used. The statistical society of this research is 250 experts of cultural heritage, arts and tourism organization. Primitive data were collected by distribution of questionnaires and analyzed by SPSS software. In order to test the hypotheses, the single sample t test was used and the Kolmogorov- Smirnov test was used to determine the normal or abnormal components of the research. Finally, Friedman test was used to prioritize the research components. The findings of the research showed that there is a significant relationship between different methods of teaching and developing entrepreneurship in handicrafts. Also, education through focusing on investment in handicrafts training in growth centers, industrial parks and technology was considered to be the first priority with a mean score of 3.35, and training by educating entrepreneurship trainer in order to teach new methods with a mean of 2.47 and training through explaining arts related to entrepreneurship of handicrafts in different educational levels with a mean score of 2.25 in the next priority, and Education through the creation of educational workshops on entrepreneurship in the field of handicrafts and tourism under the auspices of the Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization was also less important with a mean score of 1.93. So, the results indicate the importance of relying on modern ways of entrepreneurship education through growth centers, industrial parks and technology in order to develop entrepreneurship in handicrafts. Research objectives: 1. Identify methods for training and development of entrepreneurship in handicrafts. 2. Prioritization of methods for training and development of entrepreneurship in handicrafts using statistical methods. Research questions: 1. What are the methods for training and development of entrepreneurship in handicrafts? 2. How to prioritize the methods for training and development of entrepreneurshipin handicrafts?
    Keywords: entrepreneur, entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship training practices, handicrafts, SPSS software
  • Soraya Rahmati Dalir, Abbas Malekhoseini Page 164
    “Urban Good Governance” is the concept is connected with both the responsibility of the government and a citizen's commitment, and on the one hand, as a process that is based on interaction is formed between the organizations and institutions of the city administration, and on the other hand between non-governmental organizations and civil society organizations. In the present situation of our country, there is not coherent theoretical framework for existing urban management. So, it is necessary to think concerning creating new structures to change in urban management methods. In the meantime, urban good governance as one of the least costly and most effective and sustainable means of management practices is necessary to achieving sustainable development of each territory. In this regard, this paper, by descriptive-analytic method, and the theoretical discussions were gathered through library studies and documents. Also, the research is best used as the preparation a questionnaire, and the general comments of the residents of Kangavar city to complete the information. The results of this study show that urban management in the study area is not compatible with urban good governance principles and it is not suitable base on these indicators. The evaluation research suggests that the municipality and other government bodies do not have function well within the framework of the urban good governance. It is also clear that as more experienced, creative, and knowledgeable managers organize urban management, their performance is better and more useful in a variety of fields. The research Aims: 1. This research aims to evaluate urban good governance indicators, and also assessing the level of compliance with urban management in the city of Kongavar in relation to the principles of urban good governance, 2. ultimately, it has been able to identify all the impasses, problems, and efforts to achieve solutions that are better, efficient and effective urban management. The research questions: 1. how does urban management in Kongavar consistent with the principles of urban good governance? 2. whether the indicators, and metrics of urban governance and urban management is found in Kangavar city?“Urban Good Governance” is the concept is connected with both the responsibility of the government and a citizen's commitment, and on the one hand, as a process that is based on interaction is formed between the organizations and institutions of the city administration, and on the other hand between non-governmental organizations and civil society organizations. In the present situation of our country, there is not coherent theoretical framework for existing urban management. So, it is necessary to think concerning creating new structures to change in urban management methods. In the meantime, urban good governance as one of the least costly and most effective and sustainable means of management practices is necessary to achieving sustainable development of each territory. In this regard, this paper, by descriptive-analytic method, and the theoretical discussions were gathered through library studies and documents. Also, the research is best used as the preparation a questionnaire, and the general comments of the residents of Kangavar city to complete the information. The results of this study show that urban management in the study area is not compatible with urban good governance principles and it is not suitable base on these indicators. The evaluation research suggests that the municipality and other government bodies do not have function well within the framework of the urban good governance. It is also clear that as more experienced, creative, and knowledgeable managers organize urban management, their performance is better and more useful in a variety of fields. The research
    Aims
    1. This research aims to evaluate urban good governance indicators, and also assessing the level of compliance with urban management in the city of Kongavar in relation to the principles of urban good governance, 2. ultimately, it has been able to identify all the impasses, problems, and efforts to achieve solutions that are better, efficient and effective urban management. The research questions: 1. how does urban management in Kongavar consistent with the principles of urban good governance? 2. whether the indicators, and metrics of urban governance and urban management is found in Kangavar city?
    Keywords: management, urban management, governance, government, urbangovernment
  • Behnaz Ghohye, Abbas malekhoseini, Bijan Rahmani, Mehdi Ghohye Page 190
    Sustainability which has to be taken into consideration since the 1960s is one of the main issues in the field of urban spaces in order to visually beautify and increase the responsibility of managers to their peripheral environment. Small towns are a great illustration of the community development process designed to stimulate creative, dynamic and coherent activities focusing on the development of sustainable social, environmental and economic indicators. This huge project, with the collaboration of artists, architects, researchers and local communities, leads to a sustainable and common understanding of the issues and opportunities for the realization of security and justice in building social sustainability. In this regard, this paper, using a descriptive-analytical method, suggests that it seems that in Arak, social justice and social security have a positive and significant impact on sustainable social development. Therefore, in this research, the first library information and questionnaires were collected. Using Delphi techniques, 50 expert opinions have been used to determine the weight of each indicator in explaining the social sustainability of Arak city. Then, using the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and also using SPSS software, the data was analyzed using the mean of a community test, the status of indicators in establishing sustainable social development in Arak city. However, regarding the results of the factor load, out of 25 questions of 17 questions, which have a factor of more than 0. 7, indicates a high quality. Also, all the calculated coefficients were determined by the significance of the hypotheses at the 99% confidence level of the variables, which indicates the high traffic congestion per day, the existence of worn and rotten texture in the Arak market's historical texture. The research Aims 1. The identification of effective indicators in sustainable social development of Arak city. 2. The survey of the inscriptions on traditional buildings that explain the concept of security and justice in previous history in comparison to the present. The research questions:1. What is the situation of the sustainable development in Arak city with its effective factors, such as security, and social justice? 2. How do traditional inscriptions depict the concept of security and justice in previous history in comparison with the present?
    Keywords: Sustainability, Urban Sustainable Development, Urban Social Security, Urban SocialJustice, Arak