فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 72 (بهار 1398)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1398/05/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • غلامرضا غفاری، فرشاد مومنی، نریمان یوسفی* صفحات 9-54
    مقدمه
    نیروی انسانی محرک اصلی و موتور توسعه جوامع است به گونه ای که تولید ارزش و انباشت سرمایه و در بیانی جامع تر توسعه بدون مشارکت نیروی انسانی بسیار سخت و غیرممکن است. دراین بین، درحالی که نیمی از جمعیت جوامع را زنان تشکیل می دهند، نرخ مشارکت آنان در اقتصادها بسیار ناهمگون و از دامنه تغییرات بسیار بالایی برخوردار است. باوجوداینکه مشارکت زنان در بازار کار متاثر از متغیرهای عاملیتی و ساختاری است، به نظر می رسد دامنه بالای تغییرات این نرخ در بین کشورها دلالت موکدی بر نقش متغیرهای کلان و ساختاری دارد.
    روش
    مقاله حاضر با دستمایه قرار دادن سازه سرمایه بر آن است که با استفاده از داده های موجود انتشاریافته توسط سازمان بین المللی کار و موسسه لگاتم به بررسی رابطه و تاثیر انواع سرمایه بر مشارکت اقتصادی زنان در بین کشورهای اتحادیه اروپا و خاورمیانه بپردازد.
    یافته ها
     کشورهای اتحادیه اروپا با نرخ بالای مشارکت اقتصادی زنان و کشورهای خاورمیانه با مقدار پایین این نرخ تفاوت معناداری در برخورداری از سرمایه و انواع آن (سرمایه اقتصادی، سرمایه اجتماعی و سرمایه نهادی) دارند. به عبارتی، بین برخورداری از انواع سرمایه و مشارکت اقتصادی زنان در کشورهای مورد بررسی همبستگی مثبت وجود دارد. همچنین، تحلیل رگرسیون خطی نشان داد که سرمایه های مذکور حدود 70 درصد تغییرات مشارکت اقتصادی زنان در کشورهای موردمطالعه را تبیین می کند.
    بحث
    سرمایه، ظرفیت و پتانسیل مثبتی است که کنشهای اقتصادی شهروندان را تسهیل می کند. ازاین رو، شرایط خوب نهادی، مادی و اجتماعی می تواند مشارکت اقتصادی را تسهیل نماید. از سویی دیگر، جوامعی که در آنها انواع سرمایه به وفور هست، نابرابرهای جنسیتی ازجمله دسترسی به انواع سرمایه حداقل است. بنابراین، رونق انواع سرمایه و کاهش نابرابری جنسیتی بستری است که مشارکت اقتصادی زنان می تواند از مسیر آن محقق می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه، سرمایه، کشورهای اتحادیه اروپا، کشورهای خاورمیانه، مشارکت اقتصادی زنان
  • فریدون قربانی، رضاعلی محسنی، حمید انصاری* صفحات 55-90
    مقدمه
      افزایش چشمگیر زنان سرپرست خانوار و مسائل و مشکلات مرتبط با تعاملات اجتماعی و امرارمعاش، یکی از تحولات نهاد خانواده و جامعه کنونی ایران محسوب می شود. تحقیق حاضر با تمرکز بر ترکیب و مقایسه نتایج و یافته های مجزای تحقیق های انجام شده، اولویت ها و نیازهای زندگی زنان سرپرست خانوار را موردمطالعه قرار داده است.
    روش
    این تحقیق با روش های مطالعه اسنادی و کتابخانه ای، مرور نظام مند و فراتحلیل کمی انجام شده است. مطالعه اسنادی و کتابخانه ای برای بررسی متون و نظریه ها و مرور نظام مند و فراتحلیل کمی برای بررسی و شناخت ماهیت تحقیق های پیشین بکار رفته است. مقاله های علمی-تحقیقی و پایان نامه های تحصیلات تکمیلی منتشرشده در بازه زمانی 1380 تا 1395 با موضوع زنان سرپرست خانوار، جامعه آماری را تشکیل داده اند.
    یافته ها
    یافته های حاصل از این تحقیق در پنج مقوله اصلی مربوط به سال انجام تحقیق ها، بیان مسئله، چارچوب نظری، روش شناسی استفاده شده در هر تحقیق و نهایتا یافته های کلیدی حاصل از تحقیق های مرور شده دسته بندی شدند. از یافته های کلیدی، سه یافته با عناوین تاثیر مثبت حمایت اجتماعی بر سلامت اجتماعی، توانمندسازی و کیفیت زندگی زنان سرپرست خانوار استخراج گردید.
    بحث
    اتخاذ دیدگاه جامعه شناختی و داشتن رویکرد اجتماعی به مسائل زنان سرپرست خانوار و افزایش حمایت اجتماعی از این گروه از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار است. عمدتا مسئله اصلی زنان سرپرست خانوار را نداشتن شغل و درآمد کافی می دانند، هرچند این متغیر یکی از عوامل مهم است، اما برخورداری از حمایت اجتماعی بر توانمند نمودن زنان سرپرست خانوار مهم تر است، زنانی که توانمند باشند امکان دستیابی به شغل و درآمد مناسب را نیز خواهند داشت. از سوی دیگر مشارکت اجتماعی، احساس تعلق به جامعه، نداشتن مشکلات عاطفی و روانی از مواردی است که با برخورداری از حمایت اجتماعی حاصل می گردد. کیفیت زندگی زنان سرپرست خانوار متاثر از برخورداری ایشان از حمایت اجتماعی است. می توان حمایت اجتماعی را متغیری دانست که دارای تاثیرات چندگانه بر مشکلات زنان سرپرست خانوار است.
    کلیدواژگان: اولویت ها و نیازهای زندگی، زنان سرپرست خانوار، فراتحلیل، مرور نظام مند
  • محمد اسماعیل ریاحی*، خدیجه پورالماسی صفحات 91-130
    مقدمه
    مزاحمت جنسی علیه زنان در محل کار، یکی از شکلهای شایع اما پنهان خشونت علیه زنان است که پیامدهای منفی متعددی در سطوح فردی، خانوادگی و اجتماعی به همراه دارد. ازاین رو پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از نظریه فعالیتهای روزمره به بررسی تجربه مزاحمت جنسی زنان شاغل در محیط کار و تحلیل اجتماعی علل بروز آن پرداخته است.
    روش
    پژوهش حاضر با روش پیمایش و ابزار پرسشنامه در بین 400 نفر از زنان شاغل در بیمارستانهای شهر کرج که با استفاده از نمونه گیری دومرحله ای انتخاب شده بودند، انجام شده است.
    یافته ها
    دوسوم پاسخگویان حداقل یک بار، انواع مزاحمتهای جنسی (کلامی و غیرکلامی) را در محیط کار تجربه کرده اند که سهم مزاحمتهای غیرکلامی (مانند نگاه هیز و...) در مقایسه با مزاحمتهای کلامی (متلک پرانی و...) اندکی بیشتر بوده است. نتایج تحلیل رگرسیونی حاکی از آن است که درمجموع، ترکیب متغیرهای سه گانه فاعل باانگیزه (همکاران مرد بیمارستان)، هدف مناسب (زنان کارمند بیمارستان) و فقدان محافظت (ضعف نظارت در بیمارستان) به مقدار 33 درصد از تغییرات تجربه مزاحمت جنسی توسط زنان را توضیح داده و پیش بینی کرده اند که دراین بین، سهم حضور فاعل انگیزه دار، تشخیص داده شدن به عنوان هدف مناسب و فقدان محافظت به ترتیب بیشتر بوده است.
    بحث
    نتایج حاصل از این پژوهش حاکی از آن است که اولا آزار جنسی زنان در محیط کار امری فراگیر و یک مسئله مهم اجتماعی است. ثانیا در وقوع این مسئله، متغیرها و عوامل متعددی دخیل هستند که مطابق نتایج تحقیق حاضر، ویژگی زنان قربانی یکی از مهم ترین پیش بینی کننده های تجربه مزاحمت جنسی در محل کار است.
    کلیدواژگان: خشونت، زنان شاغل، مزاحمت جنسی، نظریه فعالیتهای روزمره
  • حسن رفیعی، فردین علی پور*، عایشه علیار، میترا بهرامی صفحات 131-154
    مقدمه
    همسرآزاری به عنوان یکی از مهم ترین انحرافات اجتماعی در بسیاری از جوامع مطرح است. سنجش وضعیت همسرآزاری، نیازمند داشتن ابزارهای بومی با ویژگی های سنجش مناسب است. این مطالعه به بررسی ساخت و رواسازی نسخه کوتاه پرسشنامه تجربه همسر آزاری در شهر تهران پرداخته است.  
    روش ها
    در این مطالعه روش شناختی، با استفاده از بررسی گسترده متون مرتبط، مخزن اولیه گویه ها طراحی و در اختیار نمونه ای به حجم 555 نفر از افراد متاهل شهر تهران که با استفاده از نمونه گیری چندمرحله ای انتخاب شده بودند، قرار گرفت. برای تعیین روایی گویه ها از تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی با چرخش واریماکس و برای تعیین پایایی ابزار از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ استفاده شد.
    یافته ها
     بعد از انجام تحلیل عاملی، 19 گویه در مدل باقی ماند که بر روی 5 عامل (خشونت عاطفی، خشونت کلامی، خشونت جنسی، خشونت جسمی سبک، و خشونت جسمی سنگین) بار شدند. این عوامل در مجموع حدود 68% از واریانس کل سازه را تبیین کردند. پایایی پرسشنامه نیز از طریق محاسبه مقدار ضریب آلفای کرونباخ محاسبه و مورد تایید قرار گرفت.
    بحث
     پرسشنامه ساخته شده از حجم و تنوع مناسبی از سوالات برخوردار است و نتایج تحلیل عاملی و آلفای کرونباخ موید ویژگی های مناسب این ابزار برای سنجش تجربه همسرآزاری است.
    کلیدواژگان: پایایی، تجربه همسرآزاری، تحلیل عاملی، روایی
  • تکتم پیکانی، مروئه وامقی*، حمیرا سجادی، فرحناز محمدی شاهبلاغی، حسین محققی کمال صفحات 155-194
    مقدمه
    در یک دهه اخیر، پژوهشها درباره بهزیستی ذهنی کودک به عنوان موضوع مهمی در سیاست گذاری اجتماعی و سلامت، افزایش یافته و ابزارهای زیادی برای سنجش بهزیستی ذهنی کودک بر اساس برخی نظریه ها که قابلیت تبیین این مفهوم را دارند، طراحی شده است، به طوری که انتخاب ابزار مناسب در بین شمار سنجه ها امری چالشی است. هدف اصلی این پژوهش، مرور مطالعات بهزیستی ذهنی کودک و بررسی انواع تعاریف نظری و عملیاتی و ارائه یک دسته بندی منظم از تعاریف و سنجه هاست.
    روش
    مطالعه از نوع مرور روایتی است که اطلاعات از طریق جستجوی نظام مند در پایگاه ها داده های الکترونیک در تاریخ دی ماه 1396 جمع آوری شد.
    مرور انتقادی منابع
     مفهوم بهزیستی در چارچوب سه نظریه متمایز تعریف شده است؛ نظریه لذت گرایی، نظریه خواسته ها و نظریه مبتنی بر نیاز. دراین بین، بهزیستی ذهنی کودک در چارچوب دو نظریه نخست که به جنبه های ذهنی بهزیستی اشاره دارد مفهوم سازی شده و به معنای غلبه احساسات مثبت بر عواطف منفی و رضایتمندی کودک از زندگی اش است. ابزارهای متعدد سنجش بهزیستی ذهنی کودک را در یک دسته بندی کلی می توان به دو شکل «سنجه های کلی/سنجه های خاص» و «سنجه های تک سوالی/سنجه های چند سوالی» تقسیم کرد. بیشتر سنجه های بهزیستی ذهنی کودک، در کشورهای توسعه یافته و ثروتمند ساخته شده اند. پرکاربردترین سنجه های بهزیستی ذهنی کودک، انواع مقیاسهای رضایت از زندگی، شادکامی، روابط با همسالان، خانواده و دیگران و عزت نفس است. یافته ها نشان داد در پژوهشهای داخلی، بهزیستی ذهنی کودکان کم سن کمتر ارزیابی شده است.
    بحث
     مرور منابع نشان داد بهزیستی ذهنی کودک در چارچوب نظریه های بهزیستی بزرگ سالان تعریف شده و در سنجش این مفهوم عموما کودک به مثابه بزرگ سالی نابالغ در نظر گرفته شده است. پژوهشگران از انواع شاخصهای ترکیبی جهت سنجش ابعاد عاطفی و شناختی بهزیستی ذهنی کودکان جوامع مختلف و رده های سنی متفاوت استفاده کرده اند و اطلاعات از طریق مشارکت مستقیم کودک، گزارش والدین و گزارش مربیان جمع آوری شده است. در این راستا، مناقشاتی بر سر توان شناختی کودک و مشارکت مستقیم کودک در فرایند تحقیق وجود دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: بهزیستی ذهنی، رضایت از زندگی، عواطف مثبت، کودکان، لذت گرایی
  • کرم حبیب پور گتابی*، صلاح الدین قادری، زهرا امیری صفحات 195-242
    مقدمه
    روابط دوستانه دانشجویان با جنس مخالف و تعمیق روزافزون آن در سطح دانشگاه های کشور، امروزه به عنوان یک امر فرافردی بروز یافته و وجوه خانوادگی و جامعوی نیز یافته است. به نظر می رسد روابط دوستانه با جنس مخالف در میان دختران و پسران دارای معانی، ابعاد، آثار و پیامدهای گوناگونی است. مقاله حاضر با هدف کنکاش جنسیتی این پدیده با تاکید بر ادراک و انگیزه ها، پیامدها، الگومندی و... این پدیده در میان دختران و پسران، به مطالعه آن در میان دانشجویان دانشگاه خوارزمی پرداخته است.
    روش
    رویکرد این پژوهش کیفی و روش آن پدیدارشناسی بود. افراد مورد مطالعه شامل 2 گروه از دانشجویان دختر و پسر بود که با 15 نفر از دانشجویان دختر و 15 نفر از دانشجویان پسر مصاحبه عمیق نیمه ساختاریافته بر اساس نمونه گیری هدفمند با استراتژی گلوله برفی و معیار اشباع نظری برای رسیدن به حجم نمونه انجام شد. برای تحلیل داده ها، از تکنیک تحلیل تماتیک (مضمونی) استفاده شد.
    یافته ها
     دانشجویان دختر و پسر درک و تجارب متفاوتی از رابطه با جنس مخالف داشته و درعین حال با انگیزه های متفاوتی وارد این رابطه شدند. عوامل زمینه ساز متفاوت ازجمله جو خانوادگی، فضای دانشگاه، فضای خوابگاه، فضای مجازی و گروه همالان در تجربه دانشجویان دختر و پسر از رابطه با جنس مخالف نقش ماهوی داشته اند. دانشجویان دختر درک رمانتیک و عاشقانه ای از رابطه با جنس مخالف داشته و درک دانشجویان پسر از این رابطه مبتنی بر ذائقه لذت گرایی و جنسی بود. ویژگی های خاص دوستی در بین دانشجویان پسر شامل ناپایداری، تنوع طلبی و بی تعهدی در روابط و در مقابل در بین دانشجویان دختر شامل غوطه وری در عشق، پنهان کردن خود واقعی، آمادگی برای ناپایداری روابط و آگاهی از پوچی رابطه بود.
    بحث
     یافته ها دلالت می کنند که دانشجویان دختر بیشتر به دنبال روابط عاطفی، ازدواج محور و اقتصادی بوده و دانشجویان پسر بیشتر سکسوالیه خواه و لذت گرا بوده اند.
    کلیدواژگان: جنسیت، رابطه با جنس مخالف، رابطه رمانتیک، رابطه لذت گرا
  • انصار خوگر، علی اصغر اصغرنژاد*، هادی رنجبر، مژگان لطفی، میترا حکیم شوشتری صفحات 243-282
    مقدمه
    پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی تجربه زیسته والدین دارای کودک طیف اوتیسم از رنج اجتماعی انجام شد.
     
    روش
    این پژوهش به شیوه کیفی و با رویکرد تحلیل مضمون انجام شد. نمونه ها به شیوه هدفمند از میان والدین دارای کودک طیف اوتیسم انتخاب شدند. در این پژوهش 14 مصاحبه با والدین انجام شد که مدت زمان آنها بین 45 تا 70 دقیقه متغیر بود. مشارکت کنندگان این پژوهش شامل 4 پدر و 9 مادر بودند که دارای کودکی با تشخیص اختلال طیف اوتیسم بودند. ابزارهای گردآوری داده ها، مصاحبه عمیق نیمه ساختاریافته بود. روند تجزیه وتحلیل داده ها از همان مصاحبه اول به وسیله نرم افزار MAXQDA شروع شد و بعد از هر مصاحبه کدگذاری انجام گرفت. سپس داده ها به روش تحلیل مضمون مورد تجزیه وتحلیل قرار گرفتند. درنهایت، یافته های حاصل از تجربیات والدین در مضامین اصلی و فرعی تدوین شدند. در این پژوهش از 4 معیار گوبا و لینکلن برای افزایش دقت علمی استفاده شده است.
     یافته ها
     پس از کدگذاری مصاحبه ها، 155 کد به دست آمد که این کدها در پنج مضمون اصلی و 6 زیرمضمون طبقه بندی شد. مضامین اصلی شامل فرایند تشخیص، مشکلات روزمره، حضور در جامعه، خدمات حمایتی و مشکلات مالی بود.
    بحث
     نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد والدین کودکان طیف اوتیسم در تمامی زمینه های زندگی خود با مشکلات و رنج زیادی مواجه هستند. این مشکلات از همان آغاز فرایند تشخیص شروع می شود و در ادامه در تمامی ابعاد زندگی خود را نشان می دهند.
    کلیدواژگان: اوتیسم، تجربه زیسته، رنج اجتماعی، والدین
  • عباس خسروانی، رضا علی محسنی*، حبیب صبوری خسروشاهی صفحات 283-322
    مقدمه
    هدف از انجام این پژوهش بررسی رابطه فقر شهری با فرهنگ فقر در محله های فرودست شهری اراک با تاکید بر توانمند سازی اقتصادی وفرهنگی ساکنان این محله ها است.برای این منظور شاخصه های فقر شهری و فرهنگ فقر شناسائی و مورد سنجش قرار گرفته و رابطه آنها به لحاظ همبستگی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
    روش
    در این پژوهش از روش پیمایش استفاده شده است.نمونه آماری طبق فرمول کوکران 381 نفر است که با روش نمونه گیری 3 مرحله ای سهمیه ای،خوشه ایو تصادفی ساده از بین حدود 56 هزار و 744 نفر ساکنان 3 محله فرودست شهری اراک انتخاب شده اند. در این تحقیق ابتدا شاخص های کالبدی و اقتصادی انتخاب شده و بر اساس رویکرد تحلیلی سلسه مراتبی (AHP) وزن دهی شده است.همچنین برای رتبه بندی محله های فرودست از نظر فقر شهری از ابزار تصمیم گیری چند معیاری TOPSIS استفاده شده است.
    یافته ها
    بر اساس تکنیک topsis، رتبه فقر شهری بدست آمده برای محله ی فوتبال برابر با 0.09538 محله چشمه موشک برابر با 0.06206 و برای محله باغ خلج 0.06031می باشد.نتایج همچنین نشان می دهد که اکثر بلوک های این محله ها به لحاظ فقر شهری و فرهنگ فقر در وضعیت نامطلوبی قرار دارند.یافته های این پژوهش نشان داد که فقر شهری ساکنان، ارتباط معنا دار مستقیمی با سطح فرهنگ فقر در میان آنها دارد. نتایج تحلیل رگرسیون نشان داد که مقدار ضریب همبستگی چندگانه مدل رگرسیونی و ضریب تعیین متغیر مستقل،با توجه به 000/0 بودن sig ،به طور معنا داری متغیر وابسته را پیش بینی می کنند. نتایج تحلیل مسیر نشان داد که اثر فقر شهری بر فرهنگ فقر معنی دار است.
    بحث
    در این پژوهش به منظور کنترل و کاهش مولفه های فقر اقتصادی و فرهنگ فقر در محله های فرودست شهری،راهکار توانمند سازی ساکنان با رویکرد اجتماع محور در ابعاد اقتصادی،فرهنگ و اجتماعی پیشنهاد شده است.توانمند سازی اجتماع محلی و توسعه ی محلی رویکردی غیر متمرکز و مشارکتی است و به نوعی مکمل ارتقا بخشی است که در رابطه با تامین حق مالکیت و توسعه ی اقتصادی در محله های فقیر نشین علاوه بر مشارکت در ساخت و ساز و بهبود محله،ضرورت درگیر شدن ساکنان محله در تصمیم سازی و فرایند برنامه ریزی برای تشخیص اولویت های اقدام و حمایت در اجرا را ضروری می داند.
    کلیدواژگان: توانمندسازی، فرهنگ فقر، فقر شهری، محله های فرودست شهری
  • مهدی کروبی* صفحات 323-353
    مقدمه
    هدف پژوهش حاضر، ارتباط بین ترس از جرم و بی نظمی محلی با وفاداری به مقصد (گرایش به اقامت مجدد) در گردشگران خارجی در بافت تاریخی شهر شیراز بود.
    روش
    پژوهش حاضر توصیفی و از نوع همبستگی بود. تکنیک گردآوری اطلاعات، پرسشنامه بود که در میان 380 نفر از گردشگران خارجی که در بافت تاریخی و فرهنگی شهر شیراز اقامت داشته اند، توزیع شده است. پایایی ابزار پژوهش بر اساس میزان آلفای کرونباخ که بیشتر از 7/0 بوده تایید شده و روایی صوری و محتوایی ابزار نیز با استفاده از نظرات متخصصان مورد تایید و روایی سازه پرسشنامه با استفاده از تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی و تاییدی مورد بررسی و تایید قرار گرفت.
    یافته ها
     بیشتر گردشگران از کشورهای اروپایی به ایران سفر کرده که در این میان کشور فرانسه و ایتالیا بیشترین سهم گردشگران ورودی را داشته اند. بیشترین میزان دوره اقامت در شیراز 3 روز بوده است. همچنین، از یک سو میان سن، وضعیت تاهل، تحصیلات، شغل، کشور مبدا و میزان وفاداری به مقصد گردشگران، و از سوی دیگر میان ترس از جرم و بی نظمی محله ای و میزان وفاداری گردشگران خارجی به مقصد (گرایش به اقامت مجدد در بافت تاریخی) شهر شیراز رابطه وجود داشت.
    بحث
    باید عنوان کرد که راه اندازی مدیریت واحد گردشگری و پلیس گردشگری در مقاصد گردشگرپذیر از جمله راهکارهای کاهش ترس از جرم و بی نظمی محلی و در نتیجه افزایش مقاصد گردشگری در شهر شیراز است
    کلیدواژگان: امنیت، ترس از جرم، بی نظمی محله ای، وفاداری به مقصد، اقامت مجدد
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  • Gholamreza Ghafari, Farshad Momeni, Nariman Yousefi* Pages 9-54
    Introduction
    In modern development literature, there are a lot of discussions about participation, especially economic participation. Economic participation is the essential part of economic development and lack of plating the participation backgrounds will challenge social system, as well as economic system. Labour force is main stimulus and jmpetus for developing societies, so that the production of value and cumulatjon of capital, and in general, development without labour force participation is impossible. According to functional viewpoint, economic participation is the background of survival and development of social system. Inasmuch as one of the signs of development of societies is female economic participation, and their access to economic opportunities and employment represents their social status in different countries, so the status of women as half of the labour force potential of societies has made their economic acts to be of high importance, The statistical analyses indicate that female economic participation rate is very heterogeneous and has a wide range. According to International Labour Organization estimates in 2016, the average of economic participation rate in women aged 15 years and older is 52.3%, and its maximum and minimum values are respectively 86.3 and 12%. Furthermore, the investigation of female economic participation rate in developing and developed countries shows that European developed countries (European :::union:::: EU) have high economic participation rate, but the Middle East countries such as Iran have quite lower level of the participation. Although female participation in labour market is affected by agency and structural factors, it seems that the wide range of changes of this rate accents the role of major and structural variables. Therefore, the major aim of this paper is to study the impact of capital construct (economic, institutional and social capitals) on female economic participation.
    Method
    This paper was done using documentary method and secondary analysis of existing data. The statistical society of the research is European :::union::: and Middle East countries. The data published by Legatum Institute and International Labour Force Organization (ILO) were used. Besides, the level of observation and unit of analysis in this project is major.
    Findings
    According to the results, European countries have higher female economic participation rate than Middle East countries. The average of this rate in European and Middle East countries is respectively 50.4% and 29.3%. Indeed, although the average of total capital index in EU countries is 65.8%, it is 49.1% in Middle East countries, and there is a big difference between them. This condition, more or less, occurs in all subindexes and indicators of this index. Segregaton of two studied countries groups on scattergram chart indicates that Middle East countries in capital index and its subindexes are poorer than EU countries. This result is in line with the theoretical viewpoint, and it refers to the classification of the developing degree of the countries according to economic participation rate. The study of distribution of capital kinds also shows that the highest difference belongs to institutional capital and the next levels belong to social and economic capitals respectively, and all declared differences were found to be statistically significant.
    Analytically, there is a positive and significant correlation between female economic participation rate in the studied countries and total capital index and its sub-indexes.The amount of this correlation with total capital index, institutional capital, economic capital, and social capital is respectively .794, .793, .765 and .688.Moreover, linear regression analysis represents that about 70% of female economic participation rate in the studied countries is explained by capital kinds, and only the remained 30% will be explained by the other variables unnoticed in this project. This result clearly emphasizes the impact of major and constructional variables on female economic participation in labour market. Standardized coefficient (β) amount also suggests that institutional capitals have more important role for declaring the female participation in labour market (0.746). The next levels for declaring the female economic participation in labour market belong to economic (0.613) and social (0.526) capitals.
    Discussion
    Female labour force participation is one of the signs of development and due to its own reasons and outcomes it can be regarded as an economic-social phenomenon. As mentioned earlier, both economic and non-economic factors affect this subject. Therefore, the aim of this project is to investigate the role of capital construct on female labour force participation in European :::union::: and Middle East countries.
    Economic participation is a field in which actors act in it in proportion to have some kinds of capital. Therefore, capital is the positive capacity and potential for facilitating the economic actions. In other words, good institutional, financial, and social conditions can be suitable backgrounds for people and female economic participation as well. Whereas, in societies where wealth capitals, gender inequalities such as unequal access to capitals is low or paralle to Lerner and World Economic Forum findings, high gender inequalities and discriminations, such as inequality in access to resources and capitals in developing countries of Middle East is supposed to exist. Therefore, affluence of capital kinds and also decrease of gender inequalities will increase women’s inputs to economic fields and facilitate their economic participation. By preparing these facilities, it is hoped that unused human resource capacity in Middle East countries will be used in the future.
    In comparison with pervious researche studies, the results of this project are in accordance with development and economic participation hypothesis which focuses on U-form relation between entering the women to labour market and development in a passing society from tradition to modernity, and Lerner’s findings (2004) that insist on limited social attendance and economic participation of women caused by capital leakage and gender inequality in Middle East countries. Also the observed strong and positive relationship between economic capitals and female labour force participation in the present research confirms the asserted relationsships between economic capacities and female labour force participation in the previous studies (Seraj, 1984; Clark et al., 1991; Bloom & Brender, 1993; Safai Pour & Zadvali Khajeh, 2016). the positive relation between education and female labour force participation documented in static study of Yakubu (2010) and the findings of the panel study of Klasen and Lamanna (2009) was supported by the results of this project.
    The first innovation of the present study is the empirical documentation of the effect of institutional capitals on female labour force participation in the studied countries. In general, excellent institutional and economic conditions make the society grow and social capitals facilitate the female labour force participation. Another innovation is doing an international comparative- analytical investigation in two groups of countries with very different conditions for female labour market. The previous studies conducted at international level were simply descriptive, without purposeful classification of the different groups of countries, and the number of variables was limited.
    Keywords: capital, development, european :::union:::, countries, female economic participation, Middle East countries
  • Fereydoun Ghorbani, Reza Ali Mohseni, Hamid Ansari* Pages 55-90
    Introduction
    The dramatic increase in female-headed households and issues related to social interaction and livelihoods is one of the transformations of the current Iranian family and community.
    According to the Census Bureau of Iran, the proportion of female-headed households to total households per year is 12.7%. The average growth rate of male-headed households over the three-year period was three percent, while that of female-headed households was four percent] (1335 - 1396). The present study focuses on combining and comparing the results and findings of separate research studies, examining the priorities and needs of that women heading the households.
    Method
    This study was conducted using three methods of documentary and library study, systematic review, and quantitative meta-analysis. A systematic review was used to study research studies on the topic of female-headed households and to understand the nature of the previous research in this area. Then the researchers came up with  possible to hypotheses and applied quantitative methods and meta-analysis method to conduct research analysis and test the hypotheses. Systematic review was performed using qualitative data analysis software and quantitative meta-analysis was also performed using a specific software. In this study, the research studies conducted including the term “female-headed households”from 1380 to 1395, were selected and analyzed. in particular, scientific research papers or postgraduate theses at universities were analyzed.. In terms of scope, the present study was conducted nationally, and the subject area of this research wew sociological issues related to women-headed households. In the current study, most of the documentation was done without sampling, and only university-based screening, the scientific degree, and the topic of “issues of women-headed households in Iran” were examined.
    Findings
    From the expression of various problems, four cases were studied: social and cultural issues of women- headed households, economic and occupational issues of Women-Headed Households, and  empowering women-head Households. In terms of the effectiveness of measures, They were more important and repotted more than other cases. Among the theories stated, the ‘feminization of poverty‘  ‘empowerment theory’ , and the theory of ‘social support’ theory were the most popular theories employed in the research studies, in other words, these were  the most prominent areas. Due to the dominance of the quantitative research paradigm, the survey method was the template method in the research and then the qualitative methods and the secondary analysis were used. Findings indicate that about five percent of household surveys of women are conducted with quantitative approaches using a survey method. That expresses the dominance of quantitative space over research. Three key findings can also be drawn from the research.
    Social support has a positive effect on social health as well as women’s empowerment. Social support has a positive effect on the quality of life of female-headed households. In summary, the findings of this research are used in five main categories related to the year of research, problem expression, theoretical framework, and methodology. Finally, in each study the key findings from the reviewed studies were categorized. From the key findings, three findings were identified as positive impact of social support on social health, empowerment, and quality of life of female-headed households.
    Discussion
    It is important to adopt a sociological perspective and to have a social approach to the issues of female-headed households and to increase social support for this group. Mainly the main problem of women heading the households is insufficient job and income, although this variable is one of the important factors. But having social support is more important than empowering female-headed households. Women who are empowered will also be able to have more job opprtunities and have decent incomes. Social participation, on the other hand, the sense of belonging to the community, and the lack of emotional and psychological problems, are some of the issues that result from having social support. The quality of life of female-headed households is affected by their social support. Social support can be seen as a variable that has multiple effects on the problems of female-headed households. Increased social support will enhance the social health of individuals in the community. The more the supportive resources people receive, the greater their social capital and the sense of belonging and acceptance within society are likely to be. And that means that people’s crisp paths are closed, and they can be merged. Such people have the opportunity to participate in various social and economic relationships, thereby enabling the community to flourish and, in other words, empower individuals and improve their quality of life. With increasing social support, women-headed households experience stronger family relationships and regain their independence and self-esteem. In such a case, they will have more peace of mind and time to learn different skills that will enable them to get better jobs. The five stages of welfare, access, awareness, participation, and control should be achieved. Of course, support is purely social, that is, organizations can play a role in this area. But this support must come from the community. It is important that women who are the heads of households should not be regarded as ordinary members of society and not interconnected in social, economic, family-related, and other spheres. This needs to be developed and adopted as a cultured so that other people in the community first learn that women who are the head of a household in a society need social support because of social anomalies. In addition to informal social support for individuals in the community, special formal attention should be paid to the social dimension that requires the government and social policy makers to provide specific social assistance and anticipate the provisions of the annual budget requirements and the Five Plans Act. In the years of economic, social, and cultural development of the country, close attention should be paid to this issue.
    Keywords: female-headed household, priorities, needs of life, systematic review, meta-analysis
  • Mohammad Esmaeil Riahi*, Khadijeh Pouralmasi Pages 91-130
    Introduction
    the present research, have been aimed to study amount of the experience of sexual harassment of employed women in the workplace and the social analysis of the causes of sexual harassment. Independent variables of the analytical model, which following to explain the main dependent variable of the research (the amount experience of women sexual harassment in the workplace), are amount of diagnosis as a suitable target, the amount of the presence of the motivating subject and the absence of protection.
    Method
    In this research, the theory of Routine activities has been used as a theoretical framework and has been surveyed by a questionnaire tool among 400 women working in hospitals in Karaj.
    Finding
    The descriptive results of this study show that 67% of respondents experienced at least one occurrence of sexual harassment (verbal and non-verbal) at work. It was also found that the proportion of non-verbal disturbances (such as Hayes's look, etc.) was slightly higher compared to the verbal disturbance (reverberation, etc.).The results of regression analysis show that, in general, the combination of three variables: the motivational subject (male colleague of the hospital), the appropriate target (female hospital staff) and the lack of protection (poor monitoring in the hospital) of 0.573 with the variable of experience Sexual intercourse has been correlated with women and has been able to explain and predict 33% of its fluctuations. However, in terms of beta, the strongest predictor variables for the degree of sexual harassment at the workplace were, respectively, the presence of motivating agents (beta 0.536), the rate of detection as the appropriate target (0.436), and lack of protection (0.104).
    Discussion
    Thus, according to the results of this study, the amount of experience of sexual harassment of employed women in the workplace was greater among those women who, on the one hand, had some demographic and personal characteristics that made them more suitable for the victim of harassment Sexual orientation, secondly, at work, there were men who had more motivated men to engage in sexual harassment, and, thirdly, at work there was not enough organizational and personal protection to prevent sexual harassment. This result suggests that the theory of routine activities is predictive of sexual harassment in the workplace.
    Keywords: Employed women, Sexual harassment, Theory of routine activities, Violence
  • Hassan Rafie, Alipour Fardin*, Aysha Aliyar, Mitra Bahrami Pages 131-154
    Introduction
    Wife abuse is considered as a social deviance in many societies. In order to measure wife abuse, access to a valid and reliable questionnaire is necessary. This study aimed to test the reliability and validity of a questionnaire which designed to measure wife abuse.
    Method
    In this methodological study, we used multistage sampling to select 557 married persons from Tehran. The initial questionnaire was developed by item generation through comprehensive literature review and existing scales. The validity and the reliability of the questionnaire have been examined by Varimax exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha respectively.
    Results
    The result of exploratory factor analysis led us reduce the number of items of the questionnaire to 19 and load them on 5 factors including mild physical violence, severe physical violence, emotional violence, sexual and verbal violence. The variance of these selected subscales was explained as 72% of all the constructs. The reliability of the questionnaire was also approved by Cronbach's alpha. Internal consistencies for all factors exceeded 0.70.
    Discussion
    The final questionnaire contains not only a suitable number of questions but also it covers a variety of factors. The results of our analysis shows that it can be used as the suitable tool for measuring the wife abuse in Iran.
    Keywords: employed women, sexual harassment, Theory of routine activities, violence
  • Toktam Paykani, Meroe Vameghi*, Homeira Sajjadi, Farahnaz Mohammadi Shahbolaghi, Seyed Hosein Mohaqeqi Kamal Pages 155-194
    Introduction
    Over the past decades there has been an increasing trend in research towards the children's subjective well-being (SWB) as an important health and social policy issue. There are many scales for measuring SWB to the extent that selecting an appropriate scale among the available measures could be a challenge. Given that measuring subjective well-being of children could be used by governments for their own purposes and improve their services, the inappropriate measures may lead to the inappropriate policies. In this regard, the main goal of this study is to summarize and discuss global literature regarding the defining and measuring children’s SWB . As a result, a substantial amount of the information has provided about the definition, the structure of childrens’ SWB, the most commonly measures and their proper application are discussed.
    Critical review
    Researchers based on three types of theories —mental states theories, desire-based theories and needs-based theories—that are capable of explaining wellbeing concepts, have operationalized and measured child well-being in different ways. The concept of subjective well-being has been operationalized as a component of  children's well-being and measured in different ways according mental states theories and desire-based theories. Findings show SWB is defined as cognitive and affective evaluation and judgment of life that means experiencing pleasure and positive effects, low level of negative moods, and high life satisfaction. In a similar way, child SWB refers to young person experience of affective reactions and cognitive judgments in term of Optimism, happiness, anxiety, fears and satisfaction. 
    In general, well-being is defined in terms of two different psychological traditions, labeled hedonism and eudaimonism. Hedonic approach, defining well-being as pleasure, happiness or pain avoidance, and considered as subjective well-being. On the other hand, the eudaimonic approach, argues that well-being doesn’t mean just pleasure or happiness. It relates to purpose in life, personal fulfillment, living well, and realizing human potentials. This approach focuses on psychological wellbeing.
    In term of operationalization, a review of the literature shows that various scales have developed to improve measuring children’s SWB. They could be divided as global versus specific measures; Single-question versus multiple-question measures.Global measures of children’s SWB are used to measure overall happiness or global perception of life satisfaction, While Specific indicators measures children’s satisfaction with a particular aspect of their life. On the other groups, Multi-question measurement scales are formed of several questions and usually are more reliable than a single question. Yet, single questions are useful tool for large surveys because they are easier to administer.
    Our findings indicated that the most common measurement tools for children’s SWB were global/domain-specific life satisfaction and happiness, peer and family relationships, and self-esteem scale.
    There is no a particular determinant of children’s SWB. A set of conditions including mental health, parent-child relationship, positive social relationships, and environmental issues seems to be necessary for achieving high subjective well-being.
    To the extent of our knowledge, there are not studies that examined the SWB of Iranian young children and the most frequently used scales in Persian researches were multi-dimensional students’ life satisfaction scale and Ryff scales in a sample population of middle school and high school students.
    This study shows children’s SWB is a broad concept with a considerable complexity and debate in defining and measuring.
    Discussion
    By now governments in many countries in order to develop early childhood policy in the relevant areas interest to provide insight into how young people experience the quality of their lives.The findings suggested that over the past decade many efforts have been made to develop theoretical and empirical models related to the child's subjective well-being. Yet, it seems that there is not a theory of well-being specific to children. The researchers have tried to measure children SWB while child is defined as an immature adult. More detailed research would be required to explain the absence of a theory of child well-being.
    Researchers have operationalized children SWB in various ways; however they considered that a child is doing well in the case of:“1) Develops those stage-appropriate capacities that would, for all we know, equip her for successful future, given her environment.
    2. And engages with the world in child-appropriate ways, for instance, with curiosity and exploration, spontaneity, and emotional security”.
     While studying children’s SWB, researchers were faced with some challenges. A big challenge in measuring and monitoring SWB is related to children’s cognitive ability. Critics of measuring children’s wellbeing would argue that since children are different from adults in cognitive ability thus they should not involve in studies directly. Yet, experts in the field have stated that the benefits of involving children in studies of the level of their SWB are more enough to overcome such limitations. Furthermore, children may be relevant key informants in providing data about their experience.
    In the past decade, the researchers in the field of positive psychology have focused their attention on positive emotions such as happiness and satisfaction more than negative emotions. They considered mental health as a positive psychological function and conceptualize it in the term of psychological well-being. However, review of the researches showed that despite the orientation of positive psychology toward assessing the children's subjective/psychological well-being, the frequency of use of the negative emotions scales are considerable in comparison with positive emotions scales, which can be direction for future research.
    Finally, it should be noted that the clear differences that can be seen in the theoretical definition of SWB and PWB do not exist in the operational definitions of children’s’ SWB/PWB to the extent that researchers in order to measure these two concepts have used similar compositional measures in many cases.
    Keywords: subjective well-being, children, hedonic, positive effects, life satisfaction
  • Karam Habib Habibpourgatabi*, Salahedin Ghaderi, Zahra Amiri Pages 195-242
    Introduction
    The friendship of college students with the opposite sex and its increasing growing at the level of the universities of the country, has now emerged as a transpersonal phenomenon and has found a family and societal dimensions. It seems that friendly relations with the opposite sex among boys and girls have different meanings, dimensions, effects and outcomes. Girls and boys have relationships with them with different motives - making choice for proper marriage, curiosity and other cognition, and temporary friendships that can be merely an emotional relationship or for meeting the sexual needs. Huge difference between social, religious and family norms with the values ​​and attitudes of the modern world and the everyday experiences of young people have resulted in contradiction among them. On the one hand, instinctive pressures and tensions tend to turn young people toward the opposite sex, and on the other hand, socio-cultural and moral considerations have acted as obstacles. This contradictory situation has always been a complicated issue for adolescents and young people, as well as families and authorities, and has created an uncertain status in terms of how to deal with this issue. Since the family is the first small community that a person experiences, his influence and support, up to the age of 15, and more during childhood, are direct and intense. In adolescents and young people who enter into environments such as high school and university, they take effects beyond what is officially considered for these educational institutions. One of these influences is the influence of peer and friends group. These groups have a normal or deviance effects on the thoughts and behaviors of adolescents and young people. Meanwhile, these groups of friends can, if they fail to comply with social norms, cause various mental, physical and social harms to the individual. Encouraging the relationships with the opposite sex is one of the influences of friendship groups in the educational environment. As it has been said, when the relationship with the opposite sex comes from the community level into the campus as the organization and the center of the new sciences and the essential elements of society, it is also seen that at the university, the relationship between the two sexes has become a fundamental issue; Because, on the one hand, the students are mostly young and, until the time of entering the university, have not experienced the mixing of the girl and the boy in an environment and did not have any education in relation to the opposite sex, and on the other hand, due to the age requirement for entering the university, they have the greatest desire to communicate with the opposite sex, and according to the limitations before entering the university, they believe they can freely meet their emotional and sexual needs in the university environment. In addition, we should not forget that such unconscious relationships, although possible in the short term with consequences, will have many negative consequences, especially for girls, in a variety of fields, which, if possible, can be compensated for with countless consequences. This article aims to investigate this phenomenon with emphasis on perceptions and motives, consequences, patterning and ... among boy and girl students of Kharazmi University.
    Method
    The approach of this research was qualitative and its methodology was phenomenology. The study population consisted of 2 groups of dormitory and non-dormitory students at Kharazmi University that semi-structured deep interview with 15 female students and 15 male students (30 students in total) according to saturation criteria to reach the sample size. Sampling method was purposeful sampling with snowballing strategy. To analyze the data, thematic analysis was used. The age range of the students was 19 to 31 years old. 8 persons of students were male and female undergraduate students (5 dormitories and 3 non-nursing) and 7 persons were graduate students (4 dormitories and 3 non- dormitory students). Students from different disciplines and at the same time both groups of male and female students were selected from different terms. In extracting and displaying the results, among male and female students, initial codes were extracted from the interview texts for a deeper understanding of them. In the next stage, sub-themes were extracted from the initials codes. In the final stage, the formation of the main theme, the general and abstract concept of the sub-themes, were taken into account and labeled. The result of these stages was 323 initial codes, 104 sub-themes and 16 main themes.
    Findings
    Male and female students had different understandings and experiences of the relationship with the opposite sex, and, at the same time, entered into this relationship with different motivations. The motivation and, in other words, the rewards expected by many female students to form a relationship, was to meet the emotional and romantic needs, and on the contrary, this reward was in a part of male students in terms of meeting sexual needs and pleasure motivation. Various background factors such as family atmosphere, university space, dormitory, virtual space, and peer group have played a significant role in the experiences of male and female students in relation to the opposite sex. In addition to the differences in the motivations of friendship between the two sexes, girls and boys have a different understanding of friendship, as girls have romantic and lovely understanding from friendship with the opposite sex because of their emotional dimension, while the perception of male students of this relationship was based on the pleasure and sexuality. 6 Characteristics of friendship among male and female students were lack of stability, diversity and non-commitment in relationships for boys, and in contrast to immersion in love, lack of real self-representation, readiness for the lack of stability of relationships, and awareness of the absurdity of the relationship for girls, were the main features of the relationship with opposite sex among studied students.
    Discussion
    The results indicate that girls in general were more interested in emotional, marital and marriage, and economic relationships, and the male students were more sexual and pleasurable.
    Keywords: Relationship with the opposite sex, Gender, Romantic relationship, Pleasure relationship
  • Ansar Khougar, Ali Asghar Asgharnejad*, Hadi Ranjbar, Mojgan Lotfei, Mitra Hakimshoushtari Pages 243-282
    Introduction
    ASDs are classified as developmental neurological group disorders, which cause significant deficiencies in social interaction and communication. Restricted and repetitive behaviors are also presents. Raising a child with ASD is a difficult experience and it negatively affects both the child and his/her family. The parents of the child with ASD which has the most interaction with whom, suffer from ASDS challenges more than other relatives. Lessen parenting efficiency and increasing their physical and psychiatric problems, are some examples of those challenges. The studies reveal that parents and mothers in particular, experience higher levels of stress compared to the ones with normal children. For many years, most of the studies have been focused on the effects of parents on children with ASDs, but recent research have concentrated on the effects of children with ASDs on their parents' lives. The present research aims to discover the ASDs children’s parents’ sufferings and problems thorough the study of their lived experiences.
    Methodology
    The current study applies qualitative method with the thematic analysis approach. Purposive sampling is performed on parents of the children with autism spectrum. In this study, 13 interviews were conducted with parents, each of which had lasted between 45 to 70 minutes. The participants were 4 fathers and 9 mothers with a child diagnosed with ASD. The data collection tool was a semi-structured in depth interview. Data analysis process was started from the first interview via MAXQDA software and coding is perfumed after each interview. Data were eventually analyzed by thematic analysis method. Finally, the outcomes of parent’s lived experiences were documented in the primary and secondary themes. In this study, four criteria of Guba and Lincoln were used to increase scientific accuracy.
    Results
    The data was categorized in five main themes. The first category was on the diagnosis process. The sub-themes include pre-diagnosis confusion and the different medical diagnoses. The confounded parents were trying to understand the cause of their child’s abnormal behavior, which was the first step in the hard and tough process of medical diagnose. There is no specific reference available for parents to instruct them how to setup a health record and ease their journey. All the participants complained about the difficulty of that period. Some of them got the definitive diagnosis of autism after years. Different and incorrect diagnosis of the doctors and other professionals was another problem for parents, which prolonged the diagnostic process.
    The second theme was on parents' everyday problems. They hardly did their routine chores; suddenly, sleeping and eating turn into big problems as well. The intensity of those problems is a function of disorder severity. The physical problems of these children cause big challenges which negatively affect their parents.
    The third theme was the family's presence in the community, which had two sub-themes, lack of awareness and limited interactions. All parents believed that not only public awareness of autism was very low, but also there was no attempt to know the disorder. The lack of awareness eventually raises judgment or pity and compassion, which are not pleasant for parents. As a result families decided to limit their public presence and getting reluctant to go out unless it was necessary. The parent’s problems with public presence do not stop here; traveling and using public transportation are also hard for them.
    The next theme was on the support services, which is a hurdle for autistic families. This theme has two subsystems: weak support system and therapeutic problems. The whole 13 participants argued that there is no privileged government support for families with autistic children. Beside poor welfare services, children with ASD have no special insurance, and even those families with golden insurances cannot use them since they do not cover autism costs, including speech therapies and occupational therapy. The scarcity of autism schools and poor condition of care centers are the other aspects of parent’s concerns.
    The therapeutic problems were under the second sub-theme. There is no clinic or even a special section for those children. As parents claim being in government (public) hospitals is harder than private hospitals or clinics due to large crowd, but financial and insurance policies do not make any thing easier. Other sicknesses are harder to treat in those children; they also magnify autism related behaviors.
    The last theme which causes the greatest suffering for the families is financial problems. The whole 13 participants in the study have been devastated by the costs and the hardships. Autism costs for families, even for those with high incomes are very frustrating. Most of those costs are spent on children’s occupational and speech therapies. Autism costs are not covered by insurance which intensify all the mentioned problems. Some of the participants are no longer able to pay for those costs and in spite of their inner desire they quit classes and occupational therapies.
    Discussion and Conclusion
    The research was focusing to study the parents lived experience of a child with ASDs. Thus, 13 parents participated in-depth interviews. The results reveals that ASDs completely destroys the family routines and cause so many challenges and sufferings.
    Besides those problems that parents faces during the diagnosis process, everyday problems, public presence, lack of support services, medical problems and severe financial problems, cause suffering to those families. Although before the study it was predictable that there are quiet a number of problems for parents with children  in autism spectrum, no one expected this volume of suffer. The parents of the autistic children face many difficulties  and challenges in almost every aspects of their lives. The improvement of these conditions requires complete  transformation.
    The interviews of this  study were conducted at various locations٫ in some cases the location were selected by parents, and recorded with their consent. There were cases that recording was not allowed, instead,  noting and writing was employed. All the names are aliases to protect the privacy of the contributors.
    We sincerely appreciate all parents who participated, despite of their problems. We also acknowledge the School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health and Autistic school of Ray for making the interviews possible.
    Keywords: Autism, parents, social suffering, lived experience
  • Abbas Khosravani, Reza Ali Mohseni*, Habib Khosroshahi Pages 283-322
    Introduction
    Urban neighborhoods are a symbol of urban poverty and its spread over time, mainly due to over-migrations, economic fluctuations, the rapid growth of urbanization, and the neglect of the housing and shelter needs of low-income groups. The World Commission for the Future of Cities in the 21st Century warned that, as urban superlife grows, urban poverty in southern countries will increase and a major part of urbanization growth will be based on informal economies and the expansion of informal settlements. According to Habitat, urban areas will be the world's largest population growth center in the next 30 years and with this increasing population, governments in developing countries face the challenge of a high rate of poverty. Poverty is a global issue worried by both developing and developed countries. In addition, international organizations are working to reduce it. Iran's constitution and binding legal documents, such as the Prosecutor's Office and the law, emphasize direct or indirect poverty reduction in Iran. Urban poverty is a multidimensional phenomenon, and the urban population is suffering because of many deprivations, including access to employment opportunities, lack of adequate housing and infrastructure, lack of social security, and lack of access to health and education and individual security. The research seeks to answer this question. Whether there is a significant difference between the urban poverty level and the culture of poverty in urban suburban areas? And if so, how is this difference? How much is the urban poverty situation in each of the suburban neighborhoods studied? On this basis, to measure urban poverty from 15 physical and economic indicators, and for its poverty culture, it has five dimensions The basic one is divided and each one is examined separately. The components of family disruption, local affiliation, despair, economic distress, and ultimately social disorder that are measured by examples of having or not having a literacy or pursuing political news are considered as cultural signs of poverty. The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship Urban poverty is associated with the culture of poverty in the sub-urban areas of Arak with an emphasis on the economic and cultural empowerment of the residents of these neighborhoods. To this end, indicators of urban poverty and poverty culture have been identified and measured and their relationship is correlated. On the basis of the theory of culture of poverty, suburban neighborhoods, in addition to this Sometimes this pattern is very damaging and damaging, and it will not only damage people and society in the long run, it will also eliminate the hope of changing the situation.
    Method
    In this study, the survey method was used. The sample is 381 people according to the Cochran formula. Using a three-stage, simple, random and simple sampling method, about 56,774 residents of the 3 suburban suburbs of Arak was selected. In this research, the physical and economic indices are selected first and are based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach. Also, a TOPSIS multi-criteria decision-making tool has been used to rank urban poverty in terms of urban poverty. According to the Asian Development Bank, poverty is the deprivation of assets and opportunities that each person deserves. In order to measure urban poverty in this study, 15 physical and economic indexes (population density, population density, residential density, residential density, population density in residential unit, household density in residential unit, unemployment rate, labor burden, economic participation, women's economic participation , Occupational factor, employment rate, overhead rate, dependency ratio, general activity level (9 economic indicators and 6 physical indicators) are considered.
    Results
    The TOPSIS model for the football neighborhood is 0.09538 and for the missile fountains 0.06206 and for the Gahlagh neighborhood 0.06031. The results also indicate that most of the blocks in these neighborhoods are in poor condition in terms of urban poverty and poverty culture. The findings of this study showed that the urban poverty of residents of 3 suburban suburbs of Arak, namely, And Qala Golagh's Koi have a significant direct relation with the level of culture of poverty among them. According to this study, urban poverty and the level of poverty culture among residents of the lower neighborhoods of Arak city have been high. The results of regression analysis showed that the amount of multiple correlation coefficient Regression model and coefficient of determination of independent variable, significantly predict the dependent variable. The results of path analysis indicated that the change in the independent variable caused significant changes in the dependent variable.
    Discussion
    Urban poverty and the growth of the index of poverty culture are one of the biggest issues in metropolises, which has been the bedrock of many social deviations. Metropolises are a new, complex and marvelous phenomenon that, based on the nature of their formation and development, are faced with great problems in the social, economic, managerial and spatial-physical aspects. In this research, in order to control and reduce the components of poverty, Economic and Poverty Culture in suburban neighborhoods, a solution to the empowerment of residents with a community-based approach in the economic, cultural and social dimensions is proposed. The empowerment of local communities and local development is a decentralized and participatory approach and is in some way a complement to the need to engage in the provision of property rights and economic development in the poorer neighborhoods, in addition to participating in the construction and improvement of the neighborhood. Neighborhood residents are critical in decision making and the planning process to identify the priorities of action and support in implementation.
    Keywords: urban poverty, urban suburbs, empowerment, culture of poverty
  • Mehdi Karoubi* Pages 323-353
    Introduction
    In today's societies, maintaining order and security is an essential point for creating an environment suitable for life. Tourism in today's world is one of the areas where there is a great deal of interaction with the issue of security and the sense of security and fear of crime because one of the main components of choosing a place to travel as well as the desire to travel to a place is the issue of security in the destination Should be. Traditional and historical textures in cities especially in Shiraz, on the one hand, have the highest historical and cultural value and, on the other hand, are grounds for crime and various types of social damage. Therefore, if a deep and scientific look at these valuable cultural areas and especially the issue of security in these areas, the crime rate will increase day by day, and the potential and huge potential of these tissues in terms of attracting tourists and strengthening Local culture will gradually disappear, because if people do not feel secure, the trend of travel, especially the tendency to visit historical sites and traditional textures will also not be. This study sought to study the safety of foreign tourists in the historical and traditional textures of Shiraz and its relationship with the orientation of tourists to retreat to Shiraz and stay in the traditional context.
    Method
    The observation data collection technique was a questionnaire distributed among 380 foreign tourists living in the historical and cultural context of Shiraz. The reliability of the research tool was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha, which was more than 0.7, and the content validity of the instrument was confirmed by expert opinion and the validity of the questionnaire structure was verified using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. For data analysis, descriptive statistics (mean, frequency tables ...) and inferential statistics (Kolmogorov Smirnov, Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression) were used at significant level (p≤0.05).
    Findings
    The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between demographic characteristics of age, marriage, education, job and country of origin with loyalty to the destination (P <0.001). No significant relationship was found between characteristics such as length of stay, gender, and travel groups with loyalty to destination (P≤0.001). The Watson camera test values ​​were obtained for the mass-fearing variable of 1.951 and for the disorder variable of 2.179, which confirms the test with regression. The coefficient of determination obtained from the test output showed that the fear of the crime of 0.266 and the disorder of the sites determined 0.461 of the loyalty changes to the destination. Also, the histogram showed a mean of 0.001 and a deviation of 0.99, which confirmed the application of the regression test. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to measure the correlation and prediction of each of the predictor variables. The value of F indicates whether the research regression model is a suitable model. In other words, are the predictor variables well-versed in explaining the variations of the criterion. Detection of this subject with the meaning of the F value at an error level smaller than or greater than 0.05. The obtained value of F, 15.278, which is significant at the error level of 0.001, is less than 0.05, indicating that predictor variables, namely, fear of crime and neighborhood power of power, have a good explanation. Has been able to explain well the extent of variation and variance of the dependent variable, namely loyalty to the destination. Regarding correlation coefficients, it should be noted that the standardized regression coefficients (BETA) help to determine the relative contribution of each predictor variable in explaining the variation of the criterion variable. The fear-mass variable, with a beta-value of -0.232, affects loyalty to the destination, but the coefficient is inversely proportional. By increasing fear of crime, loyalty to tourists decreases. This also means the beta coefficient for the neighborhood variable of -0.205. That is, in relation to the loyalty of foreign tourists or the desire to reside in the historical context of Shiraz, the voluminous suburbs of the neighborhood were more important than fear of crime.
    Discussion
    The results of the research show no significant relationship between the two variables "travel size and loyalty to destination". Most foreign tourists entered Shiraz with 44.7% and 168 frequencies in group friendship. The relationship between job variables and loyalty to the destination has also been confirmed. 40% of tourists have occupations other than the category presented in the research. Also, the link between the country of origin of tourists and the destination loyalty was also confirmed. The two countries of France and Italy together accounted for 42.66% of the tourists entering the city of Shiraz. The results indicate that there is a significant relationship between fear of crime and loyalty to foreign tourists entering the city of Shiraz. That means a one-to-one increase in the amount of fear of crime will decrease the loyalty rate to 132.1 units. Individuals react in a different way to fear of crime, and they may avoid being present at specific places at specific times, procuring crime prevention equipment, crime groups and Or in order to defend themselves, change their daily routine and lifestyle, or resign from participation in social life. Fear of crime can cause restrictions on domestic and foreign travels of tourists and the desire to resettle in that city. Trust in the place of tourism can be considered as an attitude structure, and trust in the destination of tourism depends on factors that are relevant to the location. It can be argued that loyalty to a tourist destination is based on the trust that individuals in Relations with that destination are shaped, influenced. Therefore, since fear of crime makes people feel unprotected and their lack of security deprives people of trust, the loss of trust in tourists to the historical context of the city reduces the possibility of their resettlement (decrease of loyalty To destination).
    It should be admitted that managers and marketers of the historic destination of the city of Shiraz should not conceive of the loyalty of tourists to the end of their activities, but the poor security of the destination and the fear of victimization, can cause even loyal tourists, such as tourists unfettered , To refrain from visiting the destination in the future and in fact become non-loyal tourists.
    Keywords: Sense of security, Fear of crime, Disorder of localities, Loyalty to destination, Ten-dency to re-residence