فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue:2, 2019
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/03/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Hassan Barati *, Mohammad Reza Rezaie, Seyyed Sadra Saleh Shariaty, Zahra Rahimi Pages 51-59
    Background
    Lateral epicondylitis, or tennis elbow, is one of the common disorders in humans. Despite recommended treatments, there is no definite therapy for this disorder. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review scientific reports on the effects of orthotic devices for treatment (comparing orthoses with other treatments related to lateral epicondylitis parameters), reducing complications, and improving symptoms of this condition.
    Methods
    Ovid, Scopus, and Web of science were searched to identify studies which reported the effectiveness of orthotic treatment for lateral epicondylitis from 1996 until 2017. Studies were collected based on the inclusion criteria and a few were selected out of a large number of studies. The PEDro scale was used for the quality assessment of the selected articles.
    Results
    A total of 43 articles were chosen, 16 articles on Orthotics vs. other nonsurgical treatments, 20 articles on the comparison of different orthotics, and 7 reviews.
    Conclusion
    Based on the results of the selected papers, there was not sufficient evidence to decide on the effectiveness among several orthoses or for comparing orthotic treatment with other treatment methods. However, it should be emphasized that the use of orthosis can be an acceptable treatment for improving some symptoms of this condition such as pain, grip, pain-free grip, no pain, grip strength, function, ROM, and proprioception.
    Keywords: Orthotic treatment, lateral epicondylitis, Tennis Elbow, Pain, grip strength, Function
  • Fahimeh Sadat Jafarian, Somaie Payehdar, Fateme Pol, Saeed Forghany * Pages 59-62
    Background
    Orthotic interventions such as different types of ankle foot orthoses have been widely suggested to either prevent or treat restricted ankle joint dorsiflexion and consequent equinus or equinovarus foot deformities in people with stroke. However, it is not clear whether orthotic interventions are effective against spasticity or stiffness. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to systematically review the effect of orthotic interventions on restricted ankle joint dorsiflexion due to plantarflexor stiffness. Review of literature: An electronic database search was performed using PubMed, ISI web of sciences, Scopous within 1990-2018. A set of search terms were derived from medical subject heading (MESH). A total of 486 potential articles were identified through database search. Following title screening and reviewing abstract, 60 articles were potentially relevant to undergo full consideration. Full text article review counted this number down to 2.
    Discussion
    Studies found significant decreased plantarflexor stiffness indicated by increased ankle passive dorsiflexion range of motion after orthotic interventions.
    Conclusion
    There are only a few studies which have objectively assessed the effects of orthotic interventions on restricted ankle joint dorsiflexion due to plantarflexor stiffness in stroke. A comprehensive study would provide insight into the effectiveness of orthotic interventions on restricted ankle joint dorsiflexion due to plantarflexor stiffness.
    Keywords: Ankle, Stroke, Stiffness, Orthotic device
  • Babak Vahdatpour, Ali Tahmasebi, Mahtab Zargham, Mohamad Reza Emad, Mahnaz Rezaei * Pages 63-67
    Background
    Urinary Stress Incontinence (SUI)is the most common type of urinary incontinence among the young and middle-aged women, which occurs due to weak pelvic floor muscles and urethral sphincter in addition to many other factors. The objective of the research was to assess the effect of biofeedback versus functional electrical stimulation in the treatment of SUI.
    Methods
    In this study, 30 married women affected by SUI were selected randomly. The participants were divided into two equal groups and treated during 15 weeks with 1 session per week. The changes in SUI severity and their satisfaction were assessed by ICIQ-SF Questionnaire, and the rate of urine leakage was measured by applying Pad Test. Data were recorded and analyzed using SPSS Version 19 software. Specifically, Paired t-test, Independent t-test, and Mann-Whitney test were utilized.
    Results
    The results revealed that the mean quantity of urinary leakage, maximal PFM force, and ICIQ Score did not have significant differences in both groups (p>0.05). However, there was a significant difference between biofeedback and FES group post-treatment regarding the quantity of urinary leakage (p<0.05). Patients in the biofeedback group expressed more satisfaction and improvement than those in the FES group.
    Conclusion
    Both treatment methods were effective in the treatment of SUI. However, biofeedback proved to be superior  in reducing the quantity of urinary leakage. Further, because of a higher degree of patients’ subjective satisfaction and improvement with biofeedback, this method of treatment is recommended.
    Keywords: Biofeedback, Functional electrical stimulation, Stress Urinary Incontinence
  • Seyed Iman Hosseini, Yousef Bazargan Lari * Pages 68-79
    Background
    The main challenge of modeling humanoid robots is establishing a compromise between the simplicity of the model and accuracy of the system. One of the realities of movement which is important about humans is moving their hands to keep balance and reduce energy consumption while they are walking.
    Methods
    In this context, the role of elbow joint and the limitation that the joint exerts in terms of movement on the forearm and arm as self-impact joint constraint is undeniable. This paper deals with modeling and control of humanoid robot’s hand as double-pendulum will consider mentioned constraint while normal walking and also in throwing darts.
    Results
    The presence of the self-impact joint constraint contributed to about a 26% saving in power consumption of robot motors within an impact range of 0.6346 to 0.6896 during normal human walking.  Since this control has a high power, 10 to 30% of the uncertainty was added to the length and mass parameters. As was observed, this controller routed the desired curves in the least possible time.
    Conclusion
    As mentioned earlier, consideration of this constraint in elbow joint of the humanoid robot will help in approaching the reality of system in comparison with past models previously designed. As constraint causes addition of severe nonlinear terms to dynamic system equation, the control of systems with this type of constraint faces a great deal of complexity. For adaptive-neural controller to control of the system of humanoid robot’s hand will be used. Also, to display the ability of control system, the uncertainty of length and mass for this system will be considered. The existence of self-impact joint constraint will cause saving in consumption power of robot engines within the impact range.
    Keywords: Self-impact joint constraint, Uncertainty, more realistic, power consumption
  • Saeed Forghany *, Christopher Nester, Sarah Tyson, Stephen Preece, Richard Jones Pages 80-85
    Background
    People with stroke often suffer abnormal foot posture including structural and movement deficiencies in the intrinsic foot segments on the affected side, which are associated with limitation in mobility. As part of a programme of research examining foot and ankle biomechanics after stroke, we investigated plantar pressure distribution under the affected foot of people with stroke and the relationship with functional mobility.
    Methods
    Plantar pressure distribution was investigated while standing and walking on the affected side of twenty stroke and fifteen healthy sex and age-matched participants, using a Medilogic platform system at a frequency of 20 HZ. Functional mobility in real life was measured using the Walking Handicap Scale.
    Results
    While standing, people with stroke bore greater pressure on the affected side through the lateral heel and lesser toes (p<0.01) and less at the medial (MP1) and central forefoot (MP23) areas (p<0.05) than healthy controls. During walking, more pressure was taken through the heel area, especially the medial heel and less through the medial and central forefoot of the affected foot of people with stroke compared to healthy controls. The logistic regression model revealed that stroke participants who took greater pressure on the medial heel while walking (odds ratio=1.11, p<0.05) had more limited functional mobility (i.e. were more likely to be household walkers) than those who did not. While standing, none of the standing plantar pressure variables significantly contributed to the model.
    Conclusion
    The plantar pressure distribution differs significantly between the affected foot of people with stroke and healthy controls.  Abnormal plantar pressure distribution while walking, but not while standing,   is a significant contributor to limited functional mobility post stroke.
    Keywords: Stroke, Foot, plantar pressure, Mobility
  • Moslem Cheraghifard *, Narges Shafaroodi, Mitra Khalafbeigi, Farzaneh Yazdani, Faeze Alvandi Pages 86-90
    Background
    The volitional questionnaire is an observational tool to assess motivation, which is based on the MOHO model and completed by an assessor based on the individuals’ observation when performing an occupation or activity. The present study aims to translate and evaluate the validity and reliability of this instrument in individuals with severe mental illnesses and to provide an appropriate tool for volitional assessment.
    Methods
    In this study, the volitional questionnaire was translated into Persian according to the IQOLA protocol. To assess the content validity, an expert panel was held with six experts. The face validity of the test was measured through completing a questionnaire by ten occupational therapists. To investigate the inter-rater reliability of the test, two testers completed the questionnaire for 30 individuals. The internal consistency of the instrument was calculated by performing the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, through completing the questionnaire for 98 individuals.
    Results
    The participants in the expert panel stated that concept of motivation is properly reviewed by the items of questionnaire. All the questionnaire items had a significant important score of 0.7, indicating the suitability of its face validity. Inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.93) was ideal, and the internal consistency of the questionnaire (Cronbach's α = 0.86) was appropriate.
    Conclusion
    The questionnaire has desirable validity and reliability and can be used by specialists as a suitable tool for clinical evaluation and therapeutic planning of individuals with severe mental illnesses.
    Keywords: Volitional Questionnaire, Validity, reliability, Psychometric, occupational therapy, Severe Mental Illness
  • Mohammad Bayattork, Foad Seidi *, Hooman Minoonejad, Arezoo Shahriarpour Pages 91-94
    Background
    The purpose of this study was to quantify the surface EMG activity of the serratus anterior muscle during two main test positions performed with the maximum effort by the subjects with scapular dyskinesis.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study included 30 men (aged 18 to 28) who were suffering from scapular dyskinesis. Scapular dyskinesis was measured by scapular dyskinesis test and surface EMG was employed to record the EMG activity of the serratus anterior during two common positions of maximal voluntary isometric contraction.
    Results
    The results revealed that there is no significant difference in the mean EMG activity of the serratus anterior muscle during two MVIC testing positions (P=0.846). Notably, the test-retest ICC scores for the EMG recordings during position 1 (P=0.97) and position 2 (P=0.96) were excellent.
    Conclusion
    It was found that no one muscle test produced the highest MVIC for all subjects. Therefore, to perform normalization of every muscle within each subject, it is suggested that two tests identified in this study be performed which usually produce high levels of EMG activity.
    Keywords: Electromyography, MVIC, Serratus Anterior Muscle, Scapular dyskinesis
  • Zahra Husseini *, Vahid Nejati, Mojtaba Habibi Pages 95-100
    Background
    Brain processes are controlled and directed by some brain functions called Executive Functioning. Poor EF affects amelioration of brain functions and related behaviors in social and academic life. In the present research, we investigated the relationship between EF and social functions and tested the brain training effect on EF and social functioning improvement.
    Methods
    The present study aims to investigate the correlation between poor EF and social self-efficacy and social adjustment and examine the efficacy of cognitive EF training on selected components of social functioning. Through available sampling, 369 healthy high school students aged 16-18 participated in the experiment who were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups; the experimental group consisted of 183 persons (105 girls and 78 boys) and the control group consisted of 186 persons (117 girls and 69 boys). Main EF processes (working memory, shifting, inhibition and problem solving) and social functions (social adjustment and social self-efficacy) were assessed and their correlations were measured. In a randomized controlled trial with pretest, post-test and follow-up assessment, the effects of cognitive brain training was studied on self-efficacy and social adjustment performance of the experimental group. The intervention tool was Practical Cognitive Strategy Training (PCST) which used cognitive awareness, cognitive strategy training and cognitive training to accomplish both goals of EF training in twelve ninety-minute sessions, once a week.
    Results
    Result showed significant moderate correlation between social and executive functions (p ≤ .001). After twelve weeks of brain training practice, participants showed a significant difference in social adjustment and self-efficacy compared with the control group. The pre-, post- and follow-up tests were time-consuming and might have affected the results.
    Conclusion
    Social functions correlate with EF performance and cognitive brain training can improve social adjustment and self-efficacy.
    Keywords: Cognitive Brain Training, Executive Functions, Practical Cognitive Strategy Training, Social Adjustment, Self-efficacy
  • Zahra Najafi, Kianoush Abdi *, Mohammad Saeid Khanjani Pages 101-102
    On 13 December, 2006, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, which is the first international document intended to protect the rights and dignity of people with disabilities worldwide. The core principles of the Convention is to promote, protect, and ensure the full enjoyment of human rights by people with disabilities and ensure that they enjoy full equality under the law. Accessible education, employment, health care, social service systems, transportation, technology, and generally society for people with disabilities must be ensured, Regardless of race, gender and age in order to achieve the goal of CRPD[1]. Despite these initiatives, many people with disabilities worldwide, including our country,  have been denied from basic civil and human rights, such as to live in the community instead of isolated institutions, and have access to employment, healthcare, and fair standards of living. [1] Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities
    Keywords: Disability, Convention on the rights of persons with disability